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高中英语专项复习.语法套讲课件_图文

目录
第二部分 语法专题系列 专题一 时态和语态 专题二 情态动词和虚拟语气 专题三 非谓语动词 专题四 定语从句 专题五 名词性从句 专题六 连词和状语从句 专题七 形容词和副词 专题八 介词和介词短语 专题九 名词和冠词 专题十 代词 专题十一 特殊句式和主谓一致 专题十二 情景交际

[编排说明]

本部分根据自身教学实际和平时的教学习

惯,既可集中讲解使用,也可按计划分讲穿插到日常教学中
使用。

[化难为易巧增分动态课件]
——重点语法速通
1.时态和语态
2.情态动词 3.非谓语动词(一) 4.非谓语动词(二) 5.定语从句(一)

6.定语从句(二)
7.名词性从句 8.特殊句式

[课前体验领悟]
用所给动词的适当形式填空 1.You should use your English beyond the classroom rather than just in class, or you will forget (forget) what you know. 2.Robert is abroad. He had hoped (hope) for a better job, but he didn't get it. 3.We were delayed (delay) at the airport, otherwise we would have been here by lunchtime. 4.Sorry, I can't meet you, Tom. By the time you arrive, I will have left (leave) for Shanghai on business. 5.Sorry, I wasn't listening (not, listen) when you talked about your suggestion. Would you please say it again?

[课堂考前讲练]

一般时
1.一般现在时 (1)表示经常性、习惯性的动作和现在的状态、特征。句中常 用often, usually, every day等时间状语。

Planning so far ahead makes no sense — so many things will
have changed by next year.(2011· 新课标全国卷) 这么早做计划没有什么意义——到明年很多事情就会变了。

(2)表示客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象以及不受时间限制的客观 存在。 “Life is like walking in the snow,” Granny used to say,“because every step shows.”(2012· 新课标全国卷) 奶奶过去常说:“生活就如在雪地里走路,因为每一步都显而易见。 ” (3)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用现在时代替将来时。 Will you help me to look for an important file I left in my office this morning immediately you arrive? (2013· 太原市部分重点中学检测) 你能一到办公室就帮我找一下我早上落在办公室的重要文件吗?

(4)表示按计划、时刻表规定要发生的动作,但限于

少数动词。如begin, come, leave, go, arrive, start, stop,
return, open, close等。 The flight takes off at 2:30 every Wednesday and Friday. 飞机每星期三、五2∶30起飞。

2.一般过去时 表示在过去某一时刻、某一时间段内存在的状态或发生的 动作,常与表示过去的时间状语连用(或上下文语境有暗示);用 于表示过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到的事。 The president hopes that the people will be better off when he quits than when he started.(2012· 江苏高考) 这位总统希望人民在他离任时比他上任时更富有。 The three of us travelled around Europe for about a month last summer.(2012· 天津高考) 去年夏天,我们三人在欧洲旅行了一个月左右。 Excuse me.I didn't realize I was blocking your way. (2010· 全国卷Ⅱ) 对不起,我原来不知道挡你的路了。

3.一般将来时 一般将来时表示将来会出现的动作或状态,常用的时间状

语有:this evening, tomorrow, next week, in a few minutes, at the
end of this term等。常用结构有: (1)“will/shall+动词原形”表示现在看来以后要发生的动作 或存在的状态;表示事物的固有属性或必然趋势;表示临时性 的打算或决定。 Fish will die without water. 离开水,鱼就会死。

By the time you have finished this book, your meal will get cold.(2012· 北京高考) 等你看完这本书,你的饭就凉了。 —Mr. Li was ill in hospital. —Oh, I didn't know. I'll go to see him tonight. ——李老师生病住院了。 ——哦,我还不知道呢。我今晚去看他。 [点津] 条件状语从句中的will表示“决心,意愿”,此时 will不是助动词,而是情态动词表意愿。 If you won't listen to us, just do as you please. 如果你不愿意听我们的,就请便吧。

(2)“be going to+动词原形”表示现在打算或计划将来要做 的事;表示根据某种迹象认为最近或将来要发生的事。 I am going to write to Henry this evening. 我今天晚上打算给亨利写封信。 (3)“be to+动词原形”表示预先安排好的计划或约定;表示 说话人的意志、意图、职责、义务、命令等;表示注定要发生 的事情。 I am to meet Mr. Brown at eleven o'clock this morning. 我要在今天上午11点见布朗先生。 We are to take care of all these children. 我们必须照顾所有的这些孩子。

(4)“be about to+动词原形”表示“正要做某事,即将要做 某事”,此结构不可与表示具体的将来时间的副词或副词性短语 连用,而经常与when引导的从句连用。 The meeting is about to begin. 会议就要开始了。 4.过去将来时 过去将来时表示从过去某时看将要发生的动作或存在的状 态。这种时态常用于宾语从句或间接引语中。 He said that he would wait for us at the station. 他说他要在车站等我们。 She told her mother that she was going to a dance with Tom. 她告诉母亲,她要同汤姆一起去参加一个舞会。

1.(2012· 北京高考) Our friendship ________ quickly over the
weeks that followed. A.had developed C.would develop B.was developing D.developed

解析:考查时态。句意:在随后的几周里,我们的友谊迅速

发展。根据本句的时间状语over the weeks that followed可知,
这里叙述的是过去发生的事情,所以用一般过去时。 答案:D

2.(2012· 安徽高考)Walmart, which is one of the largest American supermarket chains,________ some of its stores

open 24 hours on Mondays through Saturdays.
A.keeps C.have kept B.keep D.had kept

解析:考查时态和主谓一致。句意:沃尔玛是美国最大的连
锁超市之一,部分店从星期一到星期六24小时营业。根据句 中的“is”可知,此处应用一般现在时,主语为Walmart,谓

语动词要用第三人称单数,故选A。
答案:A

3.(2012· 重庆高考)—Kevin, you look worried.Anything wrong?
—Well, I ________ a test and I'm waiting for the result. A.will take C.had taken B.took D.take

解析:考查动词时态。根据“I'm waiting for the result”可知,

Kevin已经参加过考试了,是过去发生的动作,应用一般过
去时。故选B项。

答案:B

4.(2011· 上海高考)Did you predict that many students________

up for the dance competition?
A.would sign C.have signed B.signed D.had signed

解析:句意:你预测会有很多学生参加舞蹈比赛吗?从句意 看,主句用一般过去时,从句应用过去将来时。 答案:A

完成时 1.现在完成时 (1)表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。 常与up to now, so far, already, yet, now, recently, in the past few

years, just等表示时间的词以及since引导的状语从句连用。
His first novel has received good reviews since it came out last month.(2011· 陕西高考) 他的第一本小说自从上个月出版之后就很受欢迎。

(2)表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在产生的结果或影响。 —Look! Somebody has cleaned the sofa. —Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it.(2012· 江西高考) ——瞧,已经有人打扫了沙发。 ——嗯,不是我,我没做过那件事。 (3)用于时间、条件、让步状语从句中,表示将来要完成的动作或一个 动作先于另一个动作。 —When shall we restart our business? —Not until we have finished our plan.(2010· 四川高考) ——什么时候我们重新开始我们的事业? ——直到我们已完成我们的计划。 I will not believe you unless I have seen it with my own eyes. 除非我亲眼看到,否则我不会相信你的。

(4)常用于以下固定句式中: ①在“It (This) is (will be) the first/second/third ...time+that从 句”中,that从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时。 This is the first time we have seen a film in the cinema together as a family.(2009· 陕西高考) 这是我们全家第一次到电影院看电影。 ②在“It (This) is the+ adj.最高级+名词+that从句”中,从句 中的谓语用现在完成时。 It is the most instructive lecture that I have attended since I came to this school.(2011· 湖南高考) 这是我到这个学校以来听过的最有教育意义的演讲。

2.过去完成时 (1)表示过去某一时间或某一动作前已完成的动作或存在的 状态。常与by, by the end of, by the time, before, since, until等后 接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句连用。 By the time Jack returned home from England, his son had graduated from college.(2011· 辽宁高考) 杰克从英国回到家时,他的儿子已经大学毕业了。 (2)过去某一时间的动作或状态持续到过去另一时间,还可 能持续下去。常与for, since等构成的时间状语连用。 By the end of last month he had worked in Shanghai for twenty years. 到上个月月底他已经在上海工作了整整二十年。

(3)某些动词用于过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的想法,意 为“本来期望/认为/打算??”。这类动词主要有:expect, hope,

plan, suppose, think, intend, mean, want等。
Peter had intended to take a job in business, but abandoned that plan after the unpleasant experience in Canada in 2010.(2012· 浙江高考) 皮特本打算在商界找一份工作,但2010年在加拿大的一次

不愉快的经历使他最终放弃了那个计划。

(4)常用于以下固定句式中:
①hardly/scarcely ...when ...; no sooner ...than ...中,主句常 用过去完成时。 Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down.

我刚到家大雨就倾盆而下。
②It was/had been+一段时间+since从句。since从句中谓 语用过去完成时。

It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time.
我们10年没这么高兴了。

③That/It was the first/second ... time+that从句。that从句 谓语要用过去完成时。 It was the third time (that) he had made the same mistake. 这是他第三次犯同样的错误了。 3.将来完成时 表示在将来某一时间之前完成的动作,并往往对将来某一 时间产生影响。常用的时间状语为“by+将来的某个时间”。 —I hear that Jason is planning to buy a car. —I know. By next month, he will have saved enough for a used one.(2012· 上海高考) ——我听说Jason计划要买车。 ——我知道。下个月,他的存款将够买一辆二手车了。

1.(2012· 江苏高考)The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he ________some European business partners. A.would meet B.is meeting C.meets D.had met 解析:考查动词时态。句意:据说经理已从巴黎回来,在巴 黎他与欧洲的一些生意伙伴见面了。根据句中的“is said to have arrived”可知,arrive这个动作是在过去发生的,而见 面的动作则是在arrive所表示的动作之前发生的,即发生在 过去的过去,所以用过去完成时,故选D项。 答案:D

2.(2012· 湖南高考)—I remember you were a talented pianist at
college. Can you play the piano for me? —Sorry, I ________ the piano for years. A.don't play C.haven't played B.wasn't playing D.hadn't played

解析:考查时态。句意:“我记得在大学时,你是一位极有
天赋的钢琴手。你能为我弹奏钢琴吗?”“对不起,我已经多 年不弹钢琴了。”由句意可知,选现在完成时。现在完成时 表示一个过去发生的动作对现在有影响或结果。 答案:C

进行时
1.现在进行时 (1)现在进行时主要用来表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作。 I'll go to the library as soon as I finish what I am doing.(2011· 辽 宁高考) 我一做完手头上的活就去图书馆。 (2)有些动词的现在进行时可以表示预计即将发生的动作:go, come, leave, arrive, return, begin, do, die, lose。 “The moment is coming soon,” he thought to himself, waiting nervously.(2012· 湖南高考) 他紧张地等待着,心里想:“这一时刻很快就会来临的。”

(3)常与always, forever, constantly, continually, all the time等时间副词连用,表示反复发生的或习惯性的动作,常 表示不满、抱怨或赞赏等情感。 She is always finding fault with others. 她总是挑别人的毛病。

2.过去进行时 (1)表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作。 —Did you catch what I said? —Sorry. I was answering a text message just now. (2012· 四 川高考) ——你听懂我的话了吗? ——很抱歉,刚才我在回短信。 (2)表示某动作在某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 —Have you finished reading Jane Eyre? —No, I was doing my homework all day yesterday. (2010· 新 课标全国卷) ——你读完《简· 爱》这本书了吗? ——没有,昨天我一整天都在写作业。

(3)表示某一动作发生时另一动作正在进行,其中的持续性动 作用过去进行时,短暂性动作用一般过去时。 The reporter said that the UFO was traveling east to west when he saw it. 那位记者说,当他看到时,不明飞行物正在自东向西飞行。

3.现在完成进行时
(1)表示从过去某时开始一直延续到现在并可能延续下去的 动作。

The manager has been telling the workers how to improve
the program since 9 am.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ) 经理自从上午九点起一直在告诉工人们如何改进项目。 (2)表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,在说话时 刚刚结束。 Where have you been?We have been looking for you everywhere. 你刚才去了哪里?我们一直在到处找你。

4.将来进行时 将来进行时可用于表示将来某个时刻正在发生的动作或者 将来某一段时间内正在进行的动作。将来进行时常与一些标志 性的时间状语连用。这些常见的标志性状语有:at this time tomorrow/the day after tomorrow, from 1:30 to 4:30 tomorrow/the day after tomorrow等。 —Can I call you back at two o'clock this afternoon? —I'm sorry, but by then I will be flying to Beijing. How about five?(2012· 陕西高考) ——今天下午两点能给你回电话吗?

——不好意思,那时我正飞往北京,五点怎么样?

1.(2012· 重庆高考)Food supplies in the floodstricken area ________.We must act immediately before there's none left. A.have run out B.are running out

C.have been run out

D.are being run out

解析:考查动词时态和语态。根据“We must act immediately before there's none left.”可知救灾食品快要用完了,排除A、 C项。再根据run out是不及物动词短语,没有被动语态可知, 用现在进行时的主动语态。故选B项。 答案:B

2.(2012· 福建高考)—When did the computer crash? —This morning, while I________ the reading materials downloaded from some websites. A.have sorted C.am sorting B.was sorting D.had sorted

解析:考查动词时态。句意:“电脑什么时候死机的?”“今 天上午,当我正在把从一些网站上下载下来的阅读材料进行 分类的时候。”根据句意可知,死机发生在“我”正在做某事 时,也就是在过去的某个时间点,“我”正在做某事,故应用 过去进行时态。 答案:B

3.(2012· 辽宁高考)I feel so excited! At this time tomorrow

morning I ________ to Shanghai.
A.will be flying C.have been flying B.will fly D.have flown

解析:考查动词时态。句意:我感到非常兴奋!明天早上这 个时候我正在飞往上海。语境强调将来某个时候正在进行的

动作,因此用将来进行时。
答案:A

4.(2012· 安徽高考)In order to find the missing child, villagers ________ all they can over the past five hours. A.did B.do

C.had done

D.have been doing

解析:考查动词时态。句意:为了找到那个丢失的孩子,在 过去的五个小时里,村民们做了他们所能做的一切事情。根 据句中的“can”及时间状语“over the past five hours”可知, 此处应用现在完成进行时,故选D。 答案:D

被动语态 英语中动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态

表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。
做有关被动语态的题目可以分两步走:第一步确定正确的 时态,第二步确定正确的语态。判断用主动语态还是用被动语 态的根据是看主语与谓语动词之间的关系:如果是主谓关系则 用主动语态,如果是动宾关系则用被动语态。

1.被动语态的构成

时态 一般现在时
一般过去时 一般将来时

谓语构成
am/is/are done was/were done shall/will be done am/is/are being done was/were being done should/would be done has/have been done had been done

现在进行时
过去进行时 过去将来时 现在完成时 过去完成时

Is honesty the best policy? We are taught that it is when we
are little.(2012· 上海高考) 诚实是最好的原则吗?我们小时候被教的是肯定的回答。

In the last few years thousands of films have been produced
all over the world.(2011· 天津高考) 过去几年中全世界有数千部影片被制作出来。 [点津] 动词短语变为被动语态时,要注意动词短语的完整 性,动词后面的介词或副词不可遗漏。 They sent for the doctor immediately. →The doctor was sent for immediately. 他们立即派人去请医生。

2.“get+过去分词”表示被动 Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I get paid on Friday. (2012· 辽宁高考) 妈妈,我想知道你能不能借给我几美元,让我能用到星期 五发工资。 3.主动形式表示被动意义 (1)系动词look, feel, sound, smell, taste, seem, appear, go, prove, turn等没有被动语态,常用主动形式表示被动。 The dish tastes delicious. 这道菜味道可口。 His plan proved (to be) practical. 他的计划被证明符合实际。

(2)表示主语的某种属性或性能的动词:read, write, drive, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, shut等,常用主动形式表示被动。

The pen writes smoothly.
这只钢笔写起来流利。 (3)be to blame (受谴责),be to rent (出租)用主动形式表示 被动意义。 He is to blame for the accident.

他应该对那个事故负责。

1.(2012· 安徽高考)After school we went to the readingroom to

do some reading, only to be told that it ________.
A.was decorated C.had been decorating B.had decorated D.was being decorated

解析:考查时态和语态。句意:放学后,我们去阅览室看书, 结果却被告知阅览室正在装修。阅览室显然是被装修,应用 被动语态,B和C两项可排除,又根据句意可知,阅览室是 正在装修,动作正在进行,故用过去进行时态,选D。 答案:D

2.(2012· 天津高考)The letters for the boss ________ on his desk

but he didn't read them until three days later.
A.were put C.put B.was put D.has put

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。句意:给老板的信放在他的 办公桌上,但是直到三天后老板才读这些信件。根据句中 “didn't read them”可知放信的动作发生在过去,且put与 letters之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,因此A项正确。 答案:A

3.(2012· 湖南高考)Don't worry. The hard work that you do now

_______ later in life.
A.will be repaid C.has been repaid B.was being repaid D.was repaid

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。句意:别担心。你现在的艰 苦努力今后会得到回报的。根据空后面的later一词可知,此

处应用一般将来时态,又因repay与work之间是逻辑上的动
宾关系,应用被动时态,故A项正确。

答案:A

4.(2012· 四川高考)They are living with their parents for the moment because their own house ________.

A.is being rebuilt
C.is rebuilt

B.has been rebuilt
D.has rebuilt

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。句意:他们现在暂时和父母 一起居住,因为他们自己的房子正在重建。根据句意可知, 应使用现在进行时态,且house与动词rebuild之间为被动关

系,故使用现在进行时态的被动语态。
答案:A

[课后演练提升]
Ⅰ.语法与单选 1.(2013· 石家庄模拟)Somebody has to take responsibility for the problems the company ________ in the past few months. A.experienced B.was experiencing C.has been experiencing D.had been experiencing 解析:考查动词时态。句意:必须有人对公司近几个月以来 所遇到的问题负责。根据句意可知experience这一动作从过去 的某一时间开始一直延续到现在,应用现在完成进行时。故 选C。 答案:C

2.(2013· 浙江六校联考)—Hey, Gary, did Linda see you come in?

—I don't think so. She________ her lessons then.
A.reviewed C.was reviewing B.would review D.reviews

解析:考查时态。句意:“嗨,Gary,刚才Linda看见你进来 了吗?”“我认为没有。她当时正在复习功课。”根据答语第 二句中的“then”可知应用过去进行时。

答案:C

3.(2013· 陕西咸阳高三模拟)She was working as a teacher when I saw her several years ago, but I________ any news about

her ever since.
A.hadn't got C.didn't get B.haven't got D.wouldn't get

解析:考查时态。句意:几年前我见到她时,她正在当教师, 但是自那之后,我就没有她的消息了。根据“ever since”的提

示可知,此句应用现在完成时态。
答案:B

4.(2013· 成都部分高中高三教学质量检测)Robert promised me that he________ me a hand when I was in trouble but he

failed me.
A.would give C.had given B.will give D.has given

解析:考查动词的时态。语意表示“Robert许诺我当我有困 难的时候他会帮我”,promise这个动作发生在过去,许诺的

内容应该相应地用过去将来时,故选A项。
答案:A

5.(2013· 温州第一次联考)Fortunately, the little girl________ the earthquake, but unluckily, the other family members were killed. A.was survived B.has been survived

C.was surviving

D.survived

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。句意:幸运的是,小女孩在 地震中幸存了下来,但是不幸的是,其余的家人都遇难了。

这是一个由but连接的并列句,根据时态一致原则可知,此
处应用一般过去时,sb.survive (s) sth.表示“某人从??中逃 生”,故用主动语态。 答案:D

6.(2013· 福建三明质检)The first decade of the 21st century________ the breathtaking, nonstop development of

China.
A.witnesses C.will witness B.witnessed D.had witnessed

解析:考查时态。句意:21世纪的第一个十年见证了中国惊 人的、持续的发展。根据“The first decade of the 21st century”可知,应用一般过去时。 答案:B

7.(2012· 绍兴模考)The finalterm examinations are coming and each boy and each girl________ forward to the coming holiday. A.has been looked C.are looking B.have been looked D.is looking

解析:考查主谓一致、时态和语态。句意:快期末考试了,
每个男生和女生都盼望着即将到来的假期。each ... and each ...作主语时,谓语动词应用单数形式,根据句中的“are

coming”可推知,此处应用现在进行时态。故D项正确。
答案:D

8.(2013· 湖南名校联考)Since my grandparents are coming for the weekend, I________ on a sofa.

