语法一 ====从句 从句的做题思路======》判定是什么从句 一、关于定语从句（前提：懂得判断是哪一种从句） 1． 修饰某一名词或代词的句子叫定语从句。 2． 连接词 that/which/who/whom/whose/when/where/why/as What/how>< 既起连接作用/有充当句子成分 3． 先行词 n./pron ---被定语从句修饰的 根据先行词选择连接词 物：which/that//whose 人：who/whom/that/whose 时间：when/which/that 地点：where/which /that Reason: 从句完整 why/for which；从句不完整 which/that/-Way: 从句完整 in which/that/--; 从句不完整 which/that/you speak to your parents. I don’t like the way was reasonable to solve the problem. He found the way 答案：in which/that；which/that 当先行词与连接词后面的名词 n 存在所属关系时（…的） 物：whose+n.=of which +the +n.=the +n.+of which 人：whose +n.=of whom +the +n.= the +n.+ of whom The room, of which the window faces south is mine. The girl, whose father died is our monitor. 4． 只能用 that 不能用 which(重点前 5 种情况) （1）当先行词是不定代词，如 all，everything，anything，nothing，much，few，little，none，the one 等。 All that can be done has been done. （2）先行词被 all, few，little，no，every 等词修饰时。 There is no difficulty that we can’t overcome. （3）先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。 This is the first letter that I’ve written in Japanese. （4）先行词被 the only, the very, the last 等修饰时 This is the very book that I am looking for. （5）当先行词既有人又有物时。 They talked about the teachers and schools that they had visited. （6）当先行词是系动词 be 后面的表语或连接词本身是从句的表语时。 China isn’t the country that she used to be 50 years ago. （7）当主句是以 who，which 或 what 开头的特殊疑问句时。 Who is the man that is waiting at the bus stop？ 5． 6． 永远不用 that ====介词/逗号之后 当先行词是时间/地点时 when /where /that/which/-When=介词+which=介词+时间 Where=介词+which = 介词+地点
Which/that= 时间/地点 当从句完整时，用 When/ Where/介词+which 当从句不完整时，用 which/that/-e.g. I still remember the days that/which/-- we spent at the seaside last summer. This is the factory in which/ where his parents used to work. 1.The library ___ students often study was on fire last night. 2.The library, ___ was built in the 1930s, needs repairing. 3.The library ____ you visited yesterday was built in 1990. 4.I’ll never forget the day _________ we first met in the park. 5.I’ll never forget the time _________ I spent on campus. 6.I’ll never forget the time _____ was spent with you. 答案：where/in which；which/that；which/that；when/on which；that/which；_that/which 7. as 与 which 的比较： （1）在非限制性定语从句中，均可替代整个主句. 如从句在主句之后，两者皆可用；如从句在主句之 前，用 as。 They failed in the exam，as/which is natural. As is known to all，the earth moves around the sun. （2）as“正如……，就像……” Which “这一点/这个/这件事” He is careless, which caused the accident. we expected. He is late again, as/which 8. 当先行词被 the same，such，so 修饰时， This is the same book as you bought yesterday. 同一类 …………………… .that……………………… 同一个 This was so difficult a problem as we couldn’t work out.（后面句子不完整） This was so difficult a problem that we couldn’t work it out.（后面句子完整） This was such a difficult problem ………… 9.另外，定语从句中谓语动词的数应与先行词的数相一致。如： ①Mr. Jackson is the only foreigner that is present at the party.0 ②He is one of the students who were praised by the teacher. 解析：在句①中，先行词 foreigner 被 only 修饰，强调只有一个，所以从句中谓语动词用单数形式， 而在句②中，who 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 the students 为复数，所以从句谓语动词应为复数。 感悟：学生之所以在这一点上经常出错，主要是对定语从句的理解不够深刻，分辨不出主句和从句， 对句子成分的把握也不到位，搞不清关系代词或关系副词在从句中充当何种句子成分。所以要做好这 一类题，要首先弄清关系代词和关系副词的用法，而且应善于分辨和分析句子结构及其相应成分，这 样才能对症下药，快速准确地找到瓿之所在。 二、名词性从句 主语从句 What I say is true 宾语从句 He won’t believe what I say. 表语从句 That is what I said. 同位语从句 I told them the news that Rockets won the game today. 区别什么从句应看主句，主句不完整时从句肯定是名词性从句。主句完整时，从句可能是定语从句， 状语从句，或者同位语从句。 I have forgotten where we went yesterday.
