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1.Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been made only by the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so the ancient Paleans could have crossed it only by boat, and no Palean boats have been found. Thus it follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean. 一种具有独特花纹的编织篮子以前只在史前村庄 Palea 的临近地区发现过,因而被认为是 Palea 居所独有的。然 而最近,考古学家在一个与 Palea 隔着一条叫做 Brim 河 的村庄 Lithos 发现了一个这样的 Palea 篮子。Brim 河很 深很宽,所以古代 Palea 人只能坐船穿过它,但没有证据 表明 Palea 人拥有船只。这表明那种所谓的 Palea 篮子并 不是那里所独有的。

3/171.The following appeared as a letter to the editor from the owner of a skate shop in Central Plaza. "Two years ago the city voted to prohibit skateboarding in Central Plaza. They claimed that skateboard users were responsible for the litter and vandalism that were keeping other visitors from coming to the plaza. In the past two years, however, there has only been a small increase in the number of visitors to Central Plaza, and litter and vandalism are still problematic. Skateboarding is permitted in Monroe Park, however, and there is no problem with litter or vandalism there. In order to restore Central Plaza to its former glory, then, we recommend that the city lift its prohibition on skateboarding in the plaza." 两年前,市里投票禁止了在中央广场玩滑板。他们认为 是滑板爱好者的废弃物和损毁公物的行为使游客远离了 广场。然而在过去两年中,中央广场的游客却只有少数增 加,而且废弃物和损毁公物的行为依然存在。滑板运动在 M 公园就被允许,但是那里却没有任何的废弃物和损毁公

2.The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a scientific journal. "A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an individual's levels of stimulation. The study showed that in stimulating situations (such as an encounter with an unfamiliar monkey), firstborn infant monkeys produce up to twice as much of the hormone cortisol, which primes the body for increased activity levels, as do their younger siblings. Firstborn humans also produce relatively high levels of cortisol in stimulating situations (such as the return of a parent after an absence). The study also found that during pregnancy, first-time mother monkeys had higher levels of cortisol than did those who had had several offspring." 最近一项对恒河猴的调查揭示了出生顺序对于个体刺 激水平的影响。调查显示在受到刺激的环境下(例如遇到 一个不熟悉的猴子),头胎小猴的皮质醇分泌会翻倍 ,这 样增加了它及其兄弟姐妹的身体灵活度。人类的头胎孩子 在遇到刺激(例如父母外出回家)时也会分泌出相对浓度 的皮质醇。研究同时还发现在怀孕期间,第一次为人母的 猴子的皮质醇要比生过几次孩子后的猴子水平高很多。

物的行为。为了能让中央广场重新焕发生机,我们建议市 里应该取消广场禁止滑板的限令。

4.The following appeared in a letter from a homeowner to a friend. "Of the two leading real estate firms in our town—Adams Realty and Fitch Realty—Adams Realty is clearly superior. Adams has 40 real estate agents; in contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time. Moreover, Adams' revenue last year was twice as high as that of Fitch and included home sales that averaged $168,000, compared to Fitch's $144,000. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well: ten years ago I listed my home with Fitch, and it took more than four months to sell; last year, when I sold another home, I listed it with Adams, and it took only one month. Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams Realty." 在本市的两家最大的房地产经纪公司--Adams Realty 和 Fitch Realty--之中,Adams 显然更优秀一些。Adams 有 40 名房地产经纪人,而 Fitch 只有 25 个,且很多是兼 职工作。而且,Adams 去年的收入是 Fitch 的两倍,其平 均房价为$168000,而 Fitch 仅为$144000。在 Adams 销

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售的房屋卖得也更快:十年前,我把我的房产交给 Fitch, 它用了四个多月才卖出去;去年,我在 Adams 卖了另一 处房产,仅用一个月就售出了。因此,要想让你的房产卖 的更快更好,你应该选择 Adams。

少某些时候冷到足以让岛屿间的海面结冰以使它们能够 在岛屿间旅行的地方。然而,根据当地猎人的报告,鹿的 数量正在下降。由于这一报告正好与最近导致海洋冰面融 化的全球变暖趋势同时发生,我们可以得出结论:北极鹿 数量的下降是它们无法按它们原有的迁移习惯穿越结冰

5/159/173.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Balmer Island Gazette. "On Balmer Island, where mopeds serve as a popular form of transportation, the population increases to 100,000 during the summer months. To reduce the number of accidents involving mopeds and pedestrians, the town council of Balmer Island should limit the number of mopeds rented by the island's moped rental companies from 50 per day to 25 per day during the summer season. By limiting the number of rentals, the town council will attain the 50 percent annual reduction in moped accidents that was achieved last year on the neighboring island of Seaville, when Seaville's town council enforced similar limits on moped rentals." b 岛的人口在夏季达到了 100000,而助力车则是岛上 一种非常普遍的交通方式。为了减少由助力车和行人引发 的事故,b 岛市政府应该限制岛上夏季助力车租赁公司的 租车数量,从原来的每天 50 量减少到 25 量。通过限制出 租数量,市政府将会实现助力车事故减少 50%的目标,就 像去年邻近 s 岛市政府在实施了同样的政策后所取得的效 果。


7/98/99.The following is a recommendation from the Board of Directors of Monarch Books. "We recommend that Monarch Books open a café in its store. Monarch, having been in business at the same location for more than twenty years, has a large customer base because it is known for its wide selection of books on all subjects. Clearly, opening the café would attract more customers. Space could be made for the café by discontinuing the children's book section, which will probably become less popular given that the most recent national census indicated a significant decline in the percentage of the population under age ten. Opening a café will allow Monarch to attract more customers and better compete with Regal Books, which recently opened its own café ." 我们建议 m 书店在电内开设一个咖啡厅。M 书店在目 前的店址上已经经营了 20 多年,并由于其广泛的图书种 类而拥有了庞大的客户群体。很明显,新开设的咖啡厅会 吸引更多的客户,空间可以通过撤出儿童书籍柜台来获 得,因为最近一次全国调查显示 10 岁以下儿童的比率显

6.Arctic deer live on islands in Canada's arctic regions. They search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of the year. Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the purported decline in deer populations is the result of the deer's being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns across the frozen sea. 北极鹿生活在加拿大极地区域的岛屿上 。它们全年都通 过冰块在岛屿间移动来寻找食物。它们的栖居地局限在那 些温暖得足以维持它们所需的植物生长,并且在一年的至

著下降,所以儿童书就可能没以前那么畅销。开设新咖啡 厅将会使 m 吸引更多客户并更好的与最近刚开设了咖啡 厅的 r 书店展开竞争。

8.The following appeared in a memo from the director of student housing at Buckingham College. "To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories. Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate. Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing. Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham."