A.sleep
C.have slept

B.have been sleeping
D.will be sleeping

解析:考查时态。句意:既然我的祖父母要来度周末,那么 我要睡在沙发上了。本句强调的是当说话人的祖父母来的时 候,说话人将睡在沙发上,表示的是将来的某个时间正在发

生的动作,所以用将来进行时。 答案:D

9.(2013· 西安第一次质检)By the time Pierce comes back from the meeting, we________ here for three hours.

A.will be waiting
C.will wait

B.is waiting
D.will have waited

解析:考查时态。by the time表示“到??时候为止”,主句 通常用完成时。根据句意可知,此处表示的是将来的时间, 所以用将来完成时。 答案:D

10.(2013· 山东潍坊高三模拟)What we'll do is to leave a note for Mum to tell her we________ back till late.

A.have not been
C.won't be

B.are not
D.were not

解析:考查时态。句意:我们要做的就是给母亲留张便条, 告诉她我们很晚才会回来。根据句意及前面的“we'll”可知, 此处表示“将回来得晚”,应用一般将来时,故选C。 答案:C

11.(2012· 南京三模)—What is the purpose of this experiment?
—To figure out whether this material________ easily under high pressure.

A.is broken
C.breaks

B.will be broken
D.broke

解析:句意:“这个试验的目的是什么?”“为了搞清楚这种

材料在高压下是否容易破。”break, sell, burn, wash, clean,
cook等词用作不及物动词表示主语的某种属性、特征或所处 状态(常与well,easily等副词连用),而非强调动作本身时, 通常用其主动形式表示被动意义。另外,根据问句中的“is” 可知,此处应用一般现在时态。

答案:C

12.(2012· 苏北四市三调)It is reported that China will not buy
the Euro debt until some thorough research________. A.will be done C.has been done B.had been done D.will have been done

解析:考查时态和语态。句意:据报道,直到做了深入研究 之后中国才会购买欧元债券。until在此引导时间状语从句, 主句的谓语为一般现在时或一般将来时时,until从句中的谓 语用现在完成时,表示从句中谓语的动作发生在主句的谓语

动作之前,又因do与research之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,故
用被动语态。所以C项正确。 答案:C

13.(2013· 安徽皖北协作区高三联考)The two nurses________
100,000 yuan by the police but donated it to victims of the explosion. A.rewarded C.have been rewarded B.would be rewarded D.had been rewarded

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。根据句意可知,reward所表
示的动作发生在“donated”这一动作之前,所以用过去完成 时;分析句子结构可知,reward与The two nurses之间是逻 辑上的动宾关系,应用被动语态。故选D。 答案:D

14.(2013· 重庆部分学校高三联考)The boy________ hot on the

forehead, so he must be sent to hospital at once.
A.is felt C.feels B.is feeling D.has felt

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。句意:这个男孩的额头摸起 来发热,所以必须被立刻送往医院。此处的feel是系动词,

后接形容词作表语,用主动形式。由语意可知此处是对现在
情况的描述,故用一般现在时。 答案:C

15.(2013· 北京西城期末)—Have you read today's report about your performance?

—I don't care what________ about me.
A.will be written C.wrote B.writes D.is written

解析:根据语意可知,what与write之间是动宾关系,故应用 被动语态,由此可以排除B、C两项;另外,“我不关注关于 我的报道”是对答话人观点的客观陈述,应用一般现在时。

答案:D

16.(2013· 北京朝阳一模)—Have you seen my email about our TESL project? —Yes. Luckily I checked my emails yesterday. Normally I________ my email box for days. A.haven't opened B.didn't open C.hadn't opened D.don't open 解析:句意:“你看到我的关于TESL计划的电子邮件了吗? ”“看到了。幸运的是我昨天查看了电子邮件,正常情况下我 是好几天都不打开电子邮箱的。”根据normally可知设空处 表示现在的习惯性动作,故用一般现在时。 答案:D

17.(2013· 三明模拟)—Is this the first time you________ Xiamen? —No. But the first time I ________ here, the city wasn't so beautiful.

A.visited; come
C.have visited; came

B.visited; have come
D.have visited; have come

解析:考查时态。句意:“这是你第一次来厦门吗?”

“不。但是我第一次来这儿的时候,这座城市还不这么漂
亮。”第一个空格处为固定句型,this is the first time+that 从句,从句使用现在完成时。第二个空格处表示过去,所 以选C。 答案:C

18.(2013· 青岛质检)The book has been translated into thirty languages since it________ on the market in 1973. A.had come C.came B.was come D.comes

解析:根据句中的时间状语“in 1973”,再结合语境可知此
处应用一般过去时。故选C。 答案:C

19.(2013· 成都市毕业班摸底测试)—Late again! Where

________?
—Sorry, I________ in the heavy traffic, or I would have been here earlier. A.were you; have got stuck B.have you been; have got stuck C.were you; got stuck D.have you been; got stuck

解析:考查时态。既然对方责备答话人又迟到了,由此可见

答话人在现场,所以询问的是答话人曾经去了什么地方,因
此第一个空处用现在完成时;根据答语的后半部分可知是对

过去情况的虚拟,所以第二个空处用一般过去时。
答案:D

20.(2013· 唐山一中一调)—Have you seen Jack recently?

—No. He________ for another company now.
A.is working C.worked B.had worked D.was working

解析:考查时态。根据答语中的时间状语now可知叙述的 是现在正在进行的动作,语境表示他现在为另外一家公司

工作,所以用现在进行时。 答案:A

Ⅱ.语法与阅读
用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 四川高考阅读E)They said plants had been the key

object of study because their reaction to climate change could
have an effect on food chains and ecosystem services. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。plants had been the key

object of study为省略引导词that的宾语从句,因为主句谓语
said为一般过去时,所以宾语从句中运用了过去完成时。另外, because引导原因状语从句。 [尝试翻译] 他们说植物是主要的研究对象,因为它们对气候 变化的反应会对食物链以及生态系统服务产生影响。

2.(2012· 四川高考阅读D)MIT has offered a program called
OpenCourseWare for ten years that makes materials from more than 2,000 classes free online. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。其中called

OpenCourseWare为过去分词作定语修饰program,另外,

that makes materials from more than 2,000 classes free online
为定语从句修饰先行词program。因为句中时间状语为for ten years,所以主句运用了现在完成时。 [尝试翻译] 麻省理工学院十年前开始实施公开课项目,在 线免费提供2000多堂讲座的材料。

3.(2012· 新课标全国卷阅读C)Since it was our turn next, we were left wondering what scene would be prepared for us.

[结构分析]

本句是一个复合句。since引导原因状语从句;

what引导宾语从句。另外,wondering为现在分词作主语 补足语,因为主句为一般过去时,所以what引导的宾语从 句用了过去将来时。 [尝试翻译] 因为接下来就轮到我们了,我们便想知道什么样 的场景将是为我们而准备的呢。

Ⅲ.语法与写作 按要求完成下列写作佳句(用所给词的适当形式填空) 1.To his parents' satisfaction, he has got (get) the first scholarship twice since he entered the key university.

2.My brother ran to the stadium, only to be told that his
favorite player, Lin Shuhao, had left (leave). 3.I'm sorry you have been waiting so long, but it will still be some time before Brian gets back.

[课前体验领悟] 完成句子 1.It's surprising that such a gentleman should be so rude (竟 然那么无礼) to the old. 2.—Tom must have lost his way, for he hasn't arrived yet. —No, he can't/couldn't have lost his way (一定没迷路).

He has got a map with him.

3.When she was a little girl, she would sit by the window (常
坐在窗旁) every evening, deep in thought. 4.After careful examination, Michel's doctor insisted that he was badly wounded and that he should be operated on (做 手术) at once. would 5.If the sun were to rise in the west, my love for you _______ not change (不会变).

情态动词的基本用法

1.can 和could的用法

(1)表示“能力,能够”。
—No one can be compared with Yao Ming in playing basketball. —Oh, you are really his big fan.(2011· 湖南高考) ——在打篮球方面,无人能与姚明相媲美。 ——你真是姚明的铁杆粉丝。

(2)表示“许可”,此时can可以和may换用。 You can (may) go home now. 你现在可以回家了。 (3)表示惊讶,常用在否定句和疑问句中。 How could you do such a silly thing? 你怎么能做那样的蠢事呢?

2.may和might的用法 (1)may和might表示“许可”。

—May I take the book out?
—I'm afraid not.(2010· 四川高考) ——我能将书带出去吗?

——恐怕不行。
(3)“may/might as well+动词原形”意为“最好;不妨”。 If you think the price of beef is too high, you may as well buy

some pork. It depends on you.(2013· 江苏省苏中三市调研)
如果你认为牛肉太贵的话,你不妨买些猪肉。你自己决定。

3.must的用法 (1)表示必要性,意为“必须”。

—Shall I inform him of the change of the schedule right now?
—I am afraid you must, in case he comes late for the

meeting.(2011· 福建高考)
——我现在通知他日程表的变动吗?

——恐怕你必须通知他,以免他开会迟到。

(2)表示禁止(用于否定句)。

The new law states that people mustn't drive after drinking
alcohol.(2012· 上海高考) 新颁布的法律禁止人们酒后驾车。 (3)表示“偏偏,偏要”。 If you must go, at least wait until the storm is over.(2011· 辽

宁高考)
如果你非要走的话,至少等到暴风雨结束。

4.need的用法 (1)need作情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句中。

He needn't worry about us now.
他现在不必为我们担心。 (2)need也可作实义动词,用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句中, 其后可接名词、代词、动名词或带to的动词不定式作宾 语。

You need to practise reading aloud every day.
你有必要每天都大声朗读。

5.shall和should的用法 (1)shall的用法 ①用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意 见或向对方请示。 —What time shall I pick you up at your house tomorrow, sir?

—I haven't decided on the time.But I will call you.
——先生,我明天什么时候到你家接你呢? ——我还没有决定时间,但是我会给你打电话的。

②用于第二、第三人称陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、
警告、允诺或威胁。 —Will you read me a story, Mummy?

—OK. You shall have one if you go to bed as soon as
possible.(2011· 陕西高考) ——妈妈,给我讲个故事好吗? ——好的,如果你尽快上床睡觉我就给你讲一个。 ③用于第三人称作主语的陈述句中,在条约、规定、法令

等文件中表示义务或规定。
The National Party congress shall be held every five years. 国家党员代表大会每五年举行一次。

(2)should的用法
①表示义务、职责等,意为“应该”。 The children should be taken good care of. 这些孩子应该受到好的照顾。 ②表示说话人的惊奇、愤怒、失望等特殊情感。 How should I know where you've left your bag? 我怎么知道你把包丢在哪里了?

6.will和would的用法 (1)表示意志、意愿和决心,would用于过去的情况。 —Goodbye, John. Come back again sometime. —Sure. I will.(2012· 四川高考) ——再见,约翰。欢迎再来。 ——好的,我会的。 —Why didn't you come to Simon's party last night? —I wanted to, but my mom simply would not let me out so late at night.(2011· 重庆高考) ——你昨晚为什么没有参加Simon的聚会? ——我想去,但是妈妈不愿意让我自己在这么晚的时间出去。

(2)will可以表示一种习惯性的动作,有“总是”或“总要”之 意。

Every morning he will have a walk along this river.
每天早晨,他总是沿着小河散步。 (3)would可以表示过去的习惯性动作,比used to正式,但没有 “现已无此习惯”的含义。 When we worked in the same firm several years ago, we would

often go to the cinema together.
当几年前我们在同一家公司工作时,我们常常一起去电影院。

1.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)I'm going to Europe on vacation together with John if I_____________ find the money.

A.can
C.would

B.might
D.need

解析:考查情态动词。句意:如果我能找到钱,我就和 John一起去欧洲度假。结合前后部分的内容可知,此处 表示的是能力。故用can“能,会”。 答案:A

2.(2012· 辽宁高考)One of our rules is that every student _____________ wear school uniform while at school. A.might C.shall B.could D.will

解析:考查情态动词。句意:我们的一条规则就是,每
个学生在校期间都必须穿校服。shall用于第三人称,在 条约、规定、法令等文件中表示命令或规定,故选C。 答案:C

3.(2012· 重庆高考)—_____________ you interrupt now?
Can't you see I'm on the phone? —Sorry Sir, but it's urgent. A.Can C.Must B.Should D.Would

解析:考查情态动词的用法。句意:“你偏要现在打扰
我吗?难道你没有看到我正在打电话吗?”“对不起, 先生,但是情况太紧急了。”must表示“偏要,硬要”, 故选C项。 答案:C

4.(2012· 江苏高考)Days later, my brother called to say he was all right, but_____________ say where he was.

A.mustn't
C.wouldn't

B.shouldn't
D.mightn't

解析:考查情态动词。句意:几天后,我哥哥打电话说 他一切都好,但不愿意说他在哪儿。mustn't意为“禁 止”;shouldn't意为“不应该”;wouldn't在此意为“不

愿意”;mightn't意为“或许不”。 答案:C

情态动词表示“推测”
1.(1)can表示推测时常用于否定句和疑问句,语气很强烈。 Mr.Bush is on time for everything.How can it be that he was late for the meeting? 布什先生做什么事情都很准时,他怎么可能开会迟到呢? (2)can用于肯定句中,常表示客观的可能性。 It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it can be rather cold sometimes. 我的家乡在三月份通常很暖和,但有时候也会相当冷。

2.may用于肯定句中可以用来表示推测,意为“可能”;用 于否定句中也可以表示推测,may not意为“可能不”,表 示一种不太确定的语气。 The traffic is heavy these days. I might arrive a bit late, so

could you save me a place?(2009· 辽宁高考)
这些天交通很繁忙,我可能会来晚一点,请你帮我保留个 位置好吗?

Some people who don't like to talk much are not necessarily
shy; they may just be quiet people.(2009· 安徽高考) 言语不多的人未必就是害羞。他们或许就是安静的人。

3.must 表示推测时只能用于肯定句中,意为“一定,必定”, 表示十分肯定的语气(在疑问句或否定句中要用can)。 —It's the office!So you must know eating is not allowed here. —Oh, sorry.(2009· 湖南高考) ——这是办公室!所以你一定知道这里不许吃东西。 ——噢,对不起。 4.should 用来表示推测时意为“应该”,即含有“按道理来说 应当如此”的意思。 There shouldn't be any difficulty passing the road test since you have practised a lot in the driving school. 因为你在驾校训练了那么多,通过路考应该没什么困难。

1.(2012· 四川高考)I got close enough to hear them speaking Chinese, and I said “Ni Hao,” just as I_____________ do in China. A.must C.can B.might D.should

解析:考查情态动词。句意:我靠近他们,听见他们在
讲汉语。我对他们说了声“你好!”,就像我在中国可 能做的那样。might表示一种可能性。 答案:B

2.(2012· 潍坊市模拟)Don't worry. I've just sent an

ambulance to you. They_____________ be there any
second. A.could C.would B.might D.should

解析:考查情态动词。既然已经派去了救护车,那么他

们“应该”随时会赶到。should在本句中表示预期“应
该会,可能”。 答案:D

3.(2011· 江西高考)It_____________ be the postman at the door.It's only six o'clock. A.mustn't C.won't B.can't D.needn't

解析:考查情态动词。句意:门口不可能是邮递员,(现
在)才六点钟。 对现在的否定推测,由It's only six o'clock.分析可知应用can't“不可能”。mustn't“禁止”; won't“不会”; needn't“不必”,均不合句意。 答案:B

“情态动词+have done”的用法 1.can/could have done表示“本来可以做,而实际上未做”

或者“过去可能做过”,疑问或否定形式表示对过去
发生的行为表示怀疑或不肯定,其中can't have done多 用于语气强烈的否定,意为“不可能做过”。 —Happy birthday! —Thank you! It's the best present I could have wished for.(2012· 江苏高考)

——生日快乐!

——谢谢!这是我原来希望能够得到的最好的礼物。
Sorry, Cathy, I didn't know that you were badly short of money then. But you could have asked me for help.(2013· 甘肃高三联合测试) 对不起,Cathy,我不知道你当时急需用钱,但是你本可

以向我求助。

2.may/might have done表示对过去行为的推测,意为“可能做过”。 might所表示的可能性比较弱,语气较委婉。此外might have done 可表示“本可能做而实际上未做”。 Sorry, I'm late.I might have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. 对不起,我迟到了。我可能把闹钟关掉后又睡着了。 3.must have done表示对过去行为的推测,意为“一定,想必”,语 气十分肯定。 —Ye Shiwen was lucky to win two gold medals in London Olympic Games. —She must have gone through tough training. ——真幸运,叶诗文在伦敦奥运会上获得两枚金牌。 ——她肯定受过严格的训练。

4.should/ought to have done表示过去本来应该做某事而实际 上却没有做;shouldn't/ought not to have done表示过去本 来不应该做某事而实际上却做了。这一用法往往含有责备 的意味。 I shouldn't have watched that movie — it'll give me horrible dreams.(2010· 山东高考) 我本不应该看那部电影——它会令我做噩梦。 5.needn't have done表示本来不必做某事而实际上却做了。 Mark needn't have hurried. After driving at top speed, he arrived half an hour early.(2010· 天津高考) 马克本没必要那么匆忙。他以最快速度开车,结果早到了 半个小时。

1.(2012· 江西高考)We_____________ have bought so much food now that Suzie won't be with us for dinner.

A.may not
C.can't

B.needn't
D.mustn't

解析:考查情态动词。句意:既然Suzie不和我们一起吃 晚饭,那我们就没有必要买这么多食物。根据“now that Suzie won't be with us for dinner”可知选B,needn't have

done表示“本没有必要做某事而实际上却做了”。
答案:B

2.(2012· 北京高考)We_____________ the difficulty together,
but why didn't you tell me? A.should face C.could have faced B.might face D.must have faced

解析:考查情态动词。句意:我们本可以共同面对困难, 可你为什么不告诉我呢?后半句用的是一般过去时,由 此可知前半句是对过去情况的推测,所以用“情态动词 +have done”形式。could have done表示过去本可以做某 事,而实际上却没有做,符合句意。 答案:C

3.(2011· 江苏高考)—I left my handbag on the train, but luckily someone gave it to a railway official. —How unbelievable to get it back! I mean, someone_____________it. A.will have stolen C.should have stolen B.might have stolen D.must have stolen

解析:考查情态动词。从对话情景可知他们在谈论过去 的可能性:有人可能把手提包偷走了,因此选择might

have stolen。
答案:B

情态动词表示“推测”

1.非真实条件句中虚拟语气的用法 if条件从句
表示现在 情况 表示过去 情况 表示未来 情况

从句的谓语形式 动词过去式(be的过 去式用were) had+过去分词
should+动词原形 动词过去式 were to+动词原形

主句的谓语形式 should/would/could/mig ht+动词原形 should/would/could/mig ht+have+过去分词
should/would/could/mig ht+动词原形

(1)与现在事实相反 We would go with you if we had time. 如果我们有时间,就和你一起去。 (2)与过去事实相反 We would have called a taxi yesterday if Harold hadn't offered us a ride home.(2012· 天津高考) 如果昨天Harold没送我们回家,我们会打出租车回家的。 (3)与将来事实相反 If it should rain this afternoon, the basketball match would be put off. 要是今天下午下雨,篮球比赛就延期举行。

2.错综时间条件句 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间

不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句”,动词的形式要根据
它所表示的时间做出相应的调整。 I actually believe that we would be in Xi'an now if you hadn't been caught drunk driving last month.(2012· 北京海淀二模) 事实上,我认为如果上个月你没因酒驾被逮住的话,我们现

在就在西安呢。

[点津] 如果虚拟条件句中含有were/had/should,有时可把if省

略,将were/had/should提至主语之前,形成倒装句;否定形式
的not不可提到主语前。 Had you taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the

examination.
如果你听了我的建议,你就不会考试不及格了。 Should it rain tomorrow, we would have to cancel the football match. 如果明天下雨,我们将不得不取消足球赛。

3.含蓄条件句

有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示,而是由otherwise,
but, or, without, but for等来引导或者通过上下文引出。 I would have come sooner but I didn't know that they were waiting for me.(2011· 天津高考) 我本该早一些到,但我不知道他们在等我。

I couldn't have gone through that bitter period without your
generous help.(2011· 陕西高考) 假如当时没有您慷慨相助,我就不会度过那段艰难的时期。

1.(2012· 陕西高考)If my car_____________ more reliable, I would have driven to Lhasa instead of flying last summer.