Where we went yesterday is covered with all kinds of flowers. Oh! This is where we came yesterday. This is the place where we came yesterday. Here, he made the promise that he would come here 10 years later. I will make a mark where he made the promise. 需要用什么引导词看从句。名词性从句中缺什么意思用什么意思的引导词; 缺名词性成份时，指人用 who/whom，指物用 what; 不缺意思和成份时用 that。That 只有在宾语从句中可以省略。 1. ___ the Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is known. A.不填 B. Whenever C. What D. When 2. There is a common belief among them ___ rubbish can and should be put to good use. A. which B. if C. whether D. that 3. He’s bought a cottage for ___ he retires, with the money he saved. B. where C. what D. which (哪一个、哪一些) A. When 答案 DDA --It is known to all that Taiwan belongs to China. --Do you think it possible that we take over Taiwan? --Of course. It 经常在句中当形式主语、宾语，代替真正的主语、宾语，以避免头重脚轻。 It is pretty well understood ___ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out of the atmosphere today. A. That B. when C. what D. how Why don’t you bring ___ to his attention that you are too busy to do it? A. This B. what C. that D. it 答案 CD 表“是否”时只用 whether 不用 if: 是否” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Whether the president will come is not known yet. (主从 主从) 主从 The problem is whether we need it.（表从） （表从） The problem whether we will build another school hasn’t been settled.（同位语从句） （同位语从句） He was worried about whether he passed the English examination. （介词之后） 介词之后） It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. （whether… or /or not） ） I don’t know whether to go.（动词不定式之前） （动词不定式之前）
定语从句与前面的的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系， “……的名词” ，而同位语从句是用来说明前面名词 的内容。与 that 从句同位的名词必须是一些表示事实或概念的抽象名词，如 fact,news,belief,truth,reply 等。That 在定语从句中必须作成分，可用 which 或 who/whom 代替，而 that 在同位语从句中不充当任 何句子成分，只起连接作用。如： ①Along with the letter was his promise that he would visit me this coming Christmas.
②Do you still remember the chicken farm that we visited three months ago. 解析：在句①中，that 引导同位语从句解释说明 promise 的内容，that 不充当任何句子成分，只起连接 作用，而在句②中，that 在其引导的定语从句中作动词 visited 的宾语，对先行词 the chicken farm 起修 饰作用。
感悟：学生之所以在这一点上容易出错，主要还是因为对定语从句的理解不够深刻，分 辨不出 that 在从句中是否充当了句子成分，因此，还需在句子分析上下功夫，并且搞清 何谓同位语从句。
三、状语从句 （主句完整，从句和主句之间不存在修饰关系的，一般就是状从） 1. 关于 when/while/as 都有“当…时” When I arrived, he had already left. Mary asked me to care for her pet while she was away. （当…时） As the sun set in the west, it became darker and darker. As time goes by//as the economy develops When (正在这时) Be about to do…. When … Be doing … when… Had just done… when… Be on the point of doing … when… while He likes pop music while I am fond of classical music. (而) Mary asked me to care for her pet while she was away. （当…时） While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. （虽然） as A. 随着+句子 as time went by B. 像 + 句子 as the economy develops
It looks a little ugly as it is .