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为满足我们学生的住房需求,Buckingham 学院应该建 造一幢新的宿舍。Buckingham 的报名人数正在增加,而 且按照现有趋势,报名人数将会在未来 50 年中增加一倍, 从而导致现有住宅不能满足要求。而且,我们镇上公寓的 平均租金在近几年间上涨了。因此,学生将会越来越发现 难于负担校外住宿费用。最后,一幢引人注目的新宿舍将 会使未来的学生更愿意报考 Buckingham。

islands, the children spent much more time talking about their biological parents than about other adults in the village. Dr. Karp decided that Dr. Field's conclusion about Tertian village culture must be invalid. Some anthropologists recommend that to obtain accurate information on Tertian child-rearing practices, future research on the subject should be conducted via the interview-centered method. 20 年前,知名人类学 F 博士访问了 T 岛,并从他的观 察中得出结论:T 岛的孩子是由整个村子抚养长大而不是 他们的亲生父母。然而,另一位人类学家 K 最近对生活在 T 岛以及周边一些岛屿的儿童采访显示,他们在谈话中谈 到他们呢双亲的时间远远多于谈到村庄里其他成年人。K 博士的这次研究证明 F 博士关于 T 岛乡村文化的结论是错 的,一些人类学家建议要想以进一步获取准确的 T 岛的儿 童成长规律,未来应该采用采访为主的方法。

9/88/90.Nature's Way, a chain of stores selling health food and other health-related products, is opening its next franchise in the town of Plainsville. The store should prove to be very successful: Nature's Way franchises tend to be most profitable in areas where residents lead healthy lives, and clearly Plainsville is such an area. Plainsville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise clothing are at all-time highs. The local health club has more members than ever, and the weight training and aerobics classes are always full. Finally, Plainsville's schoolchildren represent a new generation of potential customers: these schoolchildren are required to participate in a fitness-for-life program, which emphasizes the benefits of regular exercise at an early age. NW 是一家专卖保健食品及其他相关产品的连锁店 ,准 备将其下一家店铺开在 Plainsville。这家店一定会很成功: 因为我们的商店在那些居对健康生活高度关注的地区是 盈利最多的。很明显,plainsville 就是这样的地方。 Plainsville 的商家报告说运动鞋和运动衣的销售处于历史 高点。当地一家康体俱乐部现在的会员比以往任何时候都 多,减肥训练和有氧运动班总是满员。另外,我们还可以 预见到新生代的顾客群:Plainsville 的在校学生被要求参 加一个叫做"终生健康"的项目,它强调从小开始经常锻炼 的好处。

11.The council of Maple County, concerned about the county's becoming overdeveloped, is debating a proposed measure that would prevent the development of existing farmland in the county. But the council is also concerned that such a restriction, by limiting the supply of new housing, could lead to significant increases in the price of housing in the county. Proponents of the measure note that Chestnut County established a similar measure ten years ago, and its housing prices have increased only modestly since. However, opponents of the measure note that Pine County adopted restrictions on the development of new residential housing fifteen years ago, and its housing prices have since more than doubled. The council currently predicts that the proposed measure, if passed, will result in a significant increase in housing prices in Maple County. M 市政府十分担心 M 市过度开发,正在讨论一项阻止 开发本市现有耕地的提议 。但市政当局也同样担心这样通 过限制新房供地的举措

10/21/23.Twenty years ago, Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the island of Tertia. Using an observation-centered approach to studying Tertian culture, he concluded from his observations that children in Tertia were reared by an entire village rather than by their own biological parents. Recently another anthropologist, Dr. Karp, visited the group of islands that includes Tertia and used the interview-centered method to study child-rearing practices. In the interviews that Dr. Karp conducted with children living in this group of

12.Fifteen years ago, Omega University implemented a new procedure that encouraged students to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of all their professors. Since that time, Omega professors have begun to assign higher grades in their classes, and overall student grade averages at Omega have risen by 30 percent. Potential

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employers, looking at this dramatic rise in grades, believe that grades at Omega are inflated and do not accurately reflect student achievement; as a result, Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. To enable its graduates to secure better jobs, Omega University should terminate student evaluation of professors. 15 年前,Omega 大学实施了一项新措施,鼓励学生对 所有教授的教学效果进行评价。从那以后,Omega 的教 授开始给予学生更高的分数,Omega 的学生成绩总平均 上升了 30%。未来的雇主显然认为 Omega 的分数贬值了, 无法反映出学生的真实能力。因此,Omega 的毕业生找 工作时没有邻近的 Alpha 大学毕业生成功。为使 Omega 毕业生找到好工作,我们应立即停止学生对教授的评价。

the success of their firms. Of the advertising firms studied, those whose executives reported needing no more than 6 hours of sleep per night had higher profit margins and faster growth. These results suggest that if a business wants to prosper, it should hire only people who need less than 6 hours of sleep per night." 最近一项根据每天平均睡眠时间,对 300 名 m 市广告 公司男女高管调查显示出了高管们所需的睡眠时间与他 们公司成功与否的关联。根据对这些广告公司的研究 ,那 些公司高管报告说每天睡眠不足 6 小时的公司利润更高并 且发展更快。这些结果表明如果公司想蓬勃发展,他们就 必须只雇佣那些每天睡眠不足 6 小时的管理人员。

15/51/130/131/133..The following memorandum is from the business manager of Happy Pancake House restaurants.

13.In an attempt to improve highway safety, Prunty County last year lowered its speed limit from 55 to 45 miles per hour on all county highways. But this effort has failed: the number of accidents has not decreased, and, based on reports by the highway patrol, many drivers are exceeding the speed limit. Prunty County should instead undertake the same kind of road improvement project that Butler County completed five years ago: increasing lane widths, resurfacing rough highways, and improving visibility at dangerous intersections. Today, major Butler County roads still have a 55 mph speed limit, yet there were 25 percent fewer reported accidents in Butler County this past year than there were five years ago. 为了提升高速公路的安全性,p 市去年把所有高速公路 的限速由 55 降到了 45。但是这样的努力尝试失败了,事 故发生的数量没有下降,并且根据高速巡警的报告很多司 机都超速驾驶。所以 p 市应该采用 b 市 5 年前相同的道路 改善计划:增加车道宽度,重新铺设不平路面以及改善危 险交叉路口的能见度。今天,b 市的主要道路依然是 55 限速,但上报的事故率却比 5 年前减少了 25%。

"Recently, butter has been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House restaurants throughout the southwestern United States. This change, however, has had little impact on our customers. In fact, only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that an average of 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers do not distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term 'butter' to refer to either butter or margarine." Happy Pancake House 在美国西南部的餐厅用人造黄 油代替了天然黄油。但是这种改变对顾客的影响非常小因 为只有大约 2%的顾客投诉,这说明 100 个人中有 98 人 对于这种替换是乐于接受的。而且,很多服务生报告说很 多仍然要了天然黄油的顾客在被给予人造黄油的时候并 没有投诉。显然,这些顾客要么分不清天然黄油和人造黄 油,要么是用"天然黄油"这个词汇来指天然黄油或人造黄 油。