A.was
C.should be

B.had been
D.would be

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:如果我的车更可靠的话, 我去年夏天会开车去拉萨而不是坐飞机去。此处是对过 去事情的假设,故条件句用过去完成时,主句用

should/could/might+have done。

答案:B

2.(2012· 安徽高考)Grace doesn't want to move to New York because she thinks if she_____________ there, she wouldn't be able to see her parents very often. A.lives B.would live C.has lived D.were to live 解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:Grace不想搬到纽约,因为 她认为,如果她住到那里去,她就不能经常看到父母了。 主句“Grace doesn't want to move to New York”说明 Grace尚未搬到纽约,故此处表示的是对将来的虚拟,if 引导的虚拟条件从句中可使用过去式或should+动词原 形或were to+动词原形,D项当选。 答案:D

3.(2012· 福建高考)We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we_____________ more places of interest yesterday. A.visited C.would visit B.had visited D.would have visited

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:我们在那个小村庄里迷了 路,否则我们昨天会看到更多的名胜。本题是由 otherwise引出的含蓄条件句。由时间状语yesterday可知, 此处是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故选D。 答案:D

4.(2012· 浙江高考)Had they known what was coming next, they_____________ second thoughts. A.may have C.must have had B.could have D.might have had

解析:考查虚拟语气。根据“Had they known ...”可知,
此处是省略了if的条件句,表示与过去事实相反的假设, 所以主句用should/would/could/might+have done结构, 故D项正确。 答案:D

情态动词表示“推测”

1.表示命令、建议、要求、愿望等含义的动词后宾语从句 和对应的表语从句、同位语从句中用虚拟语气,形式为: (should+)动词原形。常这样用的动词有:advise劝告, demand要求,desire渴望,command命令,insist坚决要求, prefer宁愿,urge主张,order命令,recommend 劝告,建议, request要求,require要求,suggest建议,以及这些词的名词 形式。 Teachers recommend parents not allow their children under 12 to ride bicycles to school for safety.(2010· 福建高考) 老师们建议父母,为了安全不要让他们12岁以下的孩子骑 车上学。

2.wish后跟宾语从句时用虚拟语气。

对现在情况的假设: wish+主语+动词过去式(be用were)
对过去情况的假设: wish+主语+had+过去分词 对将来情况的假设: wish+主语+would+动词原形 I wish that I hadn't agreed to go to Jim's party, for I have to do some extra work tonight.(2012· 北京东城二模)

我要是当时没有答应参加吉姆的聚会就好了,因为今晚我
必须做一些额外的工作。

3.would rather后的宾语从句中,表示愿望,意为“宁愿;但 愿”。用一般过去时表示与现在或将来事实相反;用过去完成时表示 与过去事实相反。 George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I'd rather he focused more on its culture.(2010· 江苏高考) 乔治将要谈论关于他的国家的地理情况,但是我宁愿他更多地谈 它的文化(方面的情况)。 4.在“It is (about/high) time+that从句”中,谓语动词常用过去 式或“should/ought to+动词原形”表示虚拟语气。 It's high time that we devoted ourselves to environmental protection and ecological improvement.(2012· 浙江六校联盟第一次联考) 是我们致力于环境保护和生态改善的时候了。

5.as if, as though引导的表语从句和方式状语从句中常用虚拟语 气,与现在事实相反用一般过去时;与过去事实相反用过去完成时。 He stood up and offered her his seat, as if he had read her mind. 他站起来给她让座,他好像读懂了她的心思。 [点津] 如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么从句中的谓语动词可 用陈述语气。 It looks as if it's going to rain. 天看上去似乎要下雨。 6.if only引导的感叹句中,用虚拟语气表示愿望。 Look at the trouble we're in. If only we had taken our teacher's advice! 看看我们所处的困境,要是我们接受老师的建议就好了。

1.(2013· 临沂一模)I would rather he_____________ a hand

to lift the heavy box upstairs. However, to my
disappointment, he didn't. A.would give B.should give

C.gave

D.had given

解析:考查虚拟语气。would rather 引导的从句中,谓语 动词用一般过去时表示对现在或将来的愿望,用过去完成 时表示对过去的愿望。根据However后面的内容可知,此 处表示对过去的愿望,故选D。

答案:D

2.(2012· 辽宁高考)Jack is a great talker. It's high time that

he_____________ something instead of just talking.
A.will do C.do B.has done D.did

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:Jack总爱夸夸其谈,他该做 点事了,而不仅仅是空谈。这里是 “It's (high/about)

time that ...”句型, 从句谓语应用一般过去时或“should
+动词原形”。 答案:D

3.(2011· 北京高考)—Where are the children? The dinner's going to be completely ruined. —I wish they_____________always late. A.weren't B.hadn't been

C.wouldn't be

D.wouldn't have been

解析:考查虚拟语气。根据问句句意“孩子们现在在哪 里?” 可知wish 后的宾语从句应用动词的过去式,表示 与现在事实相反的愿望,故答案为A。 答案:A

[课后演练提升]

Ⅰ.语法与单选
1.(2013· 长春高中毕业班第一次调研)Just as Jane is doing her homework,_____________ you bother her with playing the piano now? A.may B.can C.must D.shall

解析:考查情态动词。句意:Jane正在写作业,你偏要
现在弹钢琴打扰她吗?这里must表示“偏要,非得”, 其他选项都无此用法,故选C项。 答案:C

2.(2013· 陕西咸阳高三模拟)—Where is Mr. Jack?

—He_____________ have gone far — his mobile phone is
still on the desk. A.shouldn't C.couldn't B.must D.might

解析:考查情态动词。答句句意:他不可能走远——他 的手机还在桌子上。couldn't have done sth.意为“不可 能做过某事”,表示对过去的否定推测。 答案:C

3.(2013· 河北普通高中模拟)The boy_____________ be

really annoying at times, but after a while, you'll get used
to him. A.must C.shall B.should D.can

解析:考查情态动词。根据句意“那个男孩有时候真的 让人恼火,但是过一会儿,你就会习惯的”可知,此处 应用can,表示“有时会”。故选D项。 答案:D

4.(2013· 江西重点中学盟校高三第一次联考)It is important

to know about the cultural differences that_____________
cause problems. A.must C.may B.dare D.shall

解析:考查情态动词。句意:了解有可能会带来麻烦的 文化差异是重要的。此处may表示不确定的推测,意为 “有可能”。 答案:C

5.(2013· 山西部分重点高中高三联考测试)The constant rise

of meat price requires that effective
measures_____________ by the government. A.must be taken C.will be taken B.be taken D.should take

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:肉价的持续上涨要求政府 采取有效措施。require后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气,be taken前省略了should。 答案:B

6.(2013· 湖南十二校二次联考)If you dare to break the rules of the game, you_____________ be punished. A.shall C.can B.might D.would

解析:考查情态动词。句意:如果你敢违反比赛规则, 你就会受到惩罚。shall用于第二、第三人称,表示说话 人给对方的许诺、命令、警告、威胁等。 答案:A

7.(2012· 温州二测)It is beyond my understanding that many adults_____________ be so crazy about Harry Potter.

A.will
C.may

B.can
D.should

解析:考查情态动词。句意:我不理解的是竟然有那么
多成年人迷恋哈利· 波特。should表示“竟然”,符合题

意。 答案:D

8.(2013· 衡阳一次联考)According to the air traffic rules,
you_____________ switch off your mobile phone before boarding. A.may C.would B.can D.shall

解析:考查情态动词。句意:根据空中交通规则,在登 机前,你必须关闭手机。shall用在条约、规章、法令等

文件中表示义务或规定,意为“应,必须”。
答案:D

9.(2012· 宝鸡二检)_____________ more effort into my
training, that gold medal would have been mine. A.Had I put C.If I put B.Should I put D.If I should put

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:如果我训练时再努力一些, 那个金牌就会是我的了。本句是对过去情况的虚拟,所 以从句用had+过去分词。另外,当虚拟条件句中有had

时,if可省略,从句主谓要倒装。故答案选A。
答案:A

10.(2013· 河北普通高中模拟)—Did you go to the fashion show
last week? —I_____________, but I was fully occupied the whole week. A.must go C.would go B.must have gone D.would have gone

解析:考查虚拟语气。根据答语中的“but I was fully occupied”可知,此处是对过去事实的虚拟,应用would have done结构,表示“过去应该做而实际上未做”,据 此选D项。

答案:D

11.(2013· 哈尔滨模考)This lifeboat is for women and children only. You_____________ wait.

A.should
C.can

B.need
D.would

解析:考查情态动词。句意:这种救生船只是为妇女和儿 童准备的,你应该等等。should意为“应该”,往往用来 向别人提建议,故A项正确。 答案:A

12.(2013· 南通一调)—I'm worried about the sports meeting. Do you think it will be postponed? —If it_____________ rain tomorrow, but actually the weather forecast has removed our worry. A.could C.might B.would D.should

解析:考查情态动词。句意:“我担心运动会。你认为它 会被延期吗?”“如果明天下雨的话,但是事实上天气预 报已经消除了我们的顾虑。”根据句意可知,此处是对将 来事实的虚拟,故从句用should+动词原形,即D项正确。

答案:D

13.(2013· 北京西城区高三期末)—Let's play football together tomorrow afternoon. —OK, but how I wish I_________ it as skillfully as you.

A.played
C.had played

B.have played
D.will play

解析:考查虚拟语气。wish后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。 根据句意可知此处表示与现在的事实不符的一种愿望,因 此从句用一般过去时态。 答案:A

14.(2012· 合肥二模)My mom always tells me that I _____________ be careful enough no matter what I do. A.mustn't B.shouldn't

C.needn't

D.can't

解析:考查情态动词。句意:我妈妈总是告诉我不管我 做什么,越小心越好。本句中的can't be careful enough 相当于can't be too careful,表示“越小心越好,再怎么 小心也不过分”。故选D项。 答案:A

15.(2012· 南昌二模)As many as 150 miners died in the
accident. If only the mine owners_____________ enough attention to the safety measures! A.paid C.would pay B.should pay D.had paid

解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:多达150名矿工在这次事故 中遇难。要是矿主能够对安全措施给予足够的重视那该 多好呀!if only表示“要是??就好了”,后面的句子常 用虚拟语气。该句表示对过去情况的虚拟,所以应用过 去完成时,故D项正确。 答案:D

Ⅱ.语法与阅读 用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 辽宁高考阅读C)Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantage of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Western philosophy. [结构分析] 本句中suggest后面跟了一个that引导的宾语从句, suggest表示“建议”,此时从句要用虚拟语气,即should+ 动词原形。take advantage of表示“利用”,to make up for the drawbacks of Western philosophy为不定式作目的状语。 [尝试翻译] 一些社会学家建议西方人利用中国古代的智 ________________________________________ 慧去弥补西方哲学的不足。 _______________________

2.(2012· 湖北高考阅读C)While searching the archives (档案) for information about the university's higher certificate for women, I was astonished to come across what must be the very letter JexBlake wrote. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。while所引导的是其后面 省略了I was的状语从句,what must be the very letter为宾 语从句,must在句中表示推测,意为“一定,肯定”, JexBlake wrote为省略引导词that的定语从句,修饰先行 词letter。 [尝试翻译] 当我查找案卷寻找关于女性在大学里的高级证书 _______________________________________ 时,我惊奇的意外发现了一定是 JexBlake所写的那封信。 ___________________________________________________

3. (2012· 上海高考阅读B)If 5day tickets were to be recommended to a mother who travelled with her colleague and her children, aged 3,6 and 10, what would the lowest cost be? [结构分析] 本句运用了if条件状语从句的虚拟语气。因为是 对将来的虚拟,所以从句运用了were to,主句运用了would be。who引导定语从句,修饰先行词mother,在此定语从句 中,aged 3,6 and 10为过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 children。 如果一位母亲和同事一起旅游并带着她的3岁、 [尝试翻译] __________________________________________ 6岁和10岁的孩子,要买五日游的票,最低费用是多少呢? ____________________________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作 按要求完成下列写作佳句(用情态动词或虚拟语气完成句子) 1.医生建议我们要均衡饮食并养成早起的习惯。 we should have a balanced diet and The doctor advised that ____________________________ form the good habit of getting up early. _________________________________ 2.令我们感到羞愧的是,我们本不应该未调查就怀疑 (suspect)汤姆。 we shouldn't have suspected What made us ashamed is that ________________________ Tom without investigation. 3.戴着眼镜的那个年轻人一定是我们的新英语老师。 must be our new The young man wearing a pair of glasses _______________ English teacher.

[课前体验领悟] 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1.When asked (ask) for his opinions about his teaching job, the old man said he found it very interesting and rewarding. 2.More TV programs, according to government officials,

will be produced to raise (raise) people's concern over
food safety.

3.More highways have been built in China, making (make)
it much easier for people to travel from one place to another. 4.Listen! The song being sung (sing) is very popular with the students. sent 5.Every year, Tom remembers to have some flowers ______ (send) to his mother on Mother's Day.

[课堂考前讲练]
非谓语动词作状语

1.不定式作状语

(1)表目的
作目的状语时,不定式的逻辑主语通常也是全句的主语, 往往译作“为了,想要”。 Having finished her project, she was invited by the school to speak to the new students.(2012· 江西高考)

结束这个项目之后,她受邀到那个学校给新生们讲话。

(2)表结果 不定式作结果状语常表示出乎意料的结果,动词不定式前 面常加only。 George returned after the war, only to be told that his wife had left him.(2012· 山东高考) 乔治战后回来,却被告知他妻子已经离开了他。 (3)表原因 这种原因状语往往跟在表示“高兴、愉快、生气、遗憾” 等形容词之后,说明产生这种情感的原因。 I felt very honored to be included in the team. 加入这个球队我感到非常荣幸。

2.动词ing形式作状语

现在分词有一般式、被动式、完成式和完成被动式四种形式,
每一种形式的否定式都是直接在前面加not构成。 时态 一般式 完成式 主动语态 doing having done 被动语态 being done having been done

一般式表示主动的一般性的动作或者正在进行的动作; 被动式表示正在进行的被动的动作;完成式表示发生在谓语

动作之前的主动的动作;完成被动式表示发生在谓语动作之
前的被动的动作。

Pressed from his parents, and realizing that he has wasted too much time, the boy is determined to stop playing video games.(2012· 福建高考) 由于来自父母的压力,以及认识到浪费了太多的时间,这 个男孩决定不玩电子游戏了。 Not having fully recovered from the operation, the patient was advised to stay in hospital for another two weeks. 手术后还没有完全康复,这位病人被建议再住院两周。 Having been told many times, he finally understood it.(2009· 四川高考) 被告诉了许多次,他终于明白了。

3.动词ed形式作状语

(1)过去分词作状语时,与句子主语之间是被动关系,表示时
间、原因、条件、让步等。此时过去分词可与一些连词if, when, though, once等连用。 Used with care, one tin will last for six weeks.(2012· 北京高考) 如果用得仔细的话,一罐可以够用六周。

(2)某些动词的过去分词已经形容词化,此时这些过去分词表
示一种状态。这样的词有:lost (迷路的), seated (坐), lost/absorbed in (沉溺于), dressed in (穿着), tired of (感到厌倦), faced with (面对)等。

Tired of working for over thn hours a day, he wants to quit the job. 厌倦了一天工作十多个小时,他想辞职。 [点津] 作状语时,是用现在分词还是用过去分词,取决于该动词 与句子主语之间的关系。如果是逻辑上的主谓关系,一般用现在分词; 如果是逻辑上的动宾关系,一般用过去分词。 Seen from the top of the hill, the park looks even more beautiful. 从山顶上看,这个公园显得更加美丽。(see与主语the park之间存 在动宾关系)

Seeing from the top of the hill, we find the park even more beautiful.
从山顶上看,我们发现这个公园显得更加美丽。(see与主语we之间 存在主谓关系)

1.(2013· 烟台一模)_____________something like this before,
I think the result might turn out differently now. A.Having been experienced B.Having experienced C.To experience

D.Experienced

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:因为以前经历过类似这样的 事情,所以现在我认为结果可能会有所不同。主语I与 experience是逻辑上的主谓关系,且experience这一动作发生 在谓语动作之前,故用Having experienced。 答案:B

2.(2012· 湖南高考)Time,_____________ correctly, is money in the bank. A.to use C.using B.used D.use

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:如果利用得恰到好处,
时间就是银行里的钱。分析句子结构可知,use与time之 间是逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用use的过去分词形式。

答案:B

3.(2012· 重庆高考)_____________ to work overtime that
evening, I missed a wonderful film. A.Having been asked C.Having asked B.To ask D.To be asked

解析:考查非谓语动词。分析题干并根据“I missed a

wonderful film”可知,此处应用现在分词作原因状语;
ask和I之间是动宾关系,故用被动语态;ask这一动作发 生在missed这一动作之前,故应用分词的完成式。答案 为A项。 答案:A

非谓语动词作定语 1.动词不定式作定语 (1)不定式作定语通常要放在被修饰的词后,往往表示未 发生的动作。动词不定式与其所修饰的词之间往往有动宾关 系,如果该不定式是不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。 (2)不定式与被修饰词之间有同位关系。此类名词有 chance, ability等。 The ability to express an idea is as important as the idea itself.(2011· 湖南高考) 表达思想的能力和思想本身一样重要。

[点津] 不定式一般式的主动语态(to do)作定语表示将要 发生的主动动作。

不定式一般式的被动语态(to be done)作定语表示将要发生
的被动动作。 We are invited to a party to be held in our club next Friday.(2009· 山东高考) 我们被邀请参加下星期五在我们俱乐部举办的晚会。

2.动词ing形式作定语 (1)动词ing形式的主动式(doing)作定语与所修饰的名词之间 存在逻辑上的主谓关系,表示该动作的主动和进行。 Recently a survey comparing prices of the same goods in two

different supermarkets has caused heated debate among
citizens.(2011· 江苏高考) 近来一次把两个不同商场同类商品价格做一比较的调查引

发了市民的激烈讨论。
(2)动词ing形式的一般被动式(being done)作定语与所修饰 名词之间存在逻辑上的被动关系,表示该动作的主动和进行。

The houses being built are for the teachers.

正在建的那些房子是给老师们的。
(3)动词ing形式作定语相当于一个定语从句,强调经 常性状态或动作的进行。单个词要前置,短语要后置。 John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter offering him it.(=定语从句John ... the official

letter which/that offers him it.)(2012· 江西高考)
约翰的确得到了这份工作,因为他给我看了提供他工 作的正式信函。

3.动词ed形式作定语 动词ed形式(短语)作定语与它所修饰的名词在逻辑上

存在被动关系,并表示该动作的被动或完成。
Tsinghua University, founded in 1911, is home to a

great number of outstanding figures.(2011· 福建高考)
建于1911年的清华大学是无数杰出人物的摇篮。

1.(2012· 重庆高考)We're having a meeting in half an hour. The decision_____________ at the meeting will influence

the future of our company.
A.to be made C.made B.being made D.having been made

解析:考查非谓语动词。根据前面的“We're having a
meeting in half an hour.”可知会议还没开始,the decision 后面的定语应用动词不定式,表示将要发生的动作,排

除B、C、D项。故选A项。
答案:A

2.(2012· 湖南高考)The lecture,_____________ at 7:00 pm last night, was followed by an observation of the moon with telescopes. A.starting C.to start B.being started D.to be started

解析:考查非谓语动词。根据句中的“last night”及

“was followed”可知,start这个动作已经发生,所以不
能用不定式形式,又因lecture与start之间是逻辑上的主 谓关系,故应用starting。 答案:A

非谓语动词作宾补 1.动词ing形式作宾语补足语 动词ing形式作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语往往就是其逻

辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在主谓关系。动词ing形式作宾
语补足语强调正在进行中的主动动作。可以带有这种复合宾语 的动词有see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep等。 Listen! Do you hear someone calling for help?(2010· 湖南 高考)

听!你听到有人正在呼救吗?