C. 作为 +短语 treat / regard / consider / think of / look on …… as （把 … 作为…来对待） D. 因为+句子 because /since/for As you are Senior 3 students, you should spare no effort / pains to study. E. 正如 / 就像
As is known to all/we all know, Taiwan belongs to China. As an old saying goes, it’s not until the Dragon Boat Festival that we can put away warm clothes. 2. 关于 since/before/until
It is/has been several months since we last spent the holiday in the country together. It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. Before He left before I could say “thank you” to him. 来不及 Three years passed before I knew it. 才 It won’t be long before we have a monthly exam. It will be ten years before we meet again. It was ten years before they met again. Until/till (主句谓语持续性 主句谓语持续性) 主句谓语持续性 Not… until…(主句谓语短暂性 主句谓语短暂性) 主句谓语短暂性 George worked for IBM until/till 2000. 直到靠近，我才认出他。 Until he came up to me, I recognized him. （此句错误） ==》I didn’t recognize him until he came up to me. 3. 关于“一…就” Hardly… when… No sooner… than… As soon as The moment/time/minute/second +句子 句子 Immediately/instantly/directly +句子 句子 On doing/名词 名词 Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down. The moment she saw the robber, she screamed. Instantly he saw the drowning girl, he jumped into the river. Upon arrival/ On arrival / On arriving, I will pay a visit to you first. 4. It is/was +时间点+when 与强调句型的区别 It was midnight I fell asleep. A. when B. that C. while D. because It was at noon we arrived in the village. A. before B. while C. when D. that 答案 AD
5.Unless 如果不（除非）/if 如果 ____________you go all out to do the work, I don't think you can achieve your goal as planned. A. Unless B. Even C. Since D. Till He never speaks _____ he is spoken to, for he is not much of a speaker.?
A.when 答案 AC 6. 7. 8. 9.
as if(though) 似乎/仿佛/好像 +真实/虚拟 even if /though 即使 in case/for fear that 以防/惟恐 What/whatever/no matter what; how/however/no matter how What(ever) +名词 How(ever) +形容词/副词 Whatever difficulties we meet with, it is best to face them and try to solve them. However late it is, I’ll wait for you. No matter how busy he is, he is ready to help others. No matter +疑问词==引导状从 疑问词 +ever==引导名从/状从
Whatever you say, I won’t believe you. = No matter what（状语从句） I won’t believe whatever you say. = anything that（宾语从句） Whoever / No matter who comes, don’t let him in. （状语从句） Whoever / Anyone who leaves last should turn off the lights. （主语从句） 10. Where +句子 （特别是引导地点状从和定从的区别） I have forgotten where we went yesterday. Where we went yesterday is covered with all kinds of flowers. Oh! This is where we came yesterday. This is the place where/in which we came yesterday. I will make a mark where the teacher emphasizes.
非谓语做题思路 1．判断主被动 ． 2．判断时间（要发生 正在进行 已完成） 正在进行/已完成 ．判断时间（要发生/正在进行 已完成） 非谓语与其逻辑主语（即动作的执行者或承受者）之间有三种关系，如为主谓关系，则用现在分词或 不定式的主动式；如为被动关系则用过去分词、现在分词的被动（强调动作正在进行）或不定式的被 动式（动作将进行） ；如既无主动也无被动关系则只能用状语从句或独立主格结构（即非谓语加上自 己的逻辑主语） 。 Judging/considering/genrally speaking/supposing 指说话者的动作，故只用主动式。如： Having been ill in bed for nearly a month , he had a hard time passing the exam. 解析：从这个句子可以看出，句词的逻辑主语与句子的主语 he 一致，并且是主谓关系，所以用了现 在的分词作状语，同时，分词的动作明显地发生在句子的谓语动词动作之前，故采用了现代分词的完 成式。 In order to improve English , ________. A. Jenny’s father bought her a lot of tapes. B. Jenny’s father bought a lot of tapes for herself.