16.In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports 14/118.The following appeared as part of an article in a business magazine. "A recent study rating 300 male and female Mentian advertising executives according to the average number of hours they sleep per night showed an association between the amount of sleep the executives need and (swimming, boating, and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the

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quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is, therefore, sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. 调查显示 m 市的老百姓把水上运动(游泳,划船及垂 钓)作为最受欢迎的娱乐活动。贯穿 m 市的 M 河很少被 用于水上运动,然而城市公园部门很少投入资金去维护沿 河的活动设施。这么多年居民们一直投诉河水的质量及味 道。为了回应这一投诉,当局最近宣布了清理 M 河的计划, 因此 M 河的水上活动使用将会增加。所以市政府应该增加 对河岸活动设施的资金投入。

advertising contracts with us. Therefore, in order to attract more viewers to our news programs and to avoid losing any further advertising revenues, we should expand our coverage of weather and local news on all our news programs." 去年,我们的深夜新闻节目投入了更多的时间播放全国 新闻,较少的时间播放天气预报和地方新闻。在同一时期, 我们从观众那里获得的投诉大部分是关于电视台对于天 气和地方新闻的播放的。而且,若干曾经在我们深夜新闻 节目播放广告的地方企业刚刚取消了和我们的广告契约。 因此,为吸引更多的电视观众观看我们的新闻节目并避免 失去未来的广告收入,我们应该在我们所有的新闻节目中 增加天气和地方新闻的播报。

17/93.The following appeared in a memorandum from the manager of WWAC radio station. "To reverse a decline in listener numbers, our owners have decided that WWAC must change from its current rock-music format. The decline has occurred despite population growth in our listening area, but that growth has resulted mainly from people moving here after their retirement. We must make listeners of these new residents. We could switch to a music format tailored to their tastes, but a continuing decline in local sales of recorded music suggests limited interest in music. Instead we should change to a news and talk format, a form of radio that is increasingly popular in our area." 为了扭转观众流失的局面,WWAC 的老板们决定必须 要摒弃目前的摇滚乐风格。尽管我们广播区域内人口增 加,收听人数依然下降。但增加的人口主要是一些退休后 移居本地的。我们必须要抓住这些新的听众,我们可以转 变音乐风格来迎合他们,但最近本地音乐销量的持续走低 表明他们对音乐没什么兴趣。所以,我们可以变为新闻谈 话类的形式来提升我们电台在本地的人气。

19.Two years ago, radio station WCQP in Rockville decided to increase the number of call-in advice programs that it broadcast; since that time, its share of the radio audience in the Rockville listening area has increased significantly. Given WCQP's recent success with call-in advice programming, and citing a nationwide survey indicating that many radio listeners are quite interested in such programs, the station manager of KICK in Medway recommends that KICK include more call-in advice programs in an attempt to gain a larger audience share in its listening area. 两年前,R 地区的 WCQP 电台决定增加在其广播节目 的电话参与节目。此后,其在 R 地区的听众覆盖率急剧增 加。鉴于 WCQP 这种措施的成功,同时也根据一项全国 范围的调查显示很多的观众比较喜欢这样的电话参与节 目,M 地区的 Kick 电台的经理建议 Kick 也应该增加类似 的电话参与节目以来扩大在其地区的听众占有率。

22/119/120/138.According to a recent report, cheating among college and university students is on the rise. However, Groveton College has successfully

18/20.The following is a memorandum from the business manager of a television station. "Over the past year, our late-night news program has devoted increased time to national news and less time to weather and local news. During this period, most of the complaints received from viewers were concerned with our station's coverage of weather and local news. In addition, local businesses that used to advertise during our late-night news program have canceled their

reduced student cheating by adopting an honor code, which calls for students to agree not to cheat in their academic endeavors and to notify a faculty member if they suspect that others have cheated. Groveton's honor code replaced a system in which teachers closely monitored students; under that system, teachers reported an average of thirty cases of cheating per year. In the first year the honor code was in place, students reported twenty-one cases of cheating; five years later,

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this figure had dropped to fourteen. Moreover, in a recent survey, a majority of Groveton students said that they would be less likely to cheat with an honor code in place than without. Thus, all colleges and universities should adopt honor codes similar to Groveton's in order to decrease cheating among students. 通过最近一次报告,大学作弊现象显著增加。然而 大学却通过采取诚信制度的方式使该校学生作弊现象减 少。该制度要求同学同意在学业中不作弊,并且但他们怀 疑别人作弊是告知老师。G 大学的诚信制度取代了原有的 老师严密监管的老体制,在老体制中平均每年有 30 起作 弊被上报。而在实施新制度后的第一年,学生上报了 21 起。五年后,这一数字更是下降到 14 起。另外,最近一 项调查显示,G 大学绝大多数学生表示有了诚信制度以后 比以前更不可能作弊了。因此,所有的大学都应该采取与 G 大学类似的诚信制度来降低学生作弊现象。 G 25/100/102/164..The following was written as a part of an application for a small-business loan by a group of developers in the city of Monroe. "A jazz music club in Monroe would be a tremendously profitable enterprise. Currently, the nearest jazz club is 65 miles away; thus, the proposed new jazz club in Monroe, the C-Note, would have the local market all to itself. Plus, jazz is extremely popular in Monroe: over 100,000 people attended Monroe's annual jazz festival last summer; several well-known jazz musicians live in Monroe; and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is 'Jazz Nightly,' which airs every weeknight at 7 P.M. Finally, a nationwide study indicates that the typical jazz fan spends close to $1,000 per year on jazz entertainment." 在 Monroe 建立爵士乐俱乐部将会是非常盈利的产业。 24.A recently issued twenty-year study on headaches suffered by the residents of Mentia investigated the possible therapeutic effect of consuming salicylates. Salicylates are members of the same chemical family as aspirin, a medicine used to treat headaches. Although many foods are naturally rich in salicylates, food-processing companies also add salicylates to foods as preservatives. The twenty-year study found a correlation between the rise in the commercial use of salicylates and a steady decline in the average number of headaches reported by study participants. At the time when the study concluded, food-processing companies had just discovered that salicylates can also be used as flavor additives for foods, and, as a result, many companies plan to do so. Based on these study results, some health experts predict that residents of Mentia will suffer even fewer headaches in the future. 最近一项 20 年关于 M 地区百姓头痛的研究正在探寻水 杨酸的潜在治疗作用。水杨酸酯和用来治疗头痛的药物-阿司匹林是同一类化合物。尽管很多食品天然富含水杨酸 酯,食品加工公司仍然在食品中加入它来作为防腐剂 。这 种水杨酸酯在商业上的使用被发现与我们为期 20 年研究 的参加者所报告的头痛发病的平均数量下降是相关的 。但 研究结束时,食品加工公司却刚刚发现水杨酸酯也可以被 用作食品香料, 因此很多公司准备这样添加。依据以上的 26/28.The following appeared in the summary of a study on headaches suffered by the residents of Mentia. "Salicylates are members of the same chemical family as aspirin, a medicine used to treat headaches. Although many foods are naturally rich in salicylates, for the past several decades, food-processing companies have also been adding salicylates to foods as preservatives. This rise in the commercial use of salicylates has been found to correlate with a steady decline in the average number of headaches reported by participants in our twenty-year study. Recently, food-processing companies have found that salicylates can also be used as flavor additives for foods. With this new use for salicylates, we can expect a continued steady decline in the number of headaches suffered by the average citizen of Mentia." 水杨酸酯和用来治疗头痛的药物--阿司匹林是同一类化 合物。尽管很多食品天然富含水杨酸酯 ,过去几十年中食 品加工公司仍然在食品中加入它来作为防腐剂 。这种水杨 当前,最近的爵士俱乐部也在 65 英里以外;因此,我们 筹建的俱乐部 C Note 将会占有全部的本地市场。而且, 爵士乐在 Monroe 非常流行:去年夏天 10 万多人参加了 Monroe 的爵士音乐节,若干知名爵士音乐家居住在 Monroe,Monroe 获评价最高的广播节目是平时每天播出 的 Jazz Nightly。最后,一项全国性研究表明典型的爵士 爱好者每年花费近 1000 元用于爵士娱乐。