2.动词ed形式作宾语补足语
动词ed形式作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语往往就是其逻 辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在动宾关系。 Michael put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself reminded of his own dreams.(2011· 重庆高考)

迈克尔把姚明的画像挂在床边,目的是提醒自己记住自己
的梦想。 Lucy has a great sense of humour and always keeps her

colleagues amused with her stories.(2010· 上海高考)
露西很有幽默感,总是讲故事让她的同事消遣。

3.have, get表示“使、让、叫”,后接三种形式作宾补 (1)have/get sth. done使/让某事由别人去做

Claire had her luggage checked an hour before her plane
left.(2011· 陕西高考) 在飞机起飞前一个小时Claire对行李进行了安检。 Alexander tried to get his work recognized in the medical circles.

Alexander试图使他的工作被医学界认可。

? ?have sb./sth. doing (2)? ? ?get sb./sth. doing

使/让某人/物一直做某事 使某人/物开始行动起来

He had us laughing all through the meal. 整顿饭下来他让我们笑个不停。 [点津] have sb. doing用于否定句时,其中have有“容忍”之意。 I won't have you speaking to your dad like that. 我不允许你和你父亲那样讲话。
? ?have sb. do sth. (3)? ?get sb. to do sth. ?

使/让/叫某人去做某事

Mother had me go to the shop and buy some salt. 妈妈让我去商店买些食盐。

[点津]

have sth. to do表示“有事情要做”,此结构中,

不定式是作定语。 I'm sorry, I can't go out with you. I have an urgent thing to settle. 对不起,我不能与你一起外出,我有一件紧急的事情要 处理。

1.(2012· 四川高考)I looked up and noticed a snake _____________ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A.to wind C.winding B.wind D.wound

解析:考查现在分词作宾语补足语。句意:我抬头看,
注意到一条蛇正沿树蜿蜒而上,捕捉它的早餐。此处用 现在分词表示正在进行的动作。

答案:C

2.(2012· 四川高考)Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car_____________ . A.washed B.wash

C.washing

D.to wash

解析:考查过去分词的用法。句意:开车进城前,你需 要叫人洗车。get sth. done表示“请/让/叫别人(为自己)做 某事”,过去分词作宾语的补足语。 答案:A

非谓语动词作主语和宾语 1.动词ing形式作主语 动词ing形式作主语表示抽象的、泛指的动作,尤其是一 般行为倾向。当动词ing形式作主语时常用it作形式主语,动 词ing后置。常用于以下结构:It's no use/no good/useless doing sth.。 It's not easy to learn English well. Reading as much as possible is necessary. 学好英语不容易。广泛阅读是有必要的。 It is no good learning without practice. 学而不用无益。

2.动词不定式作主语

不定式在句中作主语,相当于名词或代词的作用,往往用
形式主语it代替。 It's important for the figures to be updated regularly. (2011· 北京高考) 对数字进行定期更新很重要。

3.动词ing形式作宾语

(1)常接动词ing作宾语的动词(短语)
advise (建议), admit (承认), appreciate (感激), avoid (避免), can't help (禁不住), consider (考虑), delay (推迟), enjoy (欣赏), escape (逃脱), finish (完成), imagine (想象), keep (on) (继续), mind (介意), practise (练习), suggest (建议), miss (错过), feel

like (意欲), devote ...to (把??献给), get used to (习惯于), look
forward to (期望), object to (反对), set about (开始), put off (推

迟)等。

Bill suggested holding a meeting on what to do for the
Shanghai Expo during the vacation. 比尔建议开一个关于假期期间为上海世博会做些什么的会 议。 (2)可用动词ing,也可用不定式作宾语,但意义区别明显

的动词。
mean
? ?to do sth. ? ? ?doing sth.

打算做某事 意味着做某事 忘记去做某事?未做? 忘记做过某事?已做?

? ?to do sth. forget? ? ?doing sth.

? ?to do sth. regret? ? ?doing sth. ? ?to do sth. try? ? ?doing sth.

对即将做的事表示遗憾?未做? 对做过的事表示后悔?已做?

尽力去做某事 试着做某事 继续做另一件事 继续做原来做的事 记着去做某事?未做? 记着做了某事?已做?

go

? ?to do sth. on? ? ?doing sth.

? ?to do sth. remember? ? ?doing sth.

I still remember being taken to the Famen Temple and what I saw there.(2009· 陕西高考) 我仍记得别人带我去过法门寺,并记得在那里所看到的一切。

(3)动词want, need, require意为“需要”时,后面跟动词ing主动式
或动词不定式的被动式作宾语区别不大。 The flowers need/want/require watering/to be watered. 这些花需要浇水。 4.动词不定式作宾语 (1)afford, agree, ask, decide, desire, expect, fail, hope, manage, promise, pretend, plan, intend, refuse, wish等动词后要接不定式作宾语。 We agreed to meet here but so far she hasn't turned up yet. 我们说好在这儿会面的,但她到现在还没露面呢。 (2)come, get, grow后接不定式作宾语时,意为“逐渐地??”。

She has a hot temper, but you will grow to like her.
她脾气很急,但你会渐渐喜欢她的。

1.(2012· 安徽高考)I remembered_____________ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights.

A.locking
C.having locked

B.to lock
D.to have locked

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:我离开办公室之前记得 关门却忘记关灯了。remember to do表示“记得要做”, 与后半句中的“forgot to ...”相对应。 答案:B

2.(2013· 东营一模)This sentence is very difficult _____________.Nobody can translate it into Chinese

without certain professional knowledge.
A.translating C.translated B.to be translated D.to translate

解析:考查非谓语动词。在句型“主语+be+adj.+to do”
中,如果这个主语是动词do的逻辑宾语,要用主动表示 被动,故选D。 答案:D

3.(2011· 上海高考)It's no use_____________ without taking
any action. A.complain C.being complained B.complaining D.to be complained

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:不采取行动而只是抱怨

是没有用的。It's no use doing ...是固定句式,所以B为
正确答案。

答案:B

[课后演练提升]

Ⅰ.语法与单选
1.(2013· 南京高三第一次模拟)The flood last month in the east was a real disaster,_____________ 19 people dead

and 78 missing.
A.to leave C.leaving B.left D.having left

解析:分析句子结构可知,the flood与leave之间是逻辑
上的主谓关系,故用leave的现在分词形式。“_______ 19 people dead and 78 missing”在句中作结果状语。

答案:C

2.(2013· 河南洛阳高三统考)I'm surprised_____________

that Sue and Paul have broken up, for they seemed very
happy together when I last saw them. A.to hear C.to be heard B.hearing D.being heard

解析:考查不定式作原因状语的用法。动词不定式表示

原因时往往跟在表示高兴、愉快、生气、惊讶、荣耀等
情绪的形容词之后。 答案:A

3.(2013· 陕西咸阳高三模拟)In order not to be disturbed, I spent three days_____________ up in my study. A.locking C.to lock B.to be locked D.locked

解析:本题易误选A,以为是考查spend ...(in) doing结构。 其实,不是“锁书房”花了三天,而是“将自己锁在书

房里度过了三天”,故用过去分词短语作伴随状语。逗
号后面的句子可还原为:locked up in my study, I spent three days。

答案:D

4.(2013· 河南十所名校高中毕业班阶段性测试)This is

probably the only way we can imagine_____________ the
current economic problems in Europe. A.solving B.to solve

C.solved

D.solve

解析:句意:这可能是我们能想到的唯一能解决欧洲目 前经济问题的办法。分析句子结构可知,“the only way” 是“_____________ the current economic problems in Europe”的逻辑主语,故空处用solve的不定式形式,在句 中作后置定语。

答案:B

5.(2013· 四川六校高三联考)Not_____________ with the
quality of your goods, I will certainly not advise others to buy them. A.to impress C.having impressed B.impressing D.impressed

解析:句意:对你们产品的质量印象不佳,我当然不会
建议其他人购买。impress sb. with sth.表示“某物给某人 留下深刻印象”,I与impress之间是逻辑上的动宾关系, 故用过去分词短语作状语。 答案:D

6.(2012· 西安二检)I'm leaving for Beijing. Do you have anything_____________ to your daughter? A.to take C.to be taken B.taken D.taking

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:我要去北京,你有什么要带

给你女儿的吗?分析句子结构可知,这里是后置定语修饰不
定代词anything,动词take和anything之间是逻辑上的动宾 关系,因此要么用过去分词,要么用动词不定式的被动式,

过去分词作定语表示已完成的动作,动词不定式作定语则表
示将要发生的动作,根据句意可知C项正确。

答案:C

7.(2013· 湖南十二校一次联考)Our evidence shows that_____________ time outdoors is good for kids' eyes.

A.spend
C.spending

B.to be spent
D.spent

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:我们的证据表明在户外 待一段时间对孩子的眼睛有益。that引导的是宾语从句, 从句缺少主语,应用动名词短语作主语,故C项正确。 答案:C

8.(2013· 长沙名校模考)With the incomes_____________ continuously, some people now can afford expensive

clothing of the latest fashion.
A.to rise C.rising B.risen D.being risen

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:随着收入的持续增长, 一些人现在能买得起昂贵的最时尚的衣服。分析句子结 构可知,the incomes与rise之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,所 以用rise的现在分词形式。

答案:C

9.(2013· 莱芜一模)They reached the airport out of breath, only_____________ that the plane was put off because of bad weather. A.telling C.to tell B.to be told D.to have told

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:他们上气不接下气地赶 到机场,结果却被告知因为天气恶劣飞机被推迟了。此 处only后接不定式表示意想不到的结果。又因tell与主语 they之间为动宾关系,故选B。 答案:B

10.(2013· 北京东城区高三期末教学检测)_____________ how

to hold the party for several days, the children finally
reached an agreement. A.Having discussed C.Discussed B.Discussing D.To discuss

解析:句意:经过几天的讨论,孩子们最终对如何举办聚

会达成了一致意见。the children与discuss之间是主谓关系,
故应用现在分词作状语;discuss这个动作发生在reached an agreement之前,表示过去的过去,因此选A。

答案:A

11.(2013· 西安质检)The Lantern Festival, first_____________

during the Han Dynasty, has a history of more than 2,000
years. A.celebrating C.celebrated B.to celebrate D.having celebrated

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:元宵节最初庆祝是在汉朝,

已有两千多年的历史。celebrate与The Lantern Festival之
间是逻辑上的动宾关系,first celebrated during the Han

Dynasty是过去分词短语作后置定语。 答案:C

12.(2012· 南京三模)Of all the feelings, bodily pain is the most

difficult_____________.
A.explained C.being explained B.to explain D.to be explained

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:在所有的感觉中,身体上 的疼痛是最难解释的。在“主语+be+adj.+不定式”中,

不定式作状语,且常用主动形式表示被动意义。故B项正
确。 答案:B

13.(2013· 金华十校模考)The school library provides a variety of books,_____________ they will meet the needs of different students.

A.to hope
C.hoped

B.hope
D.hoping

解析:选考查非谓语动词。句意:学校图书馆提供各类

图书,希望能够满足不同学生的需求。句子的主语the
school library和hope之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,所以应 该用现在分词作伴随状语。

答案:D

14.(2012· 西安名校三检)Out of necessity or out of interest, people go back to school for the common goal_____________ themselves.

A.improving
C.having improved

B.to improve
D.improved

解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:出于需要或者出于兴趣,

人们为了提高自己这共同的目标重返学校。根据句意可
知此处应选择动词不定式作定语,修饰the common goal, 故选B项。

答案:B

15.(2013· 山东潍坊三县市上学期联考)_____________ a lift on

her way, Jenny finally managed to get to the station in time.
A.Offered C.Offering B.Offer D.To offer

解析:句意:珍妮在路上搭乘了便车,最后设法及时赶到 了车站。Jenny与offer之间是动宾关系,所以用过去分词 短语作状语。

答案:A

20.(2013· 安徽合肥二次质检)I'd rather read than watch TV.

The programs seem_____________ all the time.
A.to get worse C.getting worse B.to be getting worse D.to have got worse

解析:句意:我宁可读书也不愿意看电视,电视节目似乎 变得越来越差了。首先,seem to do为固定搭配;其次,

根据all the time可知用to be doing表示“正在进行”。
答案:B

Ⅱ.语法与阅读 用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 安徽高考阅读A)For example, there are Chinese shoes made of silk that were worn by women to tie their feet firmly to prevent them from growing too much! [结构分析] 本句中主句为there are Chinese shoes,后面 有多个修饰成分:过去分词短语made of silk和定语从句 that were worn by women作定语,修饰shoes,不定式to tie their feet firmly作定语从句的目的状语,而不定式to prevent them from growing too much又作动词tie的目的状语。 [尝试翻译] 一些社会学家建议西方人利用中国古代的智 ______________________________________ 慧去弥补西方哲学的不足。 _______________________

2.(2012· 湖北高考阅读D)Laterborns don't enjoy that much talking time with parents, but instead they harvest lessons from bigger brothers and sisters, learning entire phrases and getting an understanding of social concepts such as the difference between “I” and “me”. [结构分析] 本句中but连接并列分句,后一分句中的 learning entire phrases and getting an understanding of social concepts ...是由and连接的两个并列的现在分词短语 作状语,与they存在主谓关系。 后出生的孩子与父母谈话的时间少了,但是 [尝试翻译] _______________________________________ 他们从哥哥姐姐身上学到完整的短语并且能理解其社会概念, _________________________________________________ 比如“I”与“me”的区别。 ______________________________________________

3.(2012· 江苏高考阅读C)One solution to this problem is to put the drugs inside a capsule, protecting them from the body — and the body from them — until they can be released at just the right spot. [结构分析] 本句中to put the drugs inside a capsule为不定 式作表语;protecting them from the body是现在分词短语 作状语,and the body from them是省略形式,补充完整应 该为and protecting the body from them,省略了与前面重 复的现在分词protecting。 解决这一问题的方法是把药品放在胶囊里, [尝试翻译] _______________________________________ 保护药品不接触身体 ——也保护身体不接触药品——直到药 ___________________________________________________ 品在身体里的恰当位置释放。 _________________________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作 按要求完成下列写作佳句(使用非谓语动词将下列复合句转换为简单 句) 1.We should be kind to one another so that we can enjoy a harmonious life. We should be kind to one another to enjoy a harmonious life. →_____________________________________________________ 2.When Ms. Li entered the classroom, she was surprised to find a frog on the teachers' desk. Entering the classroom, Ms. Li was surprised to find a frog →_____________________________________________________ on the teachers' desk. __________________________ 3.The lecture which was given by Li Yang is inspiring to the students. The lecture given by Li Yang is inspiring to the students. →_____________________________________________________

[课前体验领悟] 用适当的关系词填空 where 1.Rock climbing is a breathtaking activity, _______ cooperation as well as courage plays an important role. 2.Sam remembered several occasions in the past when he had experienced a similar feeling.

3.Their daughter came back safe and sound, which made
the couple sigh in relief.

4.The course normally attracts 20,000 students per year, of
whom up to half are from abroad. 5.(2013· 河南洛阳高三统考)If you come across a word whose _____ meaning you have forgotten, please look it up in the dictionary.

[课堂考前讲练]
关系代词引导的定语从句

1.who, whom, that这些词代替的先行词是表示人的名词或

代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,其中whom只能作宾语。
Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, who, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society.(2012· 浙江高考) 埃伦是一个画鸟类和自然的画家,出于某种原因,他已退 出了所有的社会活动。

2.which, that所代替的先行词是表示事物的名词或代词,

在从句中可作主语、宾语等。
You'll find taxis waiting at the bus station which you can hire to reach your host family.(2011· 上海高考) 在公共汽车站你会发现有出租车在那里等,你可以租(一辆) 去主人家里。

The old town has narrow streets and small houses that are
built close to each other.(2011· 山东高考)

这座古老的城镇街道狭窄,小房子挨得很近。

3.whose用来指人或物,在定语从句中只作定语。 Children who are not active or whose diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly.(2010· 北京高考)

很少进行体育锻炼或饮食富含脂肪的孩子体重会增加很快。
The school shop, whose customers are mainly students, is closed for the holidays.(2011· 四川高考) 这家校内商店放假时关门,它的顾客主要是学生。

1.(2012· 江苏高考)After the flooding, people were suffering in that area,_____________ urgently needed clean water,

medicine and shelter to survive.
A.which C.where B.who D.what

解析:考查定语从句。分析句子成分可知,
“_____________ urgently needed clean water, medicine and shelter to survive”是定语从句,修饰先行词people,

从句中缺少主语,故用关系代词who。
答案:B

2.(2012· 陕西高考)It is the third time that she has won the race,_____________ has surprised us all. A.that B.where

C.which

D.what

解析:考查定语从句。句意:她第三次赢得比赛,这让 我们很吃惊。此处which引导非限制性定语从句,指代前 面的内容。

答案:C

3.(2011· 新课标全国卷)The prize will go to the writer _____________ story shows the most imagination. A.that C.whose B.which D.what

解析:考查定语从句。 先行词the writer 与定语从句的
主语story之间为所属关系, 因此用关系代词whose 引导 定语从句。

答案:C

关系副词引导的定语从句
1.关系副词when, where, why的先行词是表示时间、地点或理 由的名词,在从句中作状语。

The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre
with her sister where she would stay for an hour.(2010· 江西高考) 小女孩准备在培训中心与她的妹妹一起上钢琴课,在那里她

可以呆一小时。
The reason why I don't trust him is that he often tells lies. 我不信任他的原因是他常常撒谎。

[点津] (1)当先行词为一些表示抽象地点的名词,如: point, situation, case, stage等,如果引导词在从句中作状语, 常用关系副词where引导定语从句;如果不作状语,则用关系 代词that/which。 He has reached a point where he don't work for money.