C. A lot of tapes were bought by Jenny. D. A lot of tapes were bought by Jenny father. 解析：根据不定式短语我们可以推知，句子的逻辑主语应该是人而不是物，所以，应该排除 CD，再 就是应该是 Jenny 提高自己的英语，而不是她爸爸，故答案先 B. ———，we decided to go out for a walk. A. It is fine B. It fine C. Being fine D.It being fine 解析：主句主语 we 与动词短语 be fine 之间既无主动关系与无被动关系，所以要加上自己的逻辑主语 It，由于不存在主、被动关系，故不能选 C 项，而应该选 D 项。 ————more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B.To give C.Giving D. Having giving 解析：give 与主句的主语之间是被动关系，故选 A.如为主动关系则选 C. 易出错的问题一般都是学生在学习中对知识理解不深刻或能力欠缺的地方，应及时纠错和建立“错题 档案”，还应“借题发挥”，有意地把一些易错题予以归类，找出错误根源，总结规律。
非谓语 ====不能做谓语的动词形式 1 Doing 主动 正在进行 eg. The man standing there is my teacher. 2 being done 被动 正在进行 eg.I think the book being written by him will sell well. 3 having done 主动 已经完成 只能做状语 eg. Having finished his homework, he went out to play. 4 having been done 被动 已经完成 只能做状语 eg Having been taken care of well, the old man recovered soon. 5 done 被动 已经完成 fallen leaves( 这里表完成，不表被动) 6 （only\just）to do 主动 将来 7 to be doing 主动 正在进行 8 to be done 被动 将来 9 to have done 主动 完成 10 （to have been） done 被动 完成 非谓语 Having done 所表达的动作在谓语动作之前完成，一般放句首做状语。 非谓语 doing 所表达的动作发生和谓语动作几乎同时进行。 Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take much notice. Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed at their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage. Walking in the way of back home, suddenly I saw a store covered with smoke. 、 不定式表意料之外的结果，现在分词表自然而然的结果。 I hurried home, only to find nobody in. His parents died early, leaving him alone. * only to do 与 doing 作结果状语的用法 “ only to do” 做结果状语表意料之外的结果，尤指不愉快的结果。 “doing” 做结果状语表示必然结果与主句之间含有逻辑上的因果关系。
语法三 ====虚拟语气 （一）if 虚拟 从句 与现在相反 与过去相反 be→were do→did Be→had been do→had done 1.Be→were; do→did 2.were to +V 原 3.should do 主句 Would/should/could/might+V 原 Would/should/could/might+have done/been
注：1、if I were you →Were I you if I had finished it →Had I finished it if it should rain →Should it rain 2、句型 ==(要不是) If it were not for …. Would /should/could/might +do/be =Were it not for If it had not been for.…Would /should/could/might +have done/been Had it not been for If it were not for the expense, I would go to Italy. If it hadn’t been for the expense, I would have gone to Italy. I’ve discovered I possess a large number of different talents and skills that I never would have thought were within me had it not been for my being open to trying new opportunities. 3、Without/but for==(要不是) Without you, I wouldn’t have got full mark. （二） only/Wish+现在：be→were do →did 、If If only/Wish+过去：be→had been do→had done If only/Wish+将来：could/should/would +do As if/though 也适用 It seems as if it is going to rain. It seems as if it were to rain. 注：may you +V 原 ( 三 ) 动 词 ： Insist/suggest/advise/recommend/propose/order/command/demand/require/request /desire +(should)do 注：动词对应的名词和句型也用（should）do 表虚拟 suggestion /order/advice It’s suggested/ordered that+ （四）It’s necessary/important/vital that…(should) do (五) It’s (high/about) time that…should do/did
(六) would rather +句子 1、对现在/将来虚拟用 did 2、对过去虚拟用 had done
虚拟语气在 if 引导的条件句中的易错点。
① if my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. ② if you had studied hard at school, you would be a college student now. 句子①②都是虚拟语气在条件句中的使用，从句中都是假设过去的情况，所以用过去完成时，但在主 句中，句①依然指代过去的情况，谓语动词是 would have done，而②中含有一个表示现在的时间状语 now, 这样就必须将其理解为假设现在的情况，所以谓语动词必须为 would/should/might+动词原形，学生在 这一点上经常会忽略 now 的存在，从而按句①的形式填写答案。
语法四 ====情态动词表猜测 must 只用于肯定句/表示很有把握的猜测/翻译成“肯定/一定” ； can/could 用于疑问句和否定句； may/might 用于肯定句/表示没有把握的猜测/翻译成“可能也许” mustn’t have done 绝对错/是无效选项 must 必须， “不必”用 needn’t/don’t have to mustn’t 禁止/不准 一、情态动词+ do/be 表示对现在行为或动作进行猜测 You’ve been working all day. You must be very tired. --- Someone is knocking on the door. --- It can’t be Lucy. She’s still in the library at this time. 二、情态动词+have done/have been 表示对过去行为或动作进行猜测 a. must have done 表示对过去某事的肯定猜测。 其否定或疑问形式都用 can(could) 来表示. Since the road is wet, it must have rained last night. He can’t have missed the way. I drew him a map. “The dictionary has disappeared. Who could/can have taken it?” b. may / might have done may / might have done 表示推测过去某事“也许”发生了. I can’t find my keys. I may / might have left them at the school yesterday. c. could have done 在肯定句型中, 往往用作委婉的批评. 本可以做什么,而没做; 有时也用作猜测. You could have done it better. Tom could have taken the dictionary. d. ought to / should have done 和 ought not to / shouldn’t have done 本该做而事实上没做 本不该做而事实上做了 e. needn’t have done 本不必做却做了 The usage of “shall” 表征求(用在第一、三人称)Shall my daughter do your shopping for you?