研究,一些健康专家预期 Mentia 居患头痛症的数量将会 持续稳步下降。

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酸酯在商业上的使用被发现与我们为期 20 年研究的参加 者所报告的头痛发病的平均数量下降是相关的。最近 ,食 品加工公司发现水杨酸酯也可以被用作食品香料。根据这 种水杨酸酯的新用途,我们可以预期 Mentia 居患头痛症 的数量将会持续稳步下降。

我们市的出生率正在降低:事实上,去年的出生率只是 5 年前的一半。因此学生的入学人数将会急剧下降,我们 可以放心的削减未来 10 年的教育经费。与此同时,我们 也可以减少对操场和其他活动设施的经费。所以,我们可 以有充足的费用去扶持城市设施及其他的成人项目 ,因为 我们预测未来城市里面的成人人口将会增加。

27/29.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a local newspaper. "Commuters complain that increased rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway between the suburbs and the city center has doubled their commuting time. The favored proposal of the motorists' lobby is to widen the highway, adding an additional lane of traffic. But last year's addition of a lane to the nearby Green Highway was followed by a worsening of traffic jams on it. A better alternative is to add a bicycle lane to Blue Highway. Many area residents are keen bicyclists. A bicycle lane would encourage them to use bicycles to commute, and so would reduce rush-hour traffic rather than fostering an increase." 乘客抱怨在郊区与市中心的 B 高速公路的更长交通高 峰期使他们在路上的时间多花了一倍。一个驾驶协会的不 错建议是拓宽高速公路,修建一条附加机动车道。但去年 但临近的 G 高速采用了相同的方法后交通状况更加恶化。 一种更好的建议是在 B 高速上修一条自行车道。很多的当 地人都是自行车爱好者。一条新的自行车道将会激励他们 骑自行车外出,这样的方式照比驾驶协会的建议会减少高 峰时间而不是延长。 31/105/106.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of Parson City's local newspaper. "In our region of Trillura, the majority of money spent on the schools that most students attend—the city-run public schools—comes from taxes that each city government collects. The region's cities differ, however, in the budgetary priority they give to public education. For example, both as a proportion of its overall tax revenues and in absolute terms, Parson City has recently spent almost twice as much per year as Blue City has for its public schools—even though both cities have about the same number of residents. Clearly, Parson City residents place a higher value on providing a good education in public schools than Blue City residents do." 在我们 t 地区,政府用于公立学校教育的开支大部分都 是从各地市政府征收的税收而来的。然而,依据总体税收 比率及相关政策来看,该地区不同城市对于公立教育的重 视程度是不同的。例如, p 城市用于公立学校的预算是 b 市的 2 倍,尽管两个城市居民的数量基本相同。所以,p 城市百姓显然比 b 市居民更加关注公立教育。

30.The following appeared as a recommendation by a committee planning a ten-year budget for the city of Calatrava. "The birthrate in our city is declining: in fact, last year's birthrate was only one-half that of five years ago. Thus the number of students enrolled in our public schools will soon decrease dramatically, and we can

32/104/167.The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of Quiot Manufacturing. "During the past year, Quiot Manufacturing had 30 percent more on-the-job accidents than at the nearby hour shorter than ours. Experts say that significant contributing factors in many on-the-job accidents are fatigue and sleep deprivation among workers. Therefore, to reduce the number of on-the-job accidents at Quiot and thereby increase productivity, we should shorten each of our three work shifts by one hour so that employees will get adequate amounts of sleep." 在过去,Q 工厂的工伤事故比邻近的 Panoply 工厂多 30%,Panoply 的每班工作时间比我们的短一个小时 。专 家相信导致很多工伤事故的重要因素就是工人的疲劳和

safely reduce the funds budgeted for education during the next decade. At the same time, we can reduce funding for athletic playing fields and other recreational facilities. As a result, we will have sufficient money to fund city facilities and programs used primarily by adults, since we can expect the adult population of the city to increase."

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睡眠不足。因此,为减少 Q 的工伤事故数量并提高生产效 率,我们应该把我们的三个班次的工作时间每个都减少一 小时,从而我们的雇员将有更充足的睡眠。

减少用于私人以及娱乐活动,比如购物或玩游戏的工作时 间,那些在电脑上不正当使用互联网的员工必须要被确认 并且受到惩罚。通过在公司电脑上安装检测员工使用互联 网的软件,我们可以防止员工浪费时间,并培养 C 公司更

33.The following appeared in a memorandum from the planning department of an electric power company. "Several recent surveys indicate that home owners are increasingly eager to conserve energy. At the same time, manufacturers are now marketing many home appliances, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, that are almost twice as energy efficient as those sold a decade ago. Also, new technologies for better home insulation and passive solar heating are readily available to reduce the energy needed for home heating. Therefore, the total demand for electricity in our area will not increase—and may decline slightly. Since our three electric generating plants in operation for the past twenty years have always met our needs, construction of new generating plants will not be necessary." 一些最近的调查表明,房主越来越强烈地希望节省能 源,并且生产商现在正在推出很多比十年前的电器几乎节 能两倍的家用电器,比如冰箱和空调,这些电器要比 10 前出售的节能 50%。而且,更好的房屋隔热和被动式太阳 能采暖的新技术已经可以用于减少家庭采暖所需的能源。 因此,我们预计我们地区的用电需求总量不会增加,而可 能有轻微下降。由于我们的已经运作了 20 年的三座发电 站总能够满足需求,我们无需建造新的发电厂。