他已经到了不用为钱而工作的境界。
(2)先行词为occasions,当“时机”讲时,用关系副词 when;当“场合”讲时,用关系副词where。

Occasions are quite rare when I have the time to spend a
day with my kids. 我有时间陪我的孩子们一天的机会很少。

2.the way后面的定语从句的关系词。

在定语从句中,the way是一个比较特殊的先行词,当它在
从句中充当方式状语时,其后的关系词可以是in which, that或省 略;但是当它在从句中充当主语、宾语等成分时,其后的关系

词就用that或which。
The way (that/which) I thought of to solve this problem proves to be practical. 我想到的解决这个问题的方法证明是可行的。(先行词作宾 语) I don't like the way (that/in which) you solve the problem. 我不喜欢你解决问题的方法。(先行词作方式状语)

1.(2012· 江西高考)By 16:30,_____________ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A.which C.what B.when D.that

解析:考查定语从句。句意:到下午四点半,差不多营
业时间结束的时候,几乎所有的画都已经卖光了。先行 词是16:30,并且在从句中充当主语,故用关系代词 which引导该非限制性定语从句。 答案:A

2.(2012· 浙江高考)We live in an age_____________ more information is available with greater ease than ever before. A.why B.when

C.to whom

D.on which

解析:句意:在我们生活的这个时代,有更多的信息可 以比以往任何时候都更加容易获得。该句为主从复合句, an age为先行词,空格处引导定语从句并在从句中作时间 状语,故用when。 答案:B

3.(2012· 重庆高考)Sales director is a position_____________ communication ability is just as important as sales. A.which B.that C.when D.where 解析:句意:导购员是一个沟通能力和销售能力同样重 要的职位。分析题干可知a position后是一个定语从句, 而该从句的引导词在从句中作地点状语,即in which = in the position = where,故选D。在定语从句中,当 position, point, case, stage, situation等表示抽象地点的名 词充当先行词时,若定语从句中缺少状语,则用where来 引导定语从句。 答案:D

“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从 句 1.“介词+关系代词”中的关系代词只有whom(指人), which(指物)和whose三个。 Julie was good at German, French and Russian, all of which she spoke fluently.(2011· 湖南高考) Julie擅长德语、法语和俄语,所有的(三门语言)她都说得很 流利。 2.“复合介词短语+关系代词”引导的定语从句常与先行 词用逗号分开,定语从句常用倒装语序。 He lived in a big house, in front of which stood a big tall tree. 他住在一个大房子里,房子前面有一棵大树。

3.of+which/whom表示所属关系。(表所属关系也可用

whose)
She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction of which had taken more than three years.(2011· 江西高考) 她带着游客参观这座博物馆——花了三年多才建成的建筑。 [点津] 该考点考查的重点在于“用不用介词”和“用什么

介词”。因此在答题时我们必须注意解题思路。可采用“先行词
还原法”将先行词还原到从句中来确定正确的介词,具体做法是:

(1)把先行词放在从句中,从句子的意思来判断用不用介词和

用什么介词。
He was the man from whose room the thief had stolen the bag. 他就是被小偷从其房间偷走包的那个人。(从他的房间里应用 上介词from) (2)注意从句中动词、形容词、名词与介词的固定搭配。

In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she
could turn for help. 在漆黑的大街上没有一个人能为她提供帮助。(to与从句谓语 动词构成搭配turn to“求助于”)

1.(2012· 四川高考)In our class there are 46 students, _____________ half wear glasses. A.in whom C.of whom B.in them D.of them

解析:考查定语从句。句意:我们班上有46位同学,一
半戴眼镜。of whom half相当于half of whom, of表示所属 关系。

答案:C

2.(2012· 山东高考)Maria has written two novels, both

of_____________ have been made into television series.
A.them C.which B.that D.what

解析:考查定语从句。句意:Maria写了两部小说,这两 部小说都被拍成了电视剧。逗号后面为非限制性定语从

句,此处介词of后只能用关系代词which来引导该定语从
句。 答案:C

3. (2012· 天津高考)I wish to thank Professor Smith, without _____________ help I would never have got this far. A.who B.whose

C.whom

D.which

解析:考查非限制性定语从句。句意:我想感谢史密斯教 授,没有他的帮助我不会取得这样的成绩。从句中的help 是名词,与Professor Smith是所属关系,故用whose。

答案:B

as和which引导的定语从句
1.as引导的限制性定语从句 用在the same ... as, such ... as, as ... as, so ... as结构中,as可以

作主语、宾语或表语,可以用来代替先行词是表示人或物的名词。
They could only read such stories as had been rewritten in simple English. 他们只能读类似这样的一些简易英语改写的故事。(as作主语) These houses are sold at such a low price as people expected. 这些房子以人们期望的低价出售。(as作宾语)

2.关系代词as, which引导非限制性定语从句的区别 (1)as引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又可在主句 后,有时还可插入主句中,而which引导的非限制性定语从句只 能置于主句之后。 After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling, which turned out to be a wise decision.(2010· 四川高考) 大学毕业后我抽出一部分时间去旅游,事实证明这是一个明 智的选择。 (2)当非限制性定语从句放在主句前面时,只能用as。注意此 时与名词性从句的互换。 As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. = It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month.(名词性从句)

= What is known to everybody is that the moon travels round the earth once every month.(名词性从句)

众所周知,月球每月绕地球转一圈。
(3)as意为“正如??”,后面的谓语动词多是see, know, expect, say, mention, report, announce等;which意为“这一点”。 The air quality in the city, as is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months.(2012· 福建高考)

正如报告中所表明的,城市空气质量在过去两个月里已经
得到改善。

1.(2013· 青岛二中一模)The employment of college students,

_____________is clearly shown in the study, has improved
over the past two years. A.this B.it C.as D.what

解析:考查非限制性定语从句。句意:正如研究中所清楚 显示的,大学生的就业情况在过去的两年里已有所改善。

as引导非限制性定语从句时,它的位置十分灵活,可置于
句首、句中或句末,指代其前后主句提到的事实或情况。 答案:C

2.(2012· 北京高考)When deeply absorbed in work, _____________ he often was, he would forget all about

eating or sleeping.
A.that C.where B.which D.when

解析:考查定语从句。句意:他经常全神贯注地工作,
每当这个时候,他就会完全忘记吃饭或睡觉。which he often was是由which引导的非限制性定语从句,which在

从句中作was的表语。
答案:B

[课后演练提升]
Ⅰ.语法与单选 1.(2013· 南昌一模)At that moment, I was just standing by the window in my room,_____________ I could see what was occurring on the street. A.from which C.from that B.from whose D.from where

解析:考查定语从句。句意:那时,我恰好站在我的房

间的窗边,从那里可以看到大街上正在发生的事。定语
从句中的地点指by the window,而不是the window,因 此是“从窗户处”而不是“在窗户”,故选from where。 答案:D

2.(2013· 福建泉州质检)The film Jane Eyre,_____________

Jane was a strong character, was adapted from the novel
of the same title. A.where C.who B.which D.as

解析:考查定语从句。句意:《简· 爱》这部电影改编自 它的同名小说。在这部电影中,简是一个坚强的人物。 此处用where引导定语从句,修饰先行词the film Jane

Eyre。
答案:A

3.(2013· 太原模拟)—We select this country and want to
work here. —So we have to deal with any situation_____________we meet in a practical manner. A.whom C.where B.that D.if

解析:考查定语从句。句意:“我们选择这个国家并且 想在这里工作。”“所以我们必须用实际的方式应对出 现的任何情况。”that引导定语从句,先行词为situation, that在从句中作动词meet的宾语。

答案:B

4.(2013· 西安第一次质检)There was a tree in front of the

house,_____________ owner was seen sitting under it,
enjoying the shade. A.where C.which B.whose D.that

解析: “_____________ owner was seen sitting under it” 是非限制性定语从句,whose在从句中作定语。 答案:B

5.(2013· 成都部分高中高三教学质量检测)The city was attacked
by_____________ terrible weather_____________ few citizens had ever experienced before. A.so; as C.such; that B.so; that D.such; as

解析:考查定语从句。第一个空,修饰不可数名词用such;
第二个空,experienced后缺少宾语,所以用as引导定语从句, 并在从句中作宾语。注意在such ... that ...结构中,that引导结 果状语从句,that在从句中不充当任何成分。

答案:D

6.(2013· 重庆部分学校高三联考)The old lady, all of _____________ children had been killed in the earthquake, was given help by the local government. A.her C.whose B.whom D.which

解析:考查非限制性定语从句的引导词。句意:那位所有的
孩子都在地震中丧生的老太太得到了当地政府的帮助。本句 中的“all of_____________ children had been killed in the

earthquake”是非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词the old lady,
whose在从句中作定语。

答案:C

7.(2013·“江南十校”联考)There are a lot of stories about

Yao Ming, a super basketball star,_____________ this is
an example. A.for whom C.of whom B.for which D.of which

解析:考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,

“_____________ this is an example”是定语从句,修饰
“stories”,故排除A、C两项,又因此处表示许多故事中 的一个,故用of which。 答案:D

8.(2012· 温州二测)Our psychology teacher seems unable to explain everything in a way_____________ makes sense to us. A.in which B.of which

C./

D.that

解析:考查定语从句。句意:我们的心理学老师似乎不 能用易于理解的方法解释所有事情。that引导定语从句修 饰先行词a way, that在从句中作主语。 答案:D

9.(2013· 南通一调)I adore my English teacher because he can always create an atmosphere_____________ all the students feel respected and cared for. A.that C.where B.when D.which

解析:考查定语从句。句意:我崇拜我的英语老师,因 为他总能创造出一种所有学生都能感到受尊敬和关爱的 氛围。分析句子结构可知,“_____________ all the students feel respected and cared for”是定语从句,修饰

atmosphere,定语从句中缺少地点状语,故用where。
答案:C

10.(2013· 黑龙江质检) You can only be sure of_____________ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something_____________ you might get in the future. A.that; what B.what; / C.which; that D./; that 解析:考查宾语从句和定语从句。很明显,第一个空前没 有名词或代词,这是介词后的宾语从句,宾语从句中缺少 have的宾语,指物,用what。第二个空前有不定代词 something,我们把它代入从句中,可以作get的宾语,说 明是定语从句,用关系代词that, that在定语从句中作宾语 可以省略。 答案:B

11.(2013· 宝鸡模拟)The reason_____________ he was late was_____________ he had to send his grandma to a hospital. A.that; why B.why; because C.why; that D.that; because 解析:考查定语从句。句意:他迟到的原因是不得不送奶 奶去医院。the reason 为先行词,定语从句中缺少状语, 故用why。the reason ...is/was that ...为固定句式,意为 “理由是??”。 答案:C

12.(2013· 天津和平区一模)I'm very grateful to my high school teachers, without_____________ help I wouldn't be so excellent.

A.whom
C.whose

B.their
D.which

解析:句意:我很感激我的中学老师,没有他们的帮助我

就不会这么优秀。whose引导定语从句,带入定语从句后
为:without my teachers' help I ...。without前若有and则 选B,即and without their help I ...。

答案:C

13.(2013· 会宁模拟)Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of

interest_____________ everyone likes to visit.
A.that C.which B.as D.what

解析:考查定语从句。句意:武夷山是一个大家都喜欢参 观的吸引人的名胜。such ...as“像??那样”,引导定语

从句;such ...that ...“如此??以至于”,引导结果状语从
句。

答案:B

14.(2013· 兰州模拟)The boss_____________ department Mr. Li

worked ten years ago looks down upon women.
A.in which C.in whose B.in that D.whose

解析:考查定语从句。句意:十年前李先生工作的部门老 板看不起女性。whose在定语从句中作定语,修饰

department,其先行词为the boss。in ...department“在??
部门”。

答案:C

15.(2013· 唐山模拟)Recently my father bought an ancient

Chinese vase,_____________ was very reasonable.
A.which price C.its price B.the price of which D.the price of whose

解析:考查定语从句。句意:最近我父亲买了一个古代的 花瓶,这个花瓶的价格很合理。which在定语从句中作介

词of的宾语,其先行词为vase。the price of which也可以
用whose price代替。

答案:B

Ⅱ.语法与阅读 用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ阅读A)Animals that don't have clean and unfrozen water may drink dirty water outside, which may contain something unhealthy for them.

[结构分析]

本句是一个复合句。主句是Animals may

drink dirty water outside, that引导的定语从句修饰先行词 animals;which引导非限制性定语从句修饰先行词water。

[尝试翻译] 没有干净的、不冻的水喝的动物可能会饮用外 ________________________________________ 面的脏水,而这些水可能含有不健康的物质。 ________________________________________

2.(2012· 安徽高考阅读D)In Asia, there are special competitions where kites have complex designs and are fitted with instruments that make musical sounds as the wind blows through them. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。主句是there are special competitions,where引导的定语从句修饰competitions;在 where引导的定语从句中又包含一个由that引导的定语从句, 修饰先行词instruments,而as the wind blows through them是时间状语从句。 在亚洲有一些特别的比赛,在这些比赛中,风 [尝试翻译] _______________________________________ 筝的设计复杂,它们是和当风吹过风筝就能发出音乐声的仪 ___________________________________________________ 器连在一起的。 ______________

3.(2012· 广东高考阅读B)The research finds out that babies
who are fed on demand do better at school at age 5, 7, 11 and 14, than babies fed according to the clock. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。that在句中引导宾语从句,

从句中定语从句who are fed on demand修饰先行词babies。 fed according to the clock为过去分词短语作定语,修饰 babies。
研究发现,按需求喂养的孩子在5,7,11 和14岁 [尝试翻译] _______________________________________ 时比按照时间表喂养的孩子在学校表现得要好一些。 __________________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作 按要求完成下列写作佳句(用定语从句翻译句子)
1.医生建议我多吃富含维生素C的食物,这有助于感冒的恢复。
The doctor advised me to eat more food that is rich in vitamin C, ______________________________________________________ which is of great help for me to recover from the bad cold. ____________________________________________________

2.在我们学校,英语角非常受那些想提高英语口语的学生们的欢 迎。 In our school, English Corner is popular with the students ______________________________________________________ who want to improve their spoken English. ______________________________________

3.我经常参加英语角,在那里我不仅可以提高我的口语而且 还可以了解一些西方风俗。 I often participate in English Corner, where I can not only ___________________________________________________ improve my oral English but also learn some customs in ___________________________________________________ western countries. __________________________

[课前体验领悟] 用适当的连接词填空 1.(2013· 江西抚州市适应性测试) That you didn't know the rules won't be an excuse for your failure to report. 2.—You know I gave up the job as a waiter and went to that little company.

—That's where you've made a mistake. That company
isn't well managed.

3.The question was put forward at the meeting whether we
had enough money for our research. 4.Evidence has been piled up that drinking water after getting up in the morning contributes to one's health. 5.Mr. Li, our teacher of English, talked with me face to face, which made me recognize what silly mistakes I had made.

[课堂考前讲练]
主语从句

主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,常用it作形式主语。

引导主语从句的词有:that, whether, who, what, which,
whoever, whatever, whichever, when, where, why, how等。 It doesn't matter whether you turn right or left at the crossing — both roads lead to the park.(2012· 天津高考) 在十字路口无论你向左转还是向右转都没关系,两条路都 通向公园。

What was most important to her, she told me, was her family.(主语从句,what作主语) 她告诉我,对她来说最重要的是她的家庭。 —What made her so upset?

—That she failed in her midterm examination.(主语从句,
that不充当成分) ——什么使她那么伤心? ——她期中考试失败(使她那么伤心)。

1.(2013· 枣庄一模)_____________the new underground is available has not been made clear yet.

A.What
C.When

B.How
D.That

解析:考查主语从句。分析句子结构可知, “_____________the new underground is available”是主 语从句,且空处在主语从句中作时间状语,故选C。 答案:C

2.(2013· 日照模拟)_____________we will be successful

partly depends on our attitudes towards the matter.
A.Whether C.What B.If D.That

解析:考查主语从句。句意:我们能否成功一定程度上 取决于我们对待这件事情的态度。根据句意可知,空处

表示“是否”,whether和if都有“是否”的意思,但是if
引导主语从句时不能放在句首,故选A。 答案:A

3.(2012· 安徽高考)The limits of a person's intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but_____________ he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A.where B.whether C.that D.why 解析:考查主语从句的引导词。句意:一个人的智力极 限,通常来说,出生时就已经定型了,但他是否能够达 到这些极限则取决于他的生活环境。根据“depend on” 可知,主语从句“_____________ he reaches these limits” 中含有不确定因素,故用whether,选B。

答案:B

宾语从句 1.由关联词that引导的宾语从句。 由关联词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成 分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如果从句是并列

句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。
He said (that) he liked rain very much and that he wouldn't use an umbrella when it was raining. 他说他非常喜欢下雨,下雨天他都不愿打伞。

2.由who, whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句,应注意句子语序要用 陈述语序。 I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样把工作做好。 3.在宾语从句中,引导词whether和if基本一样,但介词后的宾 语从句多用whether。 In recent years, there has been a heated argument about whether it is necessary for children to learn English from an early age.(2012· 南京金陵中学模拟) 近几年来,关于儿童是否应该从早年学英语有激烈的争论。

4.that, what引导宾语从句的区别。 在宾语从句中,that没有词义,在从句中不作任何成分。当从 句意义完整,不缺任何成分时,往往选用that;而what引导宾语从 句时,意为“什么”(有时候可以不译),在从句中用来作主语或宾 语。 The message you intend to convey through words may be the exact opposite of what others actually understand.(what在从句中作 宾语)(2011· 上海高考) 你想用语言所传达的信息可能与他人所理解的恰恰相反。 Galileo found that no matter how many times he tried the experiment, the result remained the same.(that不充当成分)(2012· 宝 鸡二检) 伽利略发现,不管他进行多少次试验,结果都一样。

5.有些动词或动词短语,如like, hate, appreciate, hide, depend on, see to等, 一般不直接跟宾语从句,需要在从句前加 上it。 He took it that we were to stay here for the night. 他以为我们要在这里过夜。 I don't like it when you look at me like that!

我不喜欢你那样看我。

1.(2012· 北京高考)Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt_____________ he could have expressed it differently. A.why C.that B.how D.whether

解析: 考查宾语从句。句意:Jerry不后悔给出评论,但 是觉得自己本来可以用不同的方式来表达。that he could

have expressed it differently是由that引导的宾语从句,作
felt的宾语。that在从句中不作成分。

答案:C

2.(2012· 四川高考)Scientists study_____________ human

brains work to make computers.
A.when C.that B.how D.whether

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:科学家研究人类的大脑 是如何运作的以制作电脑。分析句子结构可知study后接

宾语从句,从句中缺少方式状语,故选B项。 答案:B

3.(2011· 山东高考)We've offered her the job, but I don't know_____________she'll accept it. A.where C.whether B.what D.which

解析:考查宾语从句。句意:我们已经给她提供了一份 工作,但是不知道她是否接受,故选whether,意为“是

否”。
答案:C

4.(2012· 北京西城区高三期末)After_____________ seemed
an endless wait, it was her turn to enter the personnel manager's office. A.that C.what B.how D.why

解析:考查宾语从句。此处after用作介词,
“_____________ seemed an endless wait”为宾语从句, 因从句中缺少主语,所以用what。注意that引导宾语从 句时,在从句中不充当任何成分。故选C。 答案:C

同位语从句 1.同位语从句常放在fact, news, doubt, problem, promise,

idea等名词后面,常用的引导词有that, who, whether, why,
where, when等。 I made a promise to myself that this year, my first year in high school, would be different.(2012· 浙江高考) 我向自己保证:今年——我高中的第一年——将会是不同 寻常的一年。 I have no idea who will be in charge of the company when the manager is away. 我不知道经理不在时,谁会负责公司的业务。

2.that引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别。 同位语从句用于解释前面名词的内容,从句本身是一个非常完整 的句子,引导词that只起引导作用,不在句中作任何成分,一般不可省

略。定语从句对其前的名词即先行词加以限制和修饰,从句本身不够
完整,因此关系词在定语从句中通常作主语、宾语或表语等成分。 When the news came that the war broke out, he decided to serve in

the army. (that引导的是同位语从句,that不可省略)(2011· 辽宁高考)
当战争的消息传来时,他决定参军。 As a matter of fact, the news (that/which) he told me yesterday is

true. (that/which引导定语从句,也可以省略)
实际上,他昨天告诉我的消息是真的。

1.(2012· 重庆高考)Evidence has been found through years of

study_____________ children's early sleeping problems
are likely to continue when they grow up. A.why C.whether B.how D.that

解析:考查同位语从句。分析句子结构可知,空格后面

的部分是解释说明evidence的内容的,是evidence的同位
语从句,从句中不缺任何成分,故选连词that。 答案:D

2.(2012· 银川部分重点中学模拟)Up to now, I haven't got

any idea_____________ we should go on with the project.
A.that C.what B.whether D.which

解析:考查同位语从句。根据句中的“I haven't got any idea”可知说话人不知道“是否”应该继续这项工程,故

选B,引导同位语从句,解释说明idea的内容。A项只起
连接作用,没有任何意义,故排除。 答案:B

表语从句
引导表语从句的词有that, whether, who, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever, when, where, why, how, because等。 —I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That's where I don't agree. You should have a more active life.(2010· 江苏高考) ——在周日我喜欢把自己关在家里一整天听音乐。 ——那就是我不赞同的地方,你应该拥有更积极的生活。 As is known to us, China is no longer what she used to be. 众所周知,中国再也不是从前的中国了。 One reason for her preference for city life is that she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants.(表语从句)(2010· 上海高考) 她偏爱城市生活的一个原因就是她可以很容易地进出像商场和饭店 这样的地方。

1.(2013· 太原模拟)—Always lock your bicycle to a bicycle rack, even if you are only away for a minute. —That is_____________ I agree with you. A.what B.where C.that D.which 解析:考查表语从句。句意:“即使你只离开一会儿,你 都要把你的自行车锁到自行车架子上。”“那就是我和你 的意见一致的地方。”分析句子结构可知, “_____________ I agree with you”是表语从句,且空处在 从句中作地点状语,故用where。 答案:B

2.(2011· 陕西高考)I'd like to start my own business — that's _____________ I'd do if I had the money.