表承诺 (用在第二、三人称) Her father promised that he shall buy her a computer if she passed the National College Entrance Exam. 表命令（正式文件/场合） It has been announced that candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. It has been announced that all the students shall put on masks before going to school in case they are infected with SARS virus. You shall obey my orders. He shall leave the country at once. Foreign countries shall not interfere in our internal affairs. It shall snow tonight. (表警告) 语法 五====动词的时态和语态 一、英语动词谓语形式-----包括时态和语态 状态 过去 现在 时间 一般 进行 完成 完成进行 一般过去 过去进行 过去完成 一般现在 现在进行 现在完成 现在完成进行
将来 一般将来 将来进行 将来完成
过去将来 一般过去将来 过去将来进行 过去将来完成
共 16 种时态，高中掌握 11 种。 一般现在时 do / does; am /is /are 一般过去时 did; was/were 一般将来时 will do ; am/is /are going to do 过去将来时 would do; was/were going to do 现在进行时 am/is /are doing 过去进行时 was / were doing 将来进行时 will be doing 现在完成时 have/ has done/been 过去完成时 had done/been 将来完成时 will have done/been 现在完成进行时 Have /has been doing 过去完成进行时 Had been doing 将来完成进行时 Will have been doing 二、解题技巧： 1、找出题目中的相关动词，对它们的时态进行比较，注意各个动作发生的先后顺序。 相关动词， 、找出题目中的相关动词 对它们的时态进行比较，注意各个动作发生的先后顺序。 2、 记忆固定用法，比如：so far, in the past few year, for+时间段，Up to now 等用现在完成时。 时间段， 等用现在完成时。 、 记忆固定用法，比如： 时间段 By + now =现在完成时 现在完成时 By + 过去时间 过去完成时 过去时间=过去完成时 By + 将来时间 将来完成时 将来时间=将来完成时 By the end of +过去时间 last month=过去完成时 过去时间 过去完成时 By the end of +将来时间 this month=将来完成时 将来时间 将来完成时 By the time (从句一般现在时 从句一般现在时)===主句将来完成时 从句一般现在时 主句将来完成时
By the time (从句一般过去时 从句一般过去时)===主句过去完成时 从句一般过去时 主句过去完成时 By the time he arrives, we will already have left Xiamen. By the time he arrived, we had already left Xiamen. 3、 固定用法并不是绝对的，关键是看语境强调的重点是什么。 、 固定用法并不是绝对的，关键是看语境强调的重点是什么。 Peter said, “I went to Xiamen two days ago/yesterday.” Peter said that he had gone to Xiamen two days before/the day before. 4、 熟记固定公式。 、 熟记固定公式。 This/It is the first time (that) I have come here. It/ This was the third time (that) he had made the same mistake. It is / has been several months since we last spent the holiday in the country together. It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. I was about to go out when the telephone rang. They were reading when Tom shouted in pain. Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down. It won’t be long before he succeeds. It was ten years before they met again. 三、一般过去时与现在完成时 (P1) 29. ---- I hope I can see you at my birthday party. ---- Oh, dear, I ______. When is it? A. almost forgot B. had almost forgotten C. will almost forget D. have almost forgotten A. ---- How can you borrow my computer without my permission? ----- Oh. I forgot to tell you（过去忘记现在已想起）. I hope you don’t mind. have forgotten（到现在还忘记） “现在”指的是说话的那一瞬间。 B. ---- I wonder what has become of your company? ----- Haven’t you heard about it（到现在还没听说）? It is as good as ruined because of bad management. Didn’t you hear about it?（过去没听说现在已听说） C. ---- I’m sorry, but there’s no smoking on this flight. ----- Oh, I didn’t know that. Sorry, I won’t again. Haven’t known 四、have been doing 强调一直在进行而且还会持续下去 be always doing 含贬义 It has been raining for several days, completely ruining（毁灭） our holidays. You are always talking with your mouth full. Can’t you get rid of your bad habit?