35/52/128/129.The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment complex to its manager. "One month ago, all the showerheads in the first three buildings of the Sunnyside Towers complex were modified to restrict maximum water flow to one-third of what it used to be. Although actual readings of water usage before and after the adjustment are not yet available, the change will obviously result in a considerable savings for Sunnyside Corporation, since the corporation must pay for water each month. Except for a few complaints about low water pressure, no problems with showers have been reported since the adjustment. I predict that modifying showerheads to restrict water flow throughout all twelve buildings in the Sunnyside Towers complex will increase our profits even more dramatically." 一个月前,Sunnyside 塔楼最低的五层的所有淋浴喷头 被调节成水压只有以前的大约三分之一。尽管在调节之后 用水量的确切读数还没有出来,但这种变革显然将 为 Sunnyside 公司节省大量的花费,因为公司必须每月为所 用的水付费。除了关于低水压的几起投诉,在调节之后没 有发生关于淋浴喷头的问题的报告。我预计在 Sunnyside 塔楼所有的 12 层都限制水压将会增加我们未来的利润。

34/58/94.The vice president of human resources at Climpson Industries sent the following recommendation to the company's president. "In an effort to improve our employees' productivity, we should implement electronic monitoring of employees' Internet use from their workstations. Employees who use the Internet from their workstations need to be identified and punished if we are to reduce the number of work hours spent on personal or recreational activities, such as shopping or playing games. By installing software to detect employees' Internet use on company computers, we can prevent employees from wasting time, foster a better work ethic at Climpson, and improve our overall profits." 为提高我们的员工的生产效率,我们应该在员工的电脑 上加装电子监控来监视员工对互联网的使用。如果我们要

36/166.The following report appeared in the newsletter of the West Meria Public Health Council. "An innovative treatment has come to our attention that promises to significantly reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces. A study reports that in nearby East Meria, where fish consumption is very high, people visit the doctor only once or twice per year for the treatment of colds. Clearly, eating a substantial amount of fish can prevent colds. Since colds represent the most frequently given reason for absences from school and work, we recommend the daily use of Ichthaid—a nutritional supplement derived from fish oil—as a good way to prevent colds and lower absenteeism."

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我们注意到一种新的可以保证显著减少学校和工作岗 位缺席的疗法。一项研究显示在附近的 EM,鱼的消费量 很高,那的百姓每年因为感冒去看医生的次数每年只有一 两次。这表明吃大量的鱼很明显可以预防感冒。另外 ,由 于感冒是缺课和缺席的最常见原因,我们建议每天服用从 鱼油提炼出的营养物以来有效的预防感冒和减少缺席。

than they did five years ago, and our company profits will increase." 五年前,当我们在获取可靠的高质量羊毛毛料的渠道方 面存在困难的时候,我们停止了高档羊毛外衣的生产 。现 在有了新的毛料供应商,我们应该重新开始生产。这种外 衣应该会卖的很好:因为我们已经五年没有供应羊毛外衣 了,而且由于我们的主要竞争对手已不再生产羊毛外衣, 消费者将有很迫切的需求 。而且,由于过去五年中多数种 类的服装价格每年都在上涨,消费者应该愿意花比五年前 高的多的价格购买羊毛外衣,从而我们公司的利润将会上 升。

37.The following appeared in a recommendation from the planning department of the city of Transopolis. "Ten years ago, as part of a comprehensive urban renewal program, the city of Transopolis adapted for industrial use a large area of severely substandard housing near the freeway. Subsequently, several factories were constructed there, crime rates in the area declined, and property tax revenues for the entire city increased. To further revitalize the city, we should now take similar action in a declining residential area on the opposite side of the city. Since some houses and apartments in existing nearby neighborhoods are currently unoccupied, alternate housing for those displaced by this action will be readily available." 十年前,作为一项综合城市改造项目的一部分, Transopolis 市为了工业用途在快速路旁边改造了一大片 严重低于标准的住房。随后,那里建立了若干工厂,犯罪 率降低了,全市资产税收入增加。为进一步使城市重新繁 荣,我们应该在城市另一侧的正在衰落的居住区采取类似 的行动。由于现有邻近社区的一些住宅和公寓无人居住, 这一行动产生的搬迁户的住所将有所保障。

39/174.A recent sales study indicates that consumption of seafood dishes in Bay City restaurants has increased by 30 percent during the past five years. Yet there are no currently operating city restaurants whose specialty is seafood. Moreover, the majority of families in Bay City are two-income families, and a nationwide study has shown that such families eat significantly fewer home-cooked meals than they did a decade ago but at the same time express more concern about healthful eating. Therefore, the new Captain Seafood restaurant that specializes in seafood should be quite popular and profitable. 最近的销量调查显示 Bay City 餐馆的海鲜菜肴的消费 量比过去五年增加了 30%。而现在该市还没有专门经营海 鲜菜的餐厅。而且,Bay City 的大多数家庭是双收入家庭, 一次国家调查显示这类家庭在家做饭的数量比十年前显 著减少,同时他们更关注健康饮食 。因此,在 Bay City 开

38/95/96.The following appeared in a memo from the new vice president of Sartorian, a company that manufactures men's clothing. "Five years ago, at a time when we had difficulties in obtaining reliable supplies of high quality wool fabric, we discontinued production of our alpaca overcoat. Now that we have a new fabric supplier, we should resume production. This coat should sell very well: since we have not offered an alpaca overcoat for five years and since our major competitor no longer makes an alpaca overcoat, there will be pent-up customer demand. Also, since the price of most types of clothing has increased in each of the past five years, customers should be willing to pay significantly higher prices for alpaca overcoats

设一家新的专营海鲜食品的 C 餐馆将会非常受欢迎而且 有利可图。

40.Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium—substances essential for building and maintaining bones. Many people therefore say that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors and that causes the bones to weaken significantly with age. But a long-term study of a large number of people found that those who consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study. Since bone fractures are symptomatic of osteoporosis, this study result shows