A.why
C.which

B.when
D.what

解析:考查表语从句。句意:我想自己做生意——那是我 如果有钱就会做的事情。从句中的do是及物动词,缺少宾 语,所以将A和B排除,这两个选项在从句中常常作状语。

which引导名词性从句时,意为“哪个,哪些”,一般用于
有一定范围可供选择的情况。不合逻辑,故用what。 答案:D

“疑问词+ever”引导的名词性从句
“疑问词+?ever”与“no matter+疑问词”的区别 “疑问词+?ever”与“no matter+疑问词”虽然都有“无论??”的意 思,但是用法有区别:“疑问词+?ever”既可以引导名词性从句也可引导状 语从句,而“no matter+疑问词”只能用来引导状语从句。 There are various things on sale, so you can choose whatever interests you.(2012· 宁夏六校联考) 有各种各样的物品在出售,所以你可以选择你感兴趣的任何东西。 Everybody likes to work with whoever is reliable and easy to get on with.(2012· 海滨第二学期期中练习) 每个人都喜欢和值得信任并且容易相处的人一起工作。 Whatever/No matter what you say, I will not believe you. 无论你说什么,我都不相信。

1.(2012· 福建高考)We promise_____________ attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. A.who C.whoever B.whom D.whomever

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:我们许诺,任何参加这个 聚会的人都会有与那个电影明星合影的机会。本句中 promise sb. sth.表示“答应某人某事”,whoever引导一个 宾语从句,作promise的间接宾语,且whoever在宾语从句 中作主语,故选C。

答案:C

2.(2012· 陕西高考)As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose_____________ suits you best.

A.whatever
C.whenever

B.whichever
D.wherever

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:提供了多达五门课程,你 可以选择最适合你的一门。在一定范围内选择某一个用 whichever。whichever引导宾语从句,并在从句中作主语。

答案:B

3.(2012· 辽宁高考)The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for_____________ he could find about Mark Twain. A.wherever C.whatever B.however D.whichever

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:这个新来的人前几天去了 图书馆,搜寻他能找到的关于马克· 吐温的资料。空处所填 词引导宾语从句,并且在从句中作find的宾语,指物,根据

句意可知选whatever。 答案:C

[课后演练提升] Ⅰ.语法与单选

1.(2013· 青岛一检)—Can we finish our task by the weekend?
—It all depends on_____________ we can get Mr. Smith's cooperation. A.that C.whether B.what D.if

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:“这个周末我们能完成 任务吗?”“这完全取决于我们能否得到Smith先生的合 作。”on是介词,后面接宾语从句,空处表示“是否”,

应用whether。 答案:C

2.(2013· 南通一调)Sometimes,_____________ we show our

gratitude for a person is reflected in the kind of food we
serve him or her. A.when B.whether

C.why

D.how

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:有时候,我们如何表达 对一个人的感激反映在我们为他或她所提供的食物种类 上。分析句子结构可知,“_____________ we show our gratitude for a person”是主语从句,且空处表示方式, 故用how。

答案:D

3.(2013· 湖南十二校二次联考)When it comes to online shopping, there's now an agreement_____________ it has gained popularity due to its convenience and excellent service.

A.that

B.why

C.which

D.how

解析:考查同位语从句。句意:谈到网购时,大家一致 认为由于其方便且服务好,它越来越流行了。空处引导 同位语从句,对抽象名词agreement进行解释说明,且从 句信息完整,不缺成分,故选that。

答案:A

4.(2013· 东营检测)_____________President Hu referred to

in the summit of BRICS, 2012 is of great importance on
how to solve the financial problem in the world. A.That B.Whatever

C.Whoever

D.What

解析:考查主语从句。句意:胡锦涛主席在2012年金砖 四国峰会上谈及的内容对于如何解决全球金融问题非常 重要。分析句子结构可知,“_____________President Hu referred to in the summit of BRICS, 2012”是主语从句, 且空处在从句中作referred to的宾语,故用what。

答案:D

5.(2013· 长沙模考)Today, our schools are_____________ we
send our children to get a practical education — not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. A.where C.from where B.what D.in which

解析:考查表语从句。句意:今天,我们的学校是我们送 孩子去接受实用教育的地方——而不是(让他们)为了知识而 追求知识的地方。分析句子结构可知,“_____________ we send our ... for the sake of knowledge”是表语从句,且从 句缺少地点状语,故用where。 答案:A

6.(2013· 福州质检)Some students even have no idea
of_____________ they are studying, so they waste much time playing. A.what C.why B.when D.where

解析:考查宾语从句。句意:有些学生甚至不知道他们为什 么学习,所以他们浪费了很多时间来玩。 根据句意可知,

应用why引导宾语从句,作介词of的宾语。
答案:C

7.(2012· 杭州二检)What is concerning us greatly is
_____________ the workers held up in that area yesterday will be set free. A.that C.when B.what D.which

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:最让我们担心的是昨天 被困在那个地区的工人们什么时间能够获得自由。根据

句意可知,应用when引导表语从句。因此选C。
答案:C

8.(2013· 三明质检)—Jack failed the driving test again. —The question is_____________ we can help him avoid making the same mistakes. A.how B.why

C.what

D.whom

解析:考查名词性从句。答句句意:问题是我们该如何 帮他避免犯同样的错误。根据句意可知,应用how引导 该表语从句。 答案:A

9.(2013· 安徽皖北协作区高三联考)No matter how far you may fly, never forget_____________ you come from. A.when C.where B.how D.what

解析:考查宾语从句。句意:不管你会飞多远,永远不
要忘记你来自哪里。分析句子结构可知, “_____________ you come from”是宾语从句,空处在从 句中作宾语,另外根据句意可知,应选where。 答案:C

10.(2013· 河南洛阳高三统考)After ten hours' drive, they finally reached_____________ they thought was the place they had been dreaming of. A.that B.which

C.where

D.what

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:经过10个小时的行驶,他 们最后来到了那个他们认为的梦寐以求的地方。 “_____________ they thought was the place ...”是宾语从 句,且空处在从句中作主语,故用what。 答案:D

11.(2012· 河南三地高三第二次调研)You never know _____________ happiness will turn up next, so grasp every chance around you. A.when C.why B.where D.how

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:你永远不会知道幸福接下 来会在哪里出现,所以你要抓住身边的每一个机会。根据 后面的“around you”可知,此处强调的是地点,故用

where。
答案:B

12.(2013· 唐山高三第一次模拟)This book teaches you how to find_____________ is causing the stress in your life.

A.which
C.what

B.that
D.how

解析:考查名词性从句。分析句子结构可知, “_____________ is causing the stress in your life”在句中 作find的宾语,空处引导宾语从句且在宾语从句中作主语,

故用what。 答案:C

13.(2013· 陕西五校一模)—Why didn't you chat with that

friendly foreigner just now?
—I'd like to, but the trouble was_____________ he said was difficult for me to understand.

A.what which
C.that that

B.that what
D.what that

解析:句意:“你刚才怎么不和那个友善的外国人聊了

啊?”“我是想聊,但问题是他说的话对于我来说太难听
懂了。”这里that引导表语从句,而表语从句的主语是由 what引导的主语从句。

答案:B

14.(2013· 浙江调研测试)_____________is surprising is that
there are so many Chinese restaurants in Toronto.

A.It
C.Such

B.That
D.What

解析:句意:令人吃惊的是,在多伦多有这么多中国饭
店。What is surprising是主语从句,What在从句中作主 语。 答案:D

15.(2013· 福建四校联考)As far as I see,_____________ is no
possibility_____________ he will win the tennis match this time. A.it; that C.it; whether B.there; that D.there; whether

解析:there is no possibility表示“??是不可能的”; 第二个空应用that引导同位语从句,解释说明possibility

的内容,且在从句中不作成分。
答案:B

16.(2013· 西安第一次质检)The reason for Tom's failure in the exam was_____________ he didn't work hard.

A.why
C.whether

B.because
D.that

解析:he didn't work hard是that引导的表语从句。“the reason for ... is/was that ...”表示“??的原因是??”。 答案:D

17.(2013· 大连第一次质检)It has been found out _____________ holding a cellphone against your ear or

storing it in your pocket may be harmful to your health.
A.whether C.where B.that D.what

解析:句意:人们发现,将手机贴在耳边或者塞在口袋里 可能有害健康。从语境和句子成分看,这里用that引导主

语从句,连词在从句中不作任何成分,只起连接作用。 答案:B

18.(2013· 保定模拟)—Don't you believe me?
—_____________, I'll believe_____________ you say. A.Yes; whatever C.No; no matter what B.Yes; no matter what D.No; whatever

解析:考查宾语从句。句意:“难道你不相信我 吗?”“不,我相信你说的一切。”whatever引导宾语从 句并在从句中作宾语,no matter what只能用来引导让步

状语从句。对否定疑问句的回答要根据事实来回答,根据
答语后半句可知用yes。 答案:A

19.(2012· 合肥模拟)At the evening party the host said

_____________ was able to solve the riddle could get a nice
present as a reward. A.whoever C.no matter who B.who D.whomever

解析:考查主语从句。此处whoever = anyone who引导主

语从句,who可以引导主语从句但表疑问,而whomever在
句子中只能作宾语。no matter who只引导让步状语从句。

答案:A

20.(2013· 石家庄第二次质检)There is no doubt_____________

international cooperation is the key to_____________ with
cybercrime. A.whether; doing B.that; dealing

C.whether; do

D.that; do

解析:考查同位语从句和非谓语动词。句意:毫无疑问, 国际合作是对付网络犯罪的关键所在。There is no doubt

that ...“毫无疑问”;the key to ...“??的关键”,to是介
词,故用动名词。

答案:B

Ⅱ.语法与阅读

用所学语法知识破译下列长难句
1.(2012· 重庆高考阅读E)In his 1930 essay “Economic

Possibilities for Our Grandchildren”, John Keynes, a
famous economist, wrote that human needs fall into two classes: absolute needs, which are independent of what others have, and relative needs, which make us feel superior to our fellows.

[结构分析]

本句是一个复合句。句子主干是:John Keynes

wrote ...。句中a famous economist是John Keynes的同位语; that引导的是宾语从句,作wrote的宾语;which are independent of what others have和which make us feel superior to our fellows是定语从句,分别修饰先行词absolute needs和 relative needs;what引导宾语从句,作介词of的宾语。 著名经济学家约翰· 凯恩斯在1930年写的论文《我 [尝试翻译] __________________________________________ 们后代的经济前景》中写道:人类的需求可以分为两类 ——一类 _____________________________________________________ 是绝对的需求,这种需求是与别人无关的;另一类是相对的需求, _____________________________________________________ 这种需求的满足能够使我们感觉比他人更优越。 _____________________________________________________

2.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ阅读C)The fact that members of one culture do not express their emotions as openly as do members of another does not mean that they do not experience emotions. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。主句主语是The fact,谓 语动词是does not mean;that they do not experience emotions为宾语从句;that members of one culture do not express their emotions as openly as do members of another 为the fact的同位语从句,该同位语从句中有as ... as 结构, 第二个as引导的比较状语从句为倒装结构。 一种文化背景的人不如另一种文化背景的人更 [尝试翻译] _______________________________________ 直白地表达感情并不意味着他们没有感情体验。 __________________________________________

3.(2012· 浙江高考阅读A)Researchers know that the color change is controlled by the number of hours of sunlight, but

whether the rabbit will be able to adapt quick enough to
survive is a big question. [结构分析] 本句是由but连接的两个分句。在第一个分句

中,that引导的是动词know的宾语从句;在第二个分句中 whether引导的是主语从句。 研究者知道颜色变化受太阳光照时间的控制, [尝试翻译] _______________________________________
但是兔子能否快速适应并生存下来是一个大问题。 ________________________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作
按要求完成下列写作佳句(用名词性从句改写下列句子) 1.The devoted love between Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai moved our foreign friends deeply.(改为主语从句) What moved our foreign friends deeply is the devoted love __________________________________________________

between Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai. ___________________________________
2.The expert advised us not to get into the bad habit of smoking.(改为宾语从句) The expert advised that we shouldn't get into the bad habit __________________________________________________ of smoking. ______________

3.My best friend, Tom, won the first prize in the national Olympic physics competition. This news made me very

happy.(改为同位语从句)
The news that my best friend, Tom, won the first prize in the ___________________________________________________

national Olympic physics competition made me very happy. ___________________________________________________
_________________

[课前体验领悟] 完成句子 1.The new teacher was so wellorganized that she began where we stopped yesterday (昨天停止的地方) so that no point was left out. 2.While computers are convenient to us in daily life (虽然电 脑对我们的日常生活很方便), it may also cause other problems.

3.Your time is running out. Change your mind ___________ before it is too late (趁着还不太晚)! 4. Unless children believe they can succeed (除非孩子们相信他 们能够成功), they will never become totally independent. 5.—Someone wants you on the phone. — But nobody knows I am here 里 ). (但是没有人知道我在这

[课堂考前讲练]
主语从句

1.表并列关系:and, not only ...but (also) ..., neither, nor, neither ... nor ...等词连接的并列句,在意义上主要对前一句子 作补充或引申,包括肯定和否定两方面的意义。 The report has not only attracted much attention, but also some sharp criticism. 那篇报道不仅吸引了许多关注,同时也遭到了一些尖锐的 批评。 Neither does he work hard, nor does his brother. 他和他兄弟工作都不努力。

[点津]

when 用作并列连词时,常用于以下句型:

?be about to do ...when ... ?be doing ...when ... ? ?be on the point of doing ...when ... ?had just done ...when ...
2.表选择关系:常用的有or, either ...or ..., otherwise等。 Don't drive so fast or/otherwise you'll have an accident.

不要开那么快,否则你会出事的。

3.表转折关系:常用的有but, yet, while, whereas等。 Some men are rich, while others are poor.

一些人很富有,但另一些人很贫穷。
4.表因果关系:常用的有so, for。 It must have rained last night for it is wet all over. 昨晚一定下雨了,到处都这么湿。

(2012· 新课标全国卷)You have to move out of the way_____________ the truck cannot get past you. A.so C.and B.or D.but

解析:句意:你得让开,否则卡车从你身边过不去。or意为
“否则,要不然”,符合语境。

答案:B

时间状语从句 1.when 引导时间状语从句,意为“当??时”,表示主 句的动作和从句的动作同时或先后发生。 When he knocked at the door, I was sleeping. 他敲门时我正在睡觉。 [点津] when还可表原因,意为“既然”。 It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could easily walk there in five minutes.(2012· 江西七校联考) 既然你五分钟就可以走到那儿,可你还打的去,真的太

傻了。

2.while引导时间状语从句,意为“与??同时,在??

期间”,从句常用延续性动词或状态动词。
Father was cleaning the car while I was doing my homework. 我在做作业时,爸爸在洗车。 3.as引导时间状语从句,意为“正当;一边??一边??; 随着”等意思,表示两个动作同时发生。

As she sang, tears ran down her cheeks.
她一边唱歌,眼泪一边从脸颊流下。

4.as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment,

the minute, the instant, no sooner ...than ...,
hardly/scarcely ...when ...和once这些从属连词引导的从句都表示 从句的动作一发生,主句的动作随即就发生,常译为“一?? 就??”。从句中用一般时态代替将来时态。 The moment I heard the voice, I knew father was coming. 我一听到那个声音,我就知道父亲来了。 The boy burst into tears immediately he saw his mother.

那男孩一见到他妈妈便放声大哭。

[点津] no sooner ...than ..., hardly/scarcely ...when ...的时态搭 配:no sooner与hardly/scarcely后的句子谓语动词应用过去完成时, 而than与when引导的句子谓语动词应用一般过去时。此外,当把 no sooner和hardly/scarcely提到句首时,应用倒装语序。 He had no sooner finished his speech than the students started

cheering.(2011· 辽宁高考)
= No sooner had he finished his speech than the students started cheering. 他刚完成演讲学生们就开始欢呼起来。

5.before/since (1)表示“还未??就??;不到??就??;??才??; 还没来得及??就??”。 The girl had hardly rung the bell before the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her.(2010· 福 建高考) 小女孩还没来得及按门铃,门就突然开了,并且她的朋友 冲出来问候她。 (2)It will be+一段时间+before ... “多久之后才……”。 John thinks it won't be long before he is ready for his new job.(2010· 陕西高考) 约翰认为他不久就会为新工作做好准备了。

(3)since的常用句型:It is (has been)/was+一段时间+ since(从句用一般过去时/过去完成时) It's three years since the war broke out. 自战争爆发以来有三年了。 6.until/till 主句为肯定句时,谓语用延续性动词;主句为否定句时,谓 语用非延续性动词。 We won't start our discussion until/till he comes. 我们要等到他来了再开始我们的讨论。

1.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)I had hardly got to the office _______ my wife phoned me to go back home at once. A.when C.until B.than D.after

解析:考查固定结构。句意:我刚到办公室,我妻子就

打电话让我立刻回家。本句是“hardly ...when ...”结构,
表示“刚??就??”。

答案:A

2.(2011· 上海高考)If a lot of people say a film is not good, I

won't bother to see it, or I'll wait_____________ it comes
out on DVD. A.whether C.though B.after D.until

解析:考查状语从句。句意:如果很多人都说一部电影

不好,我就不会去(电影院)看,或者我会等到它的DVD
出版。由句意可知D为正确答案。 答案:D

3.(2011· 福建高考)It was April 29, 2011_____________
Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony. A.that C.since B.when D.before

解析:考查定语从句。学生易误认为该句为强调句而选
that,但去掉 It was及 that后,April 29,2011 不可以单独 作时间状语,所以不是强调句型。用 when 引导定语从句 修饰 April 29,2011。

答案:B

地点状语从句 1.通常由连词where和wherever引导,从句可位于主句之 前,也可位于主句之后。 The little girl who got lost decided to remain where she was and wait for her mother.(2009· 山东高考)

这个迷路的小女孩决定待在原地等她妈妈。
2.地点状语从句在句首时常兼有抽象条件意味。 Where there's a will, there's a way. 有志者事竟成。

3.where引导的状语从句和定语从句的区别。 where引导地点状语从句直接修饰动词,而在定语从句中

where作为关系副词要跟在表示地点的先行词后面。
When solving the problem a second time, you'd better be more careful where you made a mistake. = When solving the problem a second time, you'd better be more careful in the place where you made a mistake.

当你第二次解决这个问题的时候,你要在出过差错的地方
更加小心。

1.(2013· 重庆检测)_____________there is little food is
available, few birds remain throughout the year. A.Where C.Why B.When D.How

解析:考查地点状语从句。句意:只有一点点儿食物的地 方,一整年都很少有鸟儿留下来。分析句子成分可知,空 处在句中作地点状语,故用where,表示“(在)??的地

方”。 答案:A

2.(2012· 天津高考)Everything was placed exactly _____________ he wanted it for the graduation ceremony. A.while B.when

C.where

D.though

解析:考查状语从句。句意:在毕业典礼上,一切东西 都放在他想放的位置。主句Everything was placed缺少地 点状语,故选where。 答案:C

条件状语从句
1.通常由if“如果”, unless“如果不;除非”,as (so) long as“只 要”,in case (that)“结果,万一”,once“一旦”,when“既然”等连词 引导。 I don't mind where you go, as long as you're back before midnight. 只要你在午夜之前回来,我不介意你去哪里。 2.由on condition (that), provided (that), providing (that)“倘若;假 使”, supposing (that), in case“如果”等引导的条件状语从句。 You can go swimming on condition that you don't go too far from the river bank.