五、一般将来时的几种表示法。 ---- Henry, the phone is ringing. Do you want me to go? ---- No, sit still. ______. A. I’ll get it B. I am to get it C. I’m getting it D. I am about to get it 1．Will do （1、2、3 人称） Shall do （第一人称） You will feel better after taking this medicine. We shall know the result next week. 2．be going to do (打算做某事) How long is he going to stay here? He’s going to be a doctor when he grows up. （另：表示预见，即现在已有迹象表明将要发生某种情况） Look! It’s going to rain. Good heavens! I must hurry. I’m going to be late. Be going to do 表示的意图通常是事先经过考虑的， 而 Will do 所表示的意图，则是说话时刻临时想到的。 3．be doing （现在进行时表将来，表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作，常用动词 go, come, leave, start, arrive 等） We are leaving on Friday. The President is coming to the UN this week. He is writing to you tomorrow. 4．be to do 1）表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作。 Where are to stay tonight? There’s to be an investigation. The Queen is to visit Japan next year. 2）表“应该” You are to blame. Tell her she’s not to come back late. 3） be about to do 立即、即将做某事，不与时间状语连用 She was about to leave when it rained heavily. Tony was walking on the street when he noticed someone following him. 5．一般现在时表将来 1) 常见于条件 / 时间状语从句。 If she comes, she will get a surprise. It won’t be long before the rain stops. Wait here till the meeting is over. 2）按时间表或既定日程一定会发生的事。 The train leaves at 7:30 this evening.
The term starts on 1st September. Tomorrow is Saturday. 语法六====Grammar 省略 Ellipse 1)省略 主语+be 状语从句+主从句主语一致+从句中含有 be 动词 While (we are) developing the economy, we should protect the environment. You must be careful when (you are)crossing the street. When(she was) told of the news, she got very excited. Once (it is) seen, it can never be forgotten. If (you are)bitten by a snake, you should send for help and don’t walk. I will not go even if (I am) invited. You shouldn’t keep silent when (you are) spoken to. Though (he was) exhausted, he stayed up late. She hurried out of the room, as if (she was)angry. 2) 省略 it is/was If possible/ if necessary//if so// if not//when necessary 3)不定式 to 之后的省略 We do not visit my parents as much as we ought to (visit my parents). I don’t like coffee, but I used to (like coffee). Be/ have 不能省略的情况： My hometown is no longer what it used to be. --- Why didn’t you come to the meeting? --- I would have (come), but I got a terrible stomachache. If I hadn’t got a terrible stomachache, I would have come. 4) The firefighters did all (that)they could (do) to put out the fire. ……………….did what they could to put out the fire. The boy did what he could to help support his family. The boy did all (that) he could (do) to help support his family. 尽力/竭尽所能 语法七 ====Grammar 反意疑问句 1．动词 think/believe/suppose/guess 主语第一人称时，依从句 I /We think he should have a rest, shouldn’t he ? I/we don’t think they are right, are they ? 主语第二、三人称时，依主句 He believes that nothing is impossible, doesn’t he ? You don’t believe that he dare go there by himself, do you ? 2．情态动词 must/can/could/may/might 表猜测时，不依情态动词 He must be at home now, isn’t he ?