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that a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of osteoporosis. 牛奶和奶制品富含维生素 D 和钙,这是骨骼生长和维持 所必须的物质。因此很多人相信多吃奶制品的饮食可以帮 助预防骨质疏松症,这是一种骨骼随年龄而显著弱化而且 与环境和基因因素相关联的疾病。但是一项对大量人群的 长期研究发现那些在研究期间经常食用奶制品的人骨折 发病率比其他参加研究的人要高。由于骨折是骨质疏松症 的症状之一,这一研究结果表明富含奶制品的饮食实际上 会增加而不是减少患骨质疏松症的危险

done to protect buildings on the nearby island of Batia, will help protect buildings along our shores, thereby reducing these buildings' risk of additional damage from severe storms. And since beaches and buildings in the area will be preserved, Tria's tourist industry will improve over the long term." T岛海岸的 E 沙滩的侵蚀对于我们岛和我们的旅游业是 个严重的威胁。为阻止侵蚀,我们应该对使用海滩的人收 费。尽管这一解决方案会在短期内触怒少量游客,它将会 减少使用海滩的人数并增加补充沙子的资金。象临近 的 Batia岛一样补充沙子将会有助于对我们沿岸建筑的保护,

41/123/125.The following appeared in a health newsletter. "A ten-year nationwide study of the effectiveness of wearing a helmet while bicycling indicates that ten years ago, approximately 35 percent of all bicyclists reported wearing helmets, whereas today that number is nearly 80 percent. Another study, however, suggests that during the same ten-year period, the number of bicycle-related accidents has increased 200 percent. These results demonstrate that bicyclists feel safer because they are wearing helmets, and they take more risks as a result. Thus, to reduce the number of serious injuries from bicycle accidents, the government should concentrate more on educating people about bicycle safety and less on encouraging or requiring bicyclists to wear helmets." 一项为期十年的对于在骑自行车时戴头盔的作用的研 究显示,10 年前,所有骑车人中大约有 35%报告说他们 戴头盔,现在这个比例接近 80%。然而另外一项调查显示 在相同的十年期间,因骑车引起的事故数量增加了 200%。 这些结果说明骑车人因为戴着头盔而感到更安全,因而导 致他们面临更大的危险。因此,为减少自行车事故中严重 伤害的数量,政府应该更多地对人们加强自行车安全的教 育,并提供鼓励或要求骑车人戴头盔的课程。

从而减少这些房屋在大风暴中受损的危险。由于房屋和海 滩将会受到保护,所以 T 岛地区的旅游业将会在长远得到 发展。

43.The following appeared in a memorandum written by the chairperson of the West Egg Town Council. "Two years ago, consultants predicted that West Egg's landfill, which is used for garbage disposal, would be completely filled within five years. During the past two years, however, the town's residents have been recycling twice as much material as they did in previous years. Next month the amount of recycled material—which includes paper, plastic, and metal—should further increase, since charges for pickup of other household garbage will double. Furthermore, over 90 percent of the respondents to a recent survey said that they would do more recycling in the future. Because of our town's strong commitment to recycling, the available space in our landfill should last for considerably longer than predicted." 两年前,我们的顾问预言 West Egg 用于投放垃圾的填 埋地将在五年内完全充满 。然而在过去两年间,市对于铝 和纸张的循环再生的数量比以前翻了一番。由于垃圾收集 的收费在下个月将会加倍 ,循环再生的材料数量将进一步 增加。而且,最近一次调查超过 90%的回应者表示他们将

42.The following is a letter to the head of the tourism bureau on the island of Tria. "Erosion of beach sand along the shores of Tria Island is a serious threat to our island and our tourist industry. In order to stop the erosion, we should charge people for using the beaches. Although this solution may annoy a few tourists in the short term, it will raise money for replenishing the sand. Replenishing the sand, as was

会在未来做更多的循环再生工作 。由于居对循环再生的有 力支持,我们填埋地可利用空间的使用时间将比预期的长 得多。

44.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a journal on environmental issues. "Over the past year, the Crust Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over 10,000 square miles of land

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in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Mining copper on this land will inevitably result in pollution and, since West Fredonia is the home of several endangered animal species, in environmental disaster. But such disasters can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCC's copper unless the company abandons its mining plans." 去年,CCC 公司在热带国家 West Fredonia 购买了上 万平方英里的土地。在这些地方采矿将会不可避免地导致 污染和环境灾害,因为 West Fredonia 是很多濒危物种的 栖居地。但如果消费者简单地拒绝购买用 CCC 所生产的 铜而制造的产品,直到 CCC 放弃它的采矿计划就可以避 免这种灾害。

"Medical experts say that only one-quarter of Corpora's citizens meet the current standards for adequate physical fitness, even though twenty years ago, one-half of all of Corpora's citizens met the standards as then defined. But these experts are mistaken when they suggest that spending too much time using computers has caused a decline in fitness. Since overall fitness levels are highest in regions of Corpora where levels of computer ownership are also highest, it is clear that using computers has not made citizens less physically fit. Instead, as shown by this year's unusually low expenditures on fitness-related products and services, the recent decline in the economy is most likely the cause, and fitness levels will

45/49.The following is part of a memorandum from the president of Humana University. "Last year the number of students who enrolled in online degree programs offered by nearby Omni University increased by 50 percent. During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because instruction in the online programs takes place via the Internet. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana University has failed to grow, and the cost of maintaining buildings has increased along with our budget deficit. To address these problems, Humana University will begin immediately to create and actively promote online

improve when the economy does." 医学专家指出 C 市只有四分之一的市民达到了目前的 健康标准,尽管 20 年前,C 的市有一半都达到了那时由 国家制定的健康标准。同时专家们认为长时间的使用电脑 可能是导致这一现象的原因,但这样的解释可能是错的。 由于 C 市是电脑拥有量最高的地区也是总体健康水平最 高的地区,显然使用电脑并没有导致市民体质的下降 。相 反,今年用于健身产品和服务的花费低的异乎寻常,这表 明最近经济的衰退最可能是原因 ,当经济复苏了健康水平 也会随之提高。

47/111/112..The following appeared in a memorandum from the owner of Movies Galore, a chain of movie-rental stores. "Because of declining profits, we must reduce operating expenses at Movies Galore's ten movie-rental stores. Raising prices is not a good option, since we are famous for our low prices. Instead, we should reduce our operating hours. Last month our store in downtown Marston reduced its hours by closing at 6:00 p.m. rather than 9:00 p.m. and reduced its overall inventory by no longer stocking any DVD released more than five years ago. Since we have received very few customer complaints about these new policies, we should now adopt them at all other Movies Galore stores as our best strategies for improving profits." 由于利润下降,我们必须压缩 G 公司的十家录像租赁 店的营业开支。涨价并不是一个好选择,因为我们就是因 特价销售而知名的。因此我们应该缩短营业时间。上个月 我们位于闹市区 Marston 的店营业时间从以前的 9 点缩减

degree programs like those at Omni. We predict that instituting these online degree programs will help Humana both increase its total enrollment and solve its budget problems." 去年报名参加附近 Omni 大学远程教学系统的学生人数 上升了 50%。同年,Omni 用于宿舍和教室的开支比前一 年显著下降,很可能是因为远程教学通过互动电脑录像授 课。比较而言,在过去三年中,Humana 学院的报名人数 下降了,而且用于房屋维护的费用和财政赤字都上升 。因 此,为解决这些问题,我们也应该开展并积极推广与 Omni 一样的远程教学系统。我们预计推出这样的在线课程不光 可以增加我们的招生也同时可以解决目前的财政赤字危 机。

46.The following appeared in a health magazine published in Corpora.