只有不离河岸太远你才能下去游泳。

1.(2012· 江苏高考)One's life has value_____________ one brings value to the life of others. A.so that C.as long as B.no matter how D.except that

解析:考查连词。句意:只要一个人给别人的生活带来价
值,那么他的生命就有价值。as long as意为“只要”,符 合句意。so that意为“以便,结果”;no matter how意为 “不管怎样”;except that意为“除了??”。 答案:C

2.(2012· 福建高考)It is hard for the Greek government to get
over the present difficulties_____________ it gets more financial support from the European Union. A.if C.because B.unless D.since

解析:考查连词的用法。句意:对希腊政府来说,如果从欧
盟得不到更多的财政支援,很难克服目前的困难。unless“除 非”,引导条件状语从句,符合题意。

答案:B

3.(2013· 江南十校联考)—May I borrow your book Steve Jobs? —_____________ you return it before Friday. A.If only B.The moment C.On condition that D.Now that 解析:考查省略与状语从句。if only“但愿,要是??就好 了”;the moment“一??就??”;on condition that“只要, 条件是”;now that“既然”。答句补充完整应为“You can borrow my book Steve Jobs_____________ you return it before Friday.”根据句意可知,应用“On condition that”来 引导此条件状语从句。 答案:C

让步状语从句
1.让步状语从句可由although, though, as, while, even if (though), whatever (wherever, whoever ...), whether ... or ..., no matter who (when, what ...)等引导。 However serious a problem you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge.(2010· 上海高考) 不论你的问题有多严重,你都应该鼓起勇气,接受挑战。 2.while作“尽管”讲,引导让步状语从句时,往往放在句首。 While the Internet is of great help, I don't think it's a good idea to spend too much time on it. 尽管因特网对我们有很大的帮助,但我认为花太多的时间上网 也不是一个好主意。

(2012· 湖南高考)_____________ I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. A.While C.If B.Once D.Until

解析:考查状语从句。句意:虽然我总感觉这次考试我能及格,
但是我从来没有想到我会得A。根据句意可知,前后两句之间 是让步关系,所以选while,意为“尽管;虽然”。 答案:A

让步状语从句
1.原因状语从句通常由because, since, as, now that, seeing (that),
considering that等引导。 Now that you are familiar with the author's ideas, try reading

all the sections as quickly as possible.(2012· 北京西城区高三期末)
既然你熟悉作者的思路,那就尝试着尽可能快地阅读所有的章 节。 Considering that I have told you three times, you must know it. 鉴于我已经告诉你三次了,你肯定知道这件事了。

2.方式状语从句用来表示主句谓语动作发生的方式,常由
as“像??一样”, as if (though)“似乎,好像”等引导。 The house was greatly damaged by the truck. We'd better

leave things as they are until the police arrive.
卡车对这座房子造成了严重的损坏。我们最好保持原样直 到警察到来。

He acted as if nothing had happened.
他表现得好像什么也没发生一样。

1.(2013· 浙江六校联考)_____________we have realized the danger of overconsumption, some measures should be taken as soon as possible. A.Now that C.In order that B.As long as D.Even if

解析:句意:既然我们已经意识到过度消费的危害,就应该

尽快采取一些措施。now that“既然,由于”,符合句意。 答案:A

2.(2011· 湖南高考)Jack wasn't saying anything, but the teacher smiled at him_____________ he had done something very clever. A.as if B.in case

C.while

D.though

解析:考查状语从句。句意:Jack 什么也没说,但老师向 他笑了笑,好像他做了件聪明的事情一样。 as if 意为“似 乎, 好像”, 引导方式状语从句。

答案:A

目的状语从句

引导目的状语从句的连词主要有in order that, so that, for
fear that “害怕,担心发生某事”, in case “以防”等。从句 中常用may, might, can, could, should等情态动词。

He had his camera ready in case he saw something that
would make a good picture.(2011· 山东高考) 他准备好了照相机,以便于能拍到他看到的好画面。 I opened the window in order that fresh air might come in. 我把窗户打开以便新鲜空气可以进来。

(2013· 江苏苏中三市一模)Jose cupped his hands together to

cover his mouth_____________ other people would see him cry.
A.so that C.for fear that B.now that D.on condition that

解析:句意:Jose用两只手捂着嘴巴,唯恐别人看见他哭了。 C项“唯恐”;A项“以便,为了”;B项“既然,由于”;D

项“条件是,只要”。 答案:C

[课后演练提升]

Ⅰ.语法与单选
1.(2013· 江西重点中学盟校高三第一次联考)_____________ you have a healthy diet, you can reduce its benefits by bad eating habits. A.Just as C.Even if B.In case D.Now that

解析:句意:即使你有健康的饮食,但是不好的饮食习惯 会让它的益处打折。由句意可知选even if“尽管,即使”。

答案:C

2.(2013· 唐山高三第一次模拟)After retiring, he continued
giving lessons in his Washington home_____________ he died last week. A.until C.since B.when D.once

解析:句意:退休后,他继续在他华盛顿的家里授课, 直到上周去世。根据句意可知,应选A,until表示“直

到”。
答案:A

3.(2013· 安徽皖北协作区高三联考)_____________the international situation experiences great changes, China and the US have more common interests and shoulder more common responsibilities. A.As C.Until B.For D.However

解析:句意:随着国际形势经历的巨大变化,中国与美
国有了更多的共同利益并肩负着更多的共同责任。as在 此处表示“随着,当??时”,引导时间状语从句。 答案:A

4.(2013· 郑州毕业班第一次质量检测)_____________ bad

weather stops me, I take exercise outdoors every morning.
A.Unless B.Since

C.If

D.Though

解析:句意:除非天气恶劣,否则我每天早晨都到户外 进行锻炼。unless“如果不??,除非??”,符合句意。 答案:A

5.(2013· 长春高中毕业班第一次调研)Start out right away,
_____________ you'll miss the last train. A.and C.while B.but D.or

解析:从句意“马上动身,否则你会赶不上最后一班火车”

可知,此处应选or,表示“否则”。
答案:D

6.(2013· 浙江部分重点高中高三联考)_____________ it is

human nature to be curious, it is also our responsibility to
respect others' secrets. A.While C.As B.Because D.Since

解析:句意:虽然好奇是人类的天性,但尊重别人的秘密是 我们的责任。根据句意可知此处表示转折,故while“尽管, 虽然”正确。

答案:A

7.(2013· 山西部分重点高中高三联考)Mrs. Black had such a wonderful time_____________ she visited her friends in Sydney last year.

A.when
C.which

B.that
D.as

解析:句意:布莱克夫人去年在悉尼看望她的朋友时过 得很愉快。这里用when来引导时间状语从句。 答案:A

8.(2012· 哈尔滨高三模拟)I usually take something to read
when I travel by train_____________ I feel bored. A.as if C.in case B.so that D.even though

解析:句意:乘火车旅行时我通常带一些读的东西以防

无聊。A项“好像,似乎”;B项“以便”;C项“以防,
万一”;D项“即使”。根据句意可知C项正确。 答案:C

9.(2013· 成都部分高中高三教学质量检测)—The experiment is of particular importance. —I see. We will carry on with it_____________ we can get enough money or not.

A.unless
C.though

B.whether
D.until

解析:句意:“这个实验特别重要。”“我明白。无论

我们能不能得到足够的钱,我们都会继续进行下
去。”whether ...or not表示“不管??(还是)”。 答案:B

10.(2013· 重庆部分学校高三联考)Though Tom knew nothing
about business, he succeeded_____________ other more wellinformed managers failed. A.what C.if B.how D.where

解析:句意:虽然汤姆对生意一窍不通,但是他在其他
比他见多识广的经理们失败的地方成功了。“where other more well?informed managers failed”是状语从句,

表示抽象地点。 答案:D

11.(2013· 山西四校联考)—Peter told me he wanted to come with us. Is it OK for you? —I don't mind_____________ he pays for his meals. A.as far as C.as well as B.as long as D.as soon as

解析:空处所在句所要表达的意思是只要彼得自己支付 自己的餐费,答话人就不介意。as long as“只要”,符合 题意。A项表示“远达,就??而言”;C项表示“也”;

D项表示“一??就??”,都不符合语境。
答案:B

12.(2013· 安徽名校第一次联考)The huge shopping mall will be constructed_____________ there used to be a school many years ago. A.where B.what

C.in which

D.which

解析:句意:这个大型购物广场将会被建在很多年前是个 学校的地方。where引导地点状语从句。 答案:A

13.(2012· 山东实验中学四模)_____________ the foreign
student had learned Chinese for several years in his own country, he could hardly understand the local Chinese in China. A.Since B.As C.Unless D.Though

解析:句意:虽然那个外国学生在他自己的国家学了好几
年汉语,但他几乎听不懂中国当地人说话。though“虽然, 尽管”,符合句意。since“由于,因为”;as“因为”; unless“如果不”,这三项均不合句意。

答案:D

14.(2012· 山西四校三模)It was several years_____________ I realized_____________ David had lied to me. A.when; that C.before; that B.that; when D.until; why

解析:句意:好几年过去了我才意识到David对我撒了谎。 第一个空:It was+一段时间+before ...“过了多久才??, 在??之前已经过了多久”,固定搭配。第二个空: realized后是宾语从句,且从句中不缺任何成分,所以用 that作引导词。 答案:D

15.(2013· 浙江绍兴质检)You can't complain of being left out_____________ you don't make any effort to share

your happiness and sorrow with others.
A.when C.once B.unless D.though

解析:句意:既然你没努力跟别人分享快乐与痛苦,你 就不能抱怨被忽略。when“既然”;unless = if ...not“如

果不”;once“一旦”;though“虽然,尽管”。 答案:A

16.(2012· 重庆高考)—Coach, can I continue with the training? —Sorry, you can't_____________ you haven't recovered

from the knee injury.
A.until C.as B.before D.unless

解析:考查连词的用法。根据句意“教练,我可以继续训
练吗?”“很抱歉,不可以,因为你的膝盖受伤还没有恢 复过来。”可知,此处应用引导原因状语从句的连接词as。 答案:C 故选C项。

17.(2013· 长沙模拟)Lucy was so pleased_____________ her son won the first place in the long jump competition. A.that C.when B.which D.where

解析:句意:当知道儿子在跳远比赛中获得第一名时,

Lucy非常高兴。选项A中的that引导结果状语从句,语法
上成立,但不符合题意,故不选。题目中的空格前没有 表示事物的先行词,故B项也可以被排除。再由语境可知, 选项C符合题意,此处when引导时间状语从句。 答案:C

18.(2013· 南通第一次模拟)It was not long_____________ the fans created the word “iSad”in memory of Steve Jobs. A.after C.since B.before D.when

解析:考查状语从句的连接词。句意:不久史蒂夫· 乔布
斯的粉丝们便创造了“iSad”这个单词来纪念他。It was not long before ...意为“不久??就”。 答案:B

19.(2013· 杭州模拟)_____________ think of their plan, no one can deny that they are bold and have much imagination. A.Whatever we may B.No matter how we may

C.Much as we may

D.If we may

解析:句意:无论我们怎样看待他们的计划,没人能否认 他们的大胆和丰富的想象力。whatever引导让步状语从句。

答案:A

20.(2012· 昆明模拟)_____________ you lose the paper

document, sign in www. sohunt.com,_____________ you
might download all you need. A.If; which C.In case; where B.So long as; what D.Even if; as

解析:句意:倘使你丢失文件登录www. sohunt. com,在

那里你可以下载你所需要的东西。in case“假使”引导条
件状语从句;where引导定语从句,修饰前面的网址。

答案:C

Ⅱ.语法与阅读 用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 浙江高考阅读C)Two friends have an argument that breaks up their friendship forever, even though neither one can remember how the whole thing got started. [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。句子的主句是Two friends have an argument;that ... forever是定语从句,修饰先行词argument; even though引导让步状语从句,在该从句中how the whole thing got started作remember的宾语。 两个朋友争吵,即使他们都不记得整件事是怎么 [尝试翻译] _____________________________________________ 开始的,却使他们的友谊永远破裂。 __________________________________________

2.(2012· 全国卷Ⅰ阅读A)Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest. [结构分析] 此句中Once it has their attention是once“一旦” 引导的条件状语从句;waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest是现在分 词短语作伴随状语,在这个现在分词短语中as it leads them to the nest是as引导的原因状语从句。 (蜂蜜向导)引起了他们的注意,它就飞过 [尝试翻译] 一旦它 __________________________________________ 森林,偶尔等着好奇的动物或者人,因为它要带他们到蜂巢 ____________________________________________________ 那儿。 ________

3.(2012· 四川高考阅读C)When you set out to do something different, there's no end in sight, so to find myself in a position where I now have my own name on a contract (合 同) of the publisher — to be a published writer — is unbelievably rewarding (有回报的). [结构分析] 本句是一个复合句。When you set ... in sight 是一个时间状语从句;so为连词,to find ...rewarding是一 个分句,其中to find myself in a position为不定式作主语, where引导定语从句修饰position。 [尝试翻译] 当你开始做和以往不同的事情时,看不到尽头。 _______________________________________ 因此,发现自己在出版合同上有自己的位置,即成为了一名 ___________________________________________________ 出版作家,是难以置信的回报。 _________________________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作
按要求完成下列写作佳句(用状语从句完成句子) 1.一旦你掌握了足够的单词,你就会发现学英语不难。 Once you have memorized enough words , you will find it not difficult to study English. 2.沈星一看见那个落水的儿童就跳进河里去救他。 The minute/moment/instant he saw the drowning child, __________________________________________________ Shen Xing jumped into the river to save him. 3.你不会成功除非你努力学习并抓住机会。 You won't succeed unless you work hard and seize chances.

[课前体验领悟] 完成句子 it's 1.(2013· 江苏省苏中三市调研)From his sharp words, _____ apparent/obvious that (显而易见的) he is not in the least satisfied with the results of the test. 2.When I saw mum nod encouragingly to me

(鼓励地对我

点头), I calmed down and went on with my acting.

3.(2013· 银川部分重点中学模拟)—How do you like the hotel?

—It's great, and I couldn't have found a better one (一个更
好的宾馆). 4. (2011· 陕西高考)The new stadium being built for the next Asian Games will be three times as big as the present one (是现在体育馆的三倍). 5.(2011· 福建高考)Nowadays, there is a sharp increase (急剧提 高) in children's creativity, for they are greatly encouraged to

develop their talents.

[课堂考前讲练]
形容词、副词辨析

1.考查形容词和副词辨析类问题,一定要弄懂各个选项的 词义和词性差别,并结合语境选择符合句意的单词。考查形容 词在句中功能的问题,要通过分析句子结构来解决。 We used to see each other regularly, but I haven't heard from him since last year. (2012· 辽宁高考) 我们原先经常见面,但是从去年开始我就一直没有他的消 息了。 The research lacks solid evidence, and therefore, its conclusions are doubtful.(2012· 浙江高考) 该研究缺乏可靠的证据,因此它的结论值得怀疑。

2.除了副词词义辨析外,yet (但是), besides (此外,而
且),still (仍然), though (虽然), however (然而), meanwhile(与此同时)也是高频考点。解答此类题目首先要 把握副词词义,然后采用句子翻译法,分析前后两句的逻辑 关系,从而得出正确答案。

Mike was usually so careful, yet this time he made a
small mistake.(2012· 浙江高考) Mike通常很仔细,但这次他犯了个小错误。

1.(2012· 福建高考)—Can you lend me the book Gone with the Wind? —Sorry. I returned it to the library just now. Maybe it is still_____________ . A.available B.affordable C.acceptable D.valuable 解析:考查形容词词义辨析。句意:“你能不能借给我《飘》 这本书?”“对不起,我刚刚还给图书馆。或许你还可以借 到。”available“可用的;在手边的;可得到的;可获得的”; affordable“负担得起的”;acceptable“值得接受的;可接受 的”;valuable“贵重的;有价值的;极有用的”。

答案:A

2.(2012· 安徽高考)Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ is often thought to be the richest woman in the world._____________, her personal wealth seems rather small. A.Besides B.Otherwise C.However D.Altogether 解析:考查副词。句意:女王伊丽莎白二世常被认为是世界 上最富有的女性。然而,她的个人财富看起来相当少。 besides“除此之外,而且”;otherwise“否则”;however“然 而,不过”;altogether“总而言之”。根据句意可知,前后 两句之间为转折关系,故选C。 答案:C

倍数表达法

1.A is+倍数+比较级+than+B 2.A is+倍数+as+原级+as+B 3.A is+倍数+the+名词 (size, length, height等)+of+B 4.A is+倍数+that+of+B 5.A is+倍数+what引导的名词性从句 According to statistics, a man is more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer as a woman. 根据数据,男性死于皮肤癌的可能性是女性的两倍还要多。 The price of houses in Beijing is six times higher than that in my city. 北京的房价比我们城市的房价高六倍。

1.(2013· 日照检测)—Can you describe a distinctive characteristic of this animal? —Its neck can be extended_____________of its body. A.more than twice the length B.twice more than the length C.more than the length twice D.more twice than the length 解析:考查倍数表达法。句意:“你能描述这种动物的 一项与众不同的特征吗?”“它的颈部可以伸展到它身 体的两倍多长。”表达倍数含义可用“倍数+the+名词 (length/width/height ...)+of”结构。故选A。 答案:A

2.(2013· 安徽皖北协作区高三联考)It's reported that women

with demanding jobs are almost_____________ to suffer
a heart attack. A.as likely twice C.twice as likely B.likely twice as D.twice likely as

解析:考查倍数表达法。本题考查的是“主语+谓语+

倍数+as+adj.或adv.的原级(+as+比较对象)”。根据句
意可知,此处表示“患心脏病的几率几乎是(常人)的两

倍”,所以用“twice as likely”。 答案:C

形容词、副词的比较级和最高级 1.平级比较。 (1)as+原级adj./adv.+as ...“和??一样”。 It is generally believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science.

人们普遍认为,教学是一门科学,同时也是一门艺术。
(2)not as/so+原级 adj./adv.+as ...“不如??”。 As far as I know, the work is not as difficult as you expect. 据我所知,这项工作不是你预料的那么难。

2.“the+比较级 ...,the+比较级 ...”表示“越??,越??”。 The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you'll make. 你越仔细,犯的错误就越少。 3.the+比较级+of the two+名词,表示“两个中较??的”。 —Of the two bags, which one do you prefer? —The bigger one. It's a most beautiful one, I think. (2013· 山东青岛质检) ——你更喜欢这两个包中的哪一个? ——大的那个。我觉得它非常漂亮。 4.“否定式谓语+比较级”有最高级的含义。 Your story is perfect; I've never heard a better one before. 你的故事太完美了,我从来没有听到比这好听的故事。

1.(2012· 新课标全国卷)The result is not very important to us, but if we do win, then so much_____________ . A.the best B.best

C.better

D.the better

解析:考查形容词的比较级。句意:结果对于我们来说并 不重要,但是如果我们赢了,那就更好了。so much the better是固定搭配,意为“那就更好了”。 答案:D

2.(2012· 北京高考)Many people have donated that type of

blood; however, the blood bank needs_____________.
A.some C.much B.less D.more

解析:考查比较级。句意:很多人捐献了那种血型的血, 然而,血库还需要更多(那种血)。根据句意可判断,应用

表示肯定意义的比较级形式。故D项正确。
答案:D

3.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)Next to biology, I like physics_______ .

A.better
C.the better

B.best
D.very well

解析:考查形容词的比较级和最高级。句意:仅次于生 物,我最喜欢物理。next to表示“仅次于,在??之 后”。此处是除了生物之外的多门学科的比较,所以用

最高级形式。
答案:B

4.(2011· 四川高考)—How was your recent trip to Sichuan?