He must have known it, hasn’t he ? He must have known it yesterday, didn’t he 3．祈使句 ---Please be quiet, will you ? --- Yes, I will. // No, I won’t. ---Don’t be late again, will you ? --- Yes, I will. // No, I won’t. Let’s sing together, shall we? Let us go, will you? 4．前否后肯 ---He went to Xiamen yesterday, didn’t he? --- Yes, he did. // No, he didn’t.
---He didn’t go to Xiamen yesterday, did he? --- Yes, he did. // No, he didn’t.
语法八===代词 it、one、that 的用法与区别. One 泛指，指代前面提到的那类人或物，用于指代可数名词，相当于 a+名词单数，其复数形式 ones 前一般要有定语，否则就要用 some. That（those 复数）即可指代不可数名词，表特指，相当于 the+名词，后面经常与介词修饰语连用。 It 指代上文出现的名词，表示同类同物，另外还可表示时间、距离、天气、还可指代人称代词，表示 性别身份不明，可作形式主语，形式宾语，引导强调句式以及一些固定搭配，如：get it, catch it, make it. 例如：① I have lost my watch. I think I must buy one.我丢了只表，我想我必须再买一只。 （代指上文指 到的同类事物，但不指同一个） ② Where is my pen? Have you seen it? 我的钢笔不知弄到哪去了，你见了吗？（代指上文提到的同一事物） ③ The land of China is larger than that of America. ④ Tome has a red pen and a blue one （或 two blue ones） ⑤ He has no child, and he wants to adopt one （或 some） 语法 九 ==== 倒装 点重点掌握） 一、完全倒装==主谓颠倒 （1/2 点重点掌握） 完全倒装 主谓颠倒 1、 用于“here(there, now, then)+不及物动词+主语”的句型中，或以 up，down, out , in , away, off 等副 词开头的句子里，以表示强调。常用的不及物动词有 come, go , lie, live, stand, seem, remain 等，此 结构不用进行时态。另注意：代词做主语时，主谓语序不变。 2、 当句首状语为表地点的介词词组时。 To the east of the city is /lies a river. 3、 表语置于句首时，倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语” 。 分三类：形容词+连系动词+主语 过去分词/现在分词+连系动词+主语
介词短语+连系动词+主语 Growing at the top of the mountain are varieties of wild flowers. 4、 为了保持句子平衡，或为了强调表语或状语，或为了使了使上下文紧密相接时。 部分倒装==改为一般疑问语序 二、部分倒装 改为一般疑问语序 1、 用于省略 if 的虚拟条件状语从句。 Were I you Had I worked harder last year 2、 用于 as(though)引导的让步状语从句。 虽然 + 句子（倒装）= though a. 表语提前 Young as he is, he speaks English fluently. Child as he is, he knows a lot. Though he is a child, b. 副词提前 Much as he likes her, he dare not tell her. c. 动词提前 Try as she may, she still couldn’t convince her parents that she was more suitable for a lawyer than a teacher. d. 补语提前 Pleasant as they made it to travel, we felt tired after the long journey. Though they made it pleasant to travel,
3、 用于 no sooner…than, hardly…when 和 not until 等句型中。 4、 用于 never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, by no means, at no time, not only, in no way 等否 定词开头的句子中，或 many a time, often, not once 等表示数的时间副词放在句首加强语气。 5、 用于 only 开头的句子（only 放在句首，修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句） 。 Only+副词或介词短词或状语从句+助动词或 be+主语 如果 only 后面的词组不是状语，则不用倒装。 6、 当“so(such)…that”结构中，== So /Such +adj/adv/n. +半倒装+that 后句子语序不变。
1、前五种语法即为高考核心语法，掌握了前五种就掌握了 80%。希望考生不仅会做单选题， 更 重要的是学会分析阅读中的长难句，为阅读和书面表达赠分。 2、倒装句等等，希望考生能用于书面表达。书面表达的要求：长短句相结合，句式多变（定语 从句、名词性从句、状语从句是一定要用的，同位语从句和倒装句根据自身情况选择） ；结构紧
密，符合逻辑（就是所谓的连接词的运用） ；最重要的也是最基本的是不要出现单词拼写错误和 显而易见的语法错误。