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到下午 6 点,并通过不再保留发行 5 年以上的电影来减少 总库存量。由于我们所收到的客户关于这些新政策的投诉 很少,我们应该在所有 G 公司的商店实施这些政策作为增 加利润的最好策略。

that lavender cures insomnia within a short period of time. 一种古老的传统治疗失眠的偏方--薰衣草花香,现在被 证明是有效的。在一次最近的调查中,30 名患有慢性失眠 的志愿者在三周之内每晚都在一个受监视的控制室内睡 在带薰衣草花香的枕头上 。在第一周,志愿者继续服用他 们常用的安眠药。他们睡得很沉但醒来时很累。在第二周, 他们不服用药物。结果与前一周相比他们睡得不那么沉并 且感觉更累。在第三周,他们睡得比前两周时间长而且更 深。这表明薰衣草在短时间内治愈了失眠。

48.The following appeared in a magazine article about planning for retirement. "Clearview should be a top choice for anyone seeking a place to retire, because it has spectacular natural beauty and a consistent climate. Another advantage is that housing costs in Clearview have fallen significantly during the past year, and taxes remain lower than those in neighboring towns. Moreover, Clearview's mayor promises many new programs to improve schools, streets, and public services. And best of all, retirees in Clearview can also expect excellent health care as they grow older, since the number of physicians in the area is far greater than the national average." Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument. 由于 Clearview 的天然景色和温和气候,它应该成为那 些为退休后寻找生活地的人的首选。另一项好处是, Clearview 的房价在去年显著下降,房地产税一直比邻近 城市低。而且,Clearview 的市长承诺了很多新方案来改 学校、街道和公共服务。Clearview 的退休人员也可以在 老年时享受到出色的医疗服务,因为该地区的医生数量高 于全国平均水平。

53/144/151.Benton City residents have adopted healthier lifestyles. A recent survey of city residents shows that the eating habits of city residents conform more closely to government nutritional recommendations than they did ten years ago. During those ten years, local sales of food products containing kiran, a substance that a scientific study has shown reduces cholesterol, have increased fourfold, while sales of sulia, a food rarely eaten by the healthiest residents, have declined dramatically. Because of these positive changes in the eating habits of Benton City residents, we predict that the obesity rate in the city will soon be well below the national average. B 市的居民选择了更健康的生活方式。他们对于最近一 项调查的回答显示,他们的饮食习惯比十年前更加贴近政 府的营养建议。而且,含有 kiran 的食品销量增长了四倍, 在一次科学研究中发现 kiran 是一种能够降低胆固醇水平 的物质。这种趋势同样也被 sulia 的销量下降所证实,sulia 是那些最健康的居极少经常食用的食品。由于这些 B 市居 民饮食习惯的积极改变,我们预计该市的肥胖率将很快低 于全国平均水平。

50.An ancient, traditional remedy for insomnia—the scent of lavender flowers—has now been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored electronically. During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual sleeping medication. They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. At the beginning of the second week, the volunteers discontinued their sleeping medication. During that week, they slept less soundly than the previous week and felt even more tired. During the third week, the volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks. Therefore, the study proves

54/165.Humans arrived in the Kaliko Islands about 7,000 years ago, and within 3,000 years most of the large mammal species that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct. Yet humans cannot have been a factor in the species' extinctions, because there is no evidence that the humans had any significant contact with the mammals. Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the bones of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals, so the humans cannot have hunted the mammals. Therefore, some

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climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species' extinctions. 大约 7000 年前人类到达了 Kaliko 岛,在 3000 年内曾 经生活在 Kaliko 岛的树林中的大型哺乳动物绝大多数已 经灭绝了。然而人类并不是导致这些物种灭绝的因素 ,因 为没有证据表明人类与这些哺乳动物有很多接触。而且, 考古学家发现一些有大量鱼骨被抛弃的场所,而他们并没 有发现存在大型哺乳动物骨头的类似场所,因而人类并没 有猎杀这些哺乳动物。因此,一定是一些气候上的变化或 其他环境因素导致了这些物种的灭绝。

the new study shows that despite our socks' durability, our average customer actually purchases new Dura-Socks every three months. Furthermore, our customers surveyed in our largest market, northeastern United States cities, say that they most value Dura-Socks' stylish appearance and availability in many colors. These findings suggest that we can increase our profits by discontinuing use of the Endure manufacturing process." 最近一次对于 Dura-Sock 使用者的调查表明我们公司 用于其专利生产方式"Endure"上的钱是浪费的,这种方式 使我们生产的袜子足以使用两年。 Dura-Sock 一直在做

55.The following appeared in an editorial in a business magazine. "Although the sales of Whirlwind video games have declined over the past two years, a recent survey of video-game players suggests that this sales trend is about to be reversed. The survey asked video-game players what features they thought were most important in a video game. According to the survey, players prefer games that provide lifelike graphics, which require the most up-to-date computers. Whirlwind has just introduced several such games with an extensive advertising campaign directed at people ten to twenty-five years old, the age-group most likely to play video games. It follows, then, that the sales of Whirlwind video games are likely to increase dramatically in the next few months." 尽管 Whirlwind 游戏公司的游戏销量在过去两年中下降 了,最近一次对于电子游戏玩家的调查显示这种销售趋势 可能会逆转。该调查询问游戏玩家对于一个游戏来说他们 所认为的最重要特征是什么。根据调查结果,玩家倾向于 那些需要最先进的电脑的,具有活灵活现图象的游戏 。 Whirlwind 刚刚面向 10-25 岁的人群开展了大力的广告 活动来推广若干此类游戏,10-25 岁是最喜欢玩游戏的 年龄层。这说明 Whirlwind 公司的游戏销量将会在未来几 个月猛增。

广告宣传它使用"Endure"方式,但这次新调查显示尽管我 们的袜子十分耐穿,但 Dura-Sock 的消费者每三个月就买 一双 Dura-Sock 袜子。而且,在位于美国北部城市我们最 大的商场回应调查的 Dura-Sock 消费者说他们最欣赏 Dura-Sock 时尚的外观和众多颜色的选择。这些事实说明 Dura-Sock 可以通过停止使用"Endure"生产方式来增加盈 利。