—I've never had
A.a pleasant C.a most pleasant

one before.
B.a more pleasant D.the most pleasant

解析:考查形容词比较级的用法。句意:“你最近的四 川之行怎么样?”“再好不过了。”故选B。否定词加比

较级往往表示最高级的概念。如:He couldn't have done
better.他做得再好不过了。 答案:B

形容词(短语)作状语

形容词(短语)作状语时主要表示原因、伴随或方式等。 He lay in bed, wide awake. 他躺在床上醒着。

We arrived home very late, safe and sound.
我们回家很晚,安然无恙。

1.(2013· 重庆部分学校高三联考)Having been out of touch

with his parents for two years, Jones returned
home,_____________ . A.safe and sound B.safely and sound

C.safe and soundly

D.safely and soundly

解析:考查固定搭配。句意:与父母失去联系两年后, Jones安然无恙地回到了家中。safe and sound是固定搭配,

表示“安然无恙”。
答案:A

2.(2012· 青岛市第二次模拟)Thinking that her daughter was

doing homework, the mother left the room,_____________ .
A.quickly and gentle C.quickly and gently B.quick and gentle D.quick and gently

解析:quick and gentle在句中是形容词短语作伴随状语, 往往用逗号与句子隔开。 答案:B

形容词、副词的顺序
1.副词修饰形容词或其他副词时,一般位于被修饰词的前面,但
enough要放在被修饰词的后面。 We only had $100 and that was nowhere near enough to buy a new

computer.(2010· 辽宁高考)
我们只有100美元。这笔钱远远不够买一台新电脑。 2.副词修饰形容词的特殊词序:so, as, how, that, too+形容词+

a(n)+单数可数名词。
Come on, Maria! You can also enjoy as convenient a life as you have been dreaming of, if you don't lose heart.(2012· 陕西五校三模)

加油,Maria!你若不灰心,你也能享受到你梦想中的便利生活。

3.多个形容词修饰名词的排列顺序是高考考查的重点,考生必须牢 记下面的口诀: 限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍出材料,作用类别往后 靠。 It is said that the beautiful red stone building was designed by a famous Frenchman, who has designed thousands of excellent buildings all over the world. 据说那个漂亮的红石头房子是由一位著名的法国人设计,全国各地他 已设计了成千上万的优秀建筑。 4.though副词,表示语义的转折,意为“然而”,常放在句子末尾。 Playing on a frozen sports field sounds a lot of fun. Isn't it rather risky, though?(2010· 浙江高考) 在结冰的场地上玩耍听起来很有趣,然而,这难道不是太冒险了吗?

1.(2012· 四川高考)I make $2,000 a week, 60 surely won't make _____________ difference to me.

A.that a big
C.big a that

B.a that big
D.that big a

解析:考查副词用法。副词that表示“那么……”修饰形容

词时的固定结构为:that + adj.+a/an+n.,相当于so及how
的用法,即that(so/how) +adj.+a/an+n.。make that big a difference to me意为“对我产生那么大的影响”。故选D。

答案:D

2.(2013· 东北三校高三第一次联合模拟)There is someone

playing the guitar over there. Let's go and listen, shall we?
Free entertainment,_____________ . A.anyway C.therefore B.though D.somehow

解析:考查副词辨析。句意:那边有人在弹吉他。我们去听

听吧,好吗?不管怎么说,这是免费的娱乐。anyway表示
“不管怎么说,至少”。 答案:A

[课后演练提升] Ⅰ.语法与单选 1.(2013· 太原一模)Mr. Hilton is very pleased with the newlybuilt house, which is almost_____________ the one he used to live in. A.the twice size of B.as twice big as C.bigger twice than D.twice the size of 解析:考查倍数表达法。句意:Mr. Hilton对新建的房子 很满意,这个房子几乎是他过去居住房子的两倍大。英 语中常用的倍数表示法有:1)A is+倍数词+比较级+ than+B;2)A is+倍数词+as+形容词原级+as+B; 3)A is+倍数词+the+名词(size/width/length ...)+of+B。 答案:D 故选D。

2.(2013· 江西重点中学盟校高三第一次联考 )—How did you find

your trip to Baohulu Amusement Park?
—I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was__________ than I expected. A.even much interesting

B.far more interesting
C.so far interesting D.a lot much interesting

解析:考查形容词比较级。句意:“这次宝葫芦游乐园之旅
你玩得怎么样?”“太棒了!比我预想的要好玩得多。”多 音节形容词interesting的比较级形式是在其前面加more,程度

副词far应在more前面,故选B项。

答案:B

3.(2013· 河南三地高三第二次调研)One way to stop
countries fighting is to cut off their_____________ support, for wars are very expensive.

A.conditional
C.environmental

B.chemical
D.financial

解析:考查形容词辨析。句意:阻止国家间打仗的一个

办法是中断对他们的财政支持,因为战争是需要花大量
金钱的。financial“财政的”,符合句意。 conditional“(帮忙、协议等)有条件的”;chemical“化学 的”;environmental“环境的”。

答案:D

4.(2013· 浙江六校联考)—May I check in now?
—Sorry, sir! But there's not any room_____________ in our hotel. A.useful C.flexible B.convenient D.available

解析:考查形容词辨析。句意:“我现在可以入住
吗?”“抱歉,先生!但是我们旅馆已经没有空房间 了。”available“可用的”,符合句意。convenient“方便 的”;flexible“灵活的”;useful“有用的”。 答案:D

5.(2012· 浙江六校联考)The girl was left alone in the room

and couldn't help crying_____________ .
A.perfectly B.narrowly

C.bitterly

D.simply

解析:考查副词辨析。句意:这个女孩被单独留在房间 里,不禁伤心地哭了起来。bitterly“伤心地”。 答案:C

6.(2013· 合肥第一次质检)I can't say a thankyou _____________ much. I couldn't have succeeded without

your help.
A.too C.that B.quite D.very

解析:句意表示“我再怎么感谢你也不过分”。否定词 can't ...too ...“再??也不过分”。

答案:A

7.(2013· 杭州二检)Kids shouldn't offer_____________

information like home addresses and phone numbers to
strangers. A.general C.specific B.fundamental D.available

解析:考查形容词辨析。句意:小孩子不应该将家庭住址、 电话号码这些具体信息告诉陌生人。specific“具体的,特定 的,特有的”,符合句意。

答案:C

8.(2013· 郑州一检)The South Pole is a key area which influences global climate and_____________ any damage to it will cause global change. A.instantly B.constantly

C.consequently

D.frequently

解析:考查副词辨析。instantly“立刻,马上”; constantly“重复不断地”;consequently“因此,所以”;

frequently“经常,频繁地”。根据题干中的“南极是影
响全球气候的关键地区”可知,两个分句之间存在因果 关系,所以用consequently。 答案:C

9.(2013· 长春第一次调研)—Do you think an advertisement

is a help when you look for a job?
—Well, it depends.________ it gives me a chance to try. A.Otherwise C.Somewhat B.A nyway D.Therefore

解析:考查副词。otherwise“否则,要不然”;

anyway“无论如何”;somewhat“有几分,稍微”;
therefore“因此”。答句句意:嗯, 视情况而定。无论如 何,广告会给我一次尝试的机会。 答案:B

10.(2013· 江西省临川一中等九校联考)I'm not a little tired

today after giving the room a thorough cleaning and I
have never had_____________ today. A.as tiring a day as C.tiring as a day as B.as a tiring day D.day as a tiring as

解析:句意:我今天把房间彻底打扫完之后感到非常疲

惫,从未像今天这样疲惫过。此处是“as ... as ...”结构,
表示同级比较,前一个as是副词,后一个as是连词。 答案:A

11.(2013· 山东潍坊三县市上学期联考)What parents say and do in daily life usually has a(n)_____________ influence on their

child.
A.practical C.beneficial B.avoidable D.permanent

解析:句意:父母在日常生活中的言行通常会给他们的孩子 造成永久的影响。practical“实际的,实用的”;

avoidable“可避免的”;beneficial“有利的”,均不符合句意。

答案:D

12.(2013· 长春第一次调研)—Lily did succeed at last! —Yeah, indeed, but she was_____________ than

successful, I think.
A.more lucky C.luckier B.much luckier D.lucky

解析:根据句意可知,此处“more+adj.原形+than”是 固定结构,表示“与其说??倒不如说??”。所以选A

项。 答案:A

13.(2013· 哈尔滨高三模拟)I'm_____________ about what I

say because careless remarks are likely to hurt others'
feelings. A.enthusiastic C.doubtful B.curious D.cautious

解析:考查形容词辨析。句意:我说话很谨慎,因为草率

的评论可能会伤害他人的感情。A项“热心的”;B项
“好奇的”;C项“感到怀疑的”;D项“谨慎的,小心

的”。根据句意可知D项正确。
答案:D

14.(2012· 山东青岛一模)Zhongshan Park is_____________

attractive in spring and autumn, for the weather in both
seasons is pleasant. A.mostly C.merely B.hardly D.equally

解析:句意:中山公园在春天和秋天一样吸引人,因为在

这两个季节气候都很怡人。mostly“主要地”;hardly“几乎
不”;merely“只不过,仅仅”;equally“相等地,同等 地”。D 答案:

15.(2012· 西安第一次质检)We put our books in the bookcase
to keep them_____________ from dust. A.empty C.loose B.free D.short

解析:句意:我们把书放在书柜中是为了使它们没有灰尘。

此处free表示“没有??的”。
答案:B

Ⅱ.语法与阅读 用所学语法知识破译下列长难句 1.(2012· 陕西高考阅读A)Language scored lower in Canada than in all other countries polled, perhaps because the country speaks two official languages, French and English. [结构分析] 此句是一个含有because 引导的原因状语从句的主从 复合句。lower in Canada than in all other countries polled是比较 级表示最高级的用法,相当于:In Canada language scored the lowest in all the polled countries.。在主句中polled 是过去分词作 定语,修饰all other countries。 [尝试翻译] 加拿大在语言这一项比其他所有被调查的国家得分 _____________________________________________ 都低,这或许是因为加拿大有两种官方语言:法语和英语。 ____________________________________________________

2.(2012· 重庆高考阅读C)There is no better way to enjoy Scottish traditions than going fishing and tasting a little bit

of whisky (威士忌) at a quiet place like the Inverlochy
Castle. [结构分析] 本句中no better 为形容词比较级,用在否定
为了体验苏格兰传统,在像Inverlochy Castle _______________________________________

句中表示最高级的含义。 [尝试翻译]
这样安静的地方钓钓鱼、品尝品尝威士忌是再好不过的方式 __________________________________________________ 了。 _____

3.(2012· 北京高考阅读B)Heartbroken but fearless, I decided to turn this around. [结构分析] 本句为简单句。其中heartbroken but fearless

为形容词短语作状语。 伤心却无所畏惧,我决定扭转局面。 [尝试翻译] ________________________________

Ⅲ.语法与写作 按要求完成下列写作佳句(翻译句子) 1.给我们留下深刻印象的是他们学校的操场是我们的两倍大。 What impressed us deeply is that the playground in their ____________________________________________________ school is twice larger than that of our school's. ______________________________________________ 2.众所周知,你运动的越少,你的健康状况就越差。 As is known to all, the less you do exercise, the worse your ____________________________________________________ health will be. ________________ 3.在长跑之后,所有的运动员们到达了终点,又渴又累。 After the longdistance running, all the athletes reached the ____________________________________________________ finishing line, thirsty and tired. _______________________________________

[课前体验领悟] 完成句子

1.(2013· 山东潍坊高三模拟)James Cameron is considered one of in terms of his influence the greatest directors in the world_______________________
(就他的影响而言) in film industry. The solution to this problem 2.(2013· 陕西西安五校第一次模拟)__________________________ (这个问题的解决方法) is acceptable. So I am for it. 3.(2013· 河南省实验中学模考)One doesn't have to look for to realize the direct connection between smoking and cancer (吸 烟与癌症之间).

4.(2012· 西安二检)Fishing and seafood harvesting has been forbidden along the coast of Galicia, forcing many fishermen out of work (失业). 5.(2012· 兰州部分重点中学高三联考)—Have you seen my English notebook? —Oh, Jane must have taken it by mistake(错拿); she has the

same one as yours.

[课堂考前讲练]
常用介词
常用介词如in, on, for, with, against, of, beyond, out of, across等含义较 多,应全面把握。 1.against有“违背,违逆;反对;对??不利;倚;靠;碰撞;预防; 衬托”之意。 My mother is against my suggestion while my father is in favour of it. 我母亲反对我的建议,然而我父亲赞成。 2.beyond可表示“范围,限度”,意为“超出,为??所不及”。 常用短语:beyond words/description/imagination/belief/one's reach/one's control“无法用语言形容、无法用语言描述、想象不出来、不相 信、够不着、管不了”。 No one hopes that the situation between China and Japan is beyond control due to the Diaoyu Islands. 没人希望中日关系因钓鱼岛事件失控。

3.by可表示“程度或增减的幅度”,还可作“按;以??计;

依据”讲。
Industrial workers are generally paid by the hour. 产业工人通常按小时来付工资。

4.for有“就??而言;从??来看;达,计;为??”之意。
The biggest concern for most of us is the quality of public education.

我们大多数人最关心的是大众教育的质量问题。
I always wanted to do the job which I'd been trained for.(2012· 浙 江高考)

我总想从事以前为之培训的工作。

5.off有“在离??不远处;在沿海的海面”之意。 Two miles off the coast, we sailed right into the storm. 在离海岸两英里处我们迎面遇上了暴风雨。 6.on/upon有“刚??就;一??就”之意,后接名词或动词ing形式。 Barry joined the army upon leaving school. 巴里一毕业就参军了。 7.over可表示时间,意为“在??期间;直到??结束”。 I'm sorry I didn't phone you, but I've been very busy over the past couple of weeks.(2011· 山东高考) 很抱歉没给你打电话,可是这几个星期我一直很忙。 8.within可表示范围、程度,意为“在??之内”。 The government was doing everything within its power to help the victims. 政府正尽其所能帮助那些受害者。

1.(2012· 陕西高考)An agreement seems to be impossible because the majority of the committee members are_____________ it.

A.against
C.to

B.for
D.with

解析:考查介词辨析。句意:协议好像是不可能的,因为大 多数委员会成员都反对。be against“反对”;be for“同意; 赞成”。根据be impossible可知,A项正确。

答案:A

2.(2012· 辽宁高考)The Well Hotel stands in a quiet place _____________ the main road at the far end of the lake. A.to C.off B.for D.out

解析:考查介词辨析。句意:Well宾馆位于湖的另一边,在
主干道旁边一个僻静的地方。off表示“与??隔着一定的距 离”。 答案:C

3.(2012· 安徽高考)You can change your job, you can move house,

but friendship is meant to be_____________ life.
A.of C.to B.on D.for

解析:考查介词辨析。句意:你可以换工作,也可以搬家, 但友谊却可以终身受用。for life意为“终身”。故选D。 答案:D

4.(2012· 浙江高考)_____________ all the animals I've ever had, these two dogs are the most sensitive to the spoken word. A.From C.For B.Of D.With

解析:考查介词辨析。根据句意“在所有我养过的动物当 中,这两条狗是对话语最敏感的”可知,这里表示“所属

关系”,用of。 答案:B

5.(2012· 北京高考)Do you think this shirt is too tight_____________ the shoulders? A.at C.to B.on D.across

解析:考查介词。句意:你觉得这件衬衣的肩部是不是太 紧了?across表示“从一边到另一边”,符合句意。 答案:D

介词短语辨析 考查介词短语辨析,往往要借助具体语境,另外,还要掌握 常用的介词短语及其意义。 1.与介词in搭配的常用短语 in a way 在某种程度上 in no way 没门 in the way 挡住道路 in vain 徒劳 in general 通常,大体上 in detail 详细地 in turn 轮流 in return 作为回报

2.与out of搭配的常用短语

3.“in+名词+of”常用搭配 in honor of 为纪念?? in charge of 负责,掌管

out of date/time 过时/过期
out of question 毫无疑问 out of the question 没门/绝不可能 out of shape 变形 out of fashion 不流行

in terms of 依据,根据
in praise of 赞扬 in favor of 支持,赞同 in need of 需要

out of order 出了故障
out of balance 失去平衡

4.与介词at连用的常用短语
at no time 决不 at a time 一次/每次 at one time 一度/曾经 at times 不时地/有时 at one's request 应某人的要求 at a loss 不知所措

at one's invitation 应??的邀请
at all costs 不惜一切代价 at ease 放松,不拘束

We'd better discuss everything in detail before we work
out the plan.(2011· 江苏高考) 在我们制订计划之前我们最好先详细讨论事情的各个方 面。 An excellent teacher is believed to be one who devotes himself to the children but asks for nothing in return. 人们相信一名优秀的教师是把全部身心投入到孩子身上

并且不求回报的人。

1.(2012· 福建高考)China has been pushing the reform of public hospitals_____________ all its citizens. A.in charge of B.for the purpose of

C.in honor of

D.for the benefit of

解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:为了所有市民的利益, 中国一直在推进公立医院的改革。in charge of“主管;负 责;照料”; in honor of“为了向??表示敬意”;for the purpose of“为了;因??起见”;for the benefit

of“为了??的利益”。

答案:D

2.(2012· 湖北高考)The furniture, with its modern style and bright colors, suits modern houses and their gardens, but looks_____________ in the garden of a traditional home. A.out of question B.out of order C.out of sight D.out of place 解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:这套家具款式新潮,色 泽明丽,与新式房屋和花园配套,但看起来与传统的房子 和花园不相称。D项意为“不合适的;不相称的”,符合 句意。A项意为“毫无疑问”;B项意为“次序颠倒”; C项意为“看不见”。
答案:D

[课后演练提升] Ⅰ.语法与单选 1.(2013· 四川六校高三联考)When she was in trouble, I did

what I could to help her._____________ my help, she
wrote me a letter of thanks. A.In honour of C.In terms of B.In case of D.In return for

解析:考查介词短语。后句句意:为回报我对她的帮助, 她给我写了一封感谢信。in return for表示“作为对?? 的报答”,故选D。 答案:D

2.(2013· 东北三校高三第一次联合模拟)The truth is that

_____________ helping the situation, you've just made it
worse. A.far from C.due to B.out of D.next to

解析:考查介词短语辨析。far from的意思是“远非,几

乎相反”,符合句意“事实是,你所做的对当前情形毫
无帮助,反而把事情弄得更糟”。 答案:A

3.(2013· 河北普通高中模拟)—How did she lose so much weight as expected? —_____________ eating less, she jogged for several miles every day. A.In spite of B.In addition to C.Instead of D.Thanks to 解析:考查介词短语辨析。in spite of表示“尽管??”;in addition to表示“除??外,还??”;instead of表示“相 反,代替??”;thanks to表示“由于,幸亏……”。答语 表示“除了吃得少外,她每天还慢跑几英里”。选B项。 答案:B

4.(2013· 浙江六校联考)The lady has won the position in the end because she has the advantage_____________ others of knowing many languages.

A.over
C.against

B.above
D.beyond

解析:考查介词辨析。句意:那位女士最后赢得了那个职 位,因为与其他人相比,她拥有了解多种语言的优势。 have the advantage over sb.“比某人更有优势”。故选A。

答案:A

5.(2013· 江西重点中学盟校高三第一次联考)It's important
that we should show consideration for others if we are to live_____________ them in social life. A.in connection with C.in contrast with B.in touch with D.in harmony with

解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:在社交生活中,如果
我们想与他人和睦相处,就应该为他人着想——这一点 很重要。由句意可知,选in harmony with,表示 “与??和睦相处”。 答案:D

6.(2012· 南京高三第二次模拟)The magician, Liu Qian, picked
several people_____________ from the audience and asked them to help him with the performance. A.by accident C.at random B.in vain D.on average

解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:魔术师刘谦随意从观众
中挑选几个人帮助他表演魔术。by accident“偶然”;in vain“徒劳地”;at random“随意地”;on average“平均来 看”。故选C。 答案:C

7.(2013· 江西九所中学高三联考)—How much did he charge

you_____________ the service?
—Luckily, it's_____________ nothing. A.for; of C.for; / B.for; for D.of; /

解析:考查介词。第一个空,charge ...for ...表示“(向??)

收费,开价”;第二个空,for nothing表示“免费”。故选
B项。

答案:B

8.(2013· 南昌一模)Our English teacher always creates a relaxed atmosphere to keep us_____________ when we

make a speech or have a discussion.
A.at a loss C.at ease B.at all costs D.at will

解析:考查介词短语辨析。at a loss“不知所措”;at all costs“不惜任何代价”;at ease“不拘束,放松”;at

will“随心所欲,任意”。句意:当我们演讲或者讨论时,
我们的英语老师总能创造一种让我们不拘束的轻松氛围。 根据句意可知C项正确。 答案:C

9.(2013· 安徽七校联考)Owing to heavy traffic jams, many

people would like to choose the train_____________
driving. A.in preference to C.as with B.in addition to D.as well as

解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:由于交通堵塞,很多

人宁愿选择坐火车出行也不愿开车。in preference to表示
“而不是”。后三项分别表示“此外”“与??一 样”“以及”,都不符合句意。 答案:A

10.(2013· 石家庄质检)Currently, some overseas universities

are simply selling diplomas to Chinese
students_____________ their academic performance, so China should che


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