59.The following appeared in a memo from the president of Bower Builders, a company that constructs new homes. "A nationwide survey reveals that the two most-desired home features are a large family room and a large, well-appointed kitchen. A number of homes in our area built by our competitor Domus Construction have such features and have sold much faster and at significantly higher prices than the national average. To boost sales and profits, we should increase the size of the family rooms and kitchens in all the homes we build and should make state-of-the-art kitchens a standard feature. Moreover, our larger family rooms and kitchens can come at the expense of the dining room, since many of our recent buyers say they do not need a separate dining room for family meals." 一项全国性调查发现人们最想拥有的两项家庭设施就 是具备冲浪浴缸的浴室和大厨房 。我们的竞争对手 Domus Construction 在附近开发的新住宅安装了冲浪浴缸,这些 住宅的销售速度和售价显著高于平均水平。为增加我们的 销售和利润,我们应该在所有新住宅中设置冲浪浴缸和大 型厨房作为标准配置。由于我们的新客户没有提出对小型 庭院的任何投诉,我们也可以通过减小庭院的尺寸来增加 盈利。

56/57/82.The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of marketing at Dura-Sock, Inc. "A recent study of our customers suggests that our company is wasting the money it spends on its patented Endure manufacturing process, which ensures that our socks are strong enough to last for two years. We have always advertised our use of the Endure process, but

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62/121/122.The following appeared in a memo from 60/145/146/150/154/155.The following appeared in a letter from a firm providing investment advice for a client. "Most homes in the northeastern United States, where winters are typically cold, have traditionally used oil as their major fuel for heating. Last heating season that region experienced 90 days with below-normal temperatures, and climate forecasters predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years. Furthermore, many new homes are being built in the region in response to recent population growth. Because of these trends, we predict an increased demand for heating oil and recommend investment in Consolidated Industries, one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil." 在冬季非常寒冷的美国东北部的房屋 ,一直都使用传统 的油料作为采暖的主要燃料。去年该地区经历了 90 天低 于往年平均气温的严寒,并且气象预测家们预测这种天气 会持续未来数年。而且,去年由于人口增长,本地建造了 很多的房屋。按此趋势,我们预测对于油料的需求将会增 加,同时也建议对 CI 公司投资,该公司的不要业务之一 就是家用采暖油料的零售。 63.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Parkville Daily newspaper. "Throughout the country last year, as more and more children below the age of nine participated in 61/139/141/143.The following appeared in an article in the Grandview Beacon. "For many years the city of Grandview has provided annual funding for the Grandview Symphony. Last year, however, private contributions to the symphony increased by 200 percent and attendance at the symphony's concerts-in-the-park series doubled. The symphony has also announced an increase in ticket prices for next year. Given such developments, some city commissioners argue that the symphony can now be fully self-supporting, and they recommend that funding for the symphony be eliminated from next year's budget." 这么多年来 G 市政府每年都资助 G 的交响乐团。但是 去年,个人对乐团的资助增加了 200%,同时乐团公园音 乐会的人数翻了一番。另外乐团还宣布明年的票价将会提 高。鉴于目前局面,一些 G 市的官员们认为 G 的交响乐 团可以独立维持生存,可以取消明年对该乐团的政府资 助。 64.Collectors prize the ancient life-size clay statues of human figures made on Kali Island but have long wondered how Kalinese artists were able to depict youth-league sports, over 40,000 of these young players suffered injuries. When interviewed for a recent study, youth-league soccer players in several major cities also reported psychological pressure exerted by coaches and parents to win games. Furthermore, education experts say that long practice sessions for these sports take away time that could be used for academic activities. Since the disadvantages outweigh any advantages, we in Parkville should discontinue organized athletic competition for children under nine." 去年在全国范围内,随着越来越多的 9 岁以下儿童参加 少年体育比赛,有超过 40000 的少年选手受伤。在最近一 次研究所作的采访中,很多大城市的少年足球选手报告说 存在来自教练和家长要求赢得比赛的心理压力。而且 ,教 育专家指出这些运动项目长时间的训练占据了本应用于 学习的时间。由于不利因素明显超过了有利因素,我 们 Parkville 应该停止组织 9 岁以下儿童的体育比赛。 the director of a large group of hospitals. "In a laboratory study of liquid antibacterial hand soaps, a concentrated solution of UltraClean produced a 40 percent greater reduction in the bacteria population than did the liquid hand soaps currently used in our hospitals. During a subsequent test of UltraClean at our hospital in Workby, that hospital reported significantly fewer cases of patient infection than did any of the other hospitals in our group. Therefore, to prevent serious patient infections, we should supply UltraClean at all hand-washing stations throughout our hospital system." 再一次对于抗菌洗手液的实验研究中,UC 浓缩液比我 们医院目前使用的洗手液多杀 40%的细菌。我们对在 W 的医院做的随后测试中发现,该医院上报的患者感染数量 明显少于我们集团的其他医院。因此,为防止严重的患者 感染,我们应该在我们的医院系统内的所有洗手站提 供 UC 洗手液。

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bodies with such realistic precision. Since archaeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands on Kali, we can now conclude that the ancient Kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools and techniques, to create these statues. This discovery explains why Kalinese miniature statues were abstract and entirely different in style: molds could be used only for life-size sculptures. It also explains why few ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found. In light of this discovery, collectors predict that the life-size sculptures will decrease in value while the miniatures increase in value. 收藏家很欣赏 Kali 岛出产的古代等身泥土雕像,但长期 以来不清楚 Kali 的艺术家如何能够以如此高的精确度刻 画人体。由于考古学家最近在 Kali 发现了人类头部和手的 模具,我们现在可以得出结论:古代 Kali 艺术家使用真人 的模子,而不是雕刻工具和技艺来塑造这些雕像 。这一发 现解释了为什么 Kali 的缩微雕像是抽象的而且风格迥异: 模子只能被用于等身雕像。它同样也解释了为什么很少发 现 Kali 的雕刻工具。由于有了这一研究进展,收藏家应预 见到等身雕像的贬值以及缩微雕像的升值。

然应该提供更多的长椅,从而把一些未加利用的开阔地转 化成适于人们交往的空间。

66/107/108.The following appeared in a memo from the owner of a chain of cheese stores located throughout the United States. "For many years all the stores in our chain have stocked a wide variety of both domestic and imported cheeses. Last year, however, all of the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store were domestic cheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey by Cheeses of the World magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses among its subscribers. Since our company can reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way to improve profits in all of our stores is to discontinue stocking many of our varieties of imported cheese and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses." 很多年来我们的所有连锁店都储备了很多种类的国产 奶酪和进口奶酪。然而去年,我们的最新店里五种销量最 高的奶酪都是威斯康星出产的 cheddar 奶酪。而且,最近 一次由 Cheese of the World 杂志所举行的调查显示,其 订阅者对于国产奶酪的倾向性越来越高。由于我们公司可 以通过限制库存来减少开支,在我们所有连锁店增加盈利 的最好方式就是停止贮备很多进口奶酪而主要集中于国 产奶酪。

65.When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used public park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. Video cameras mounted in the park's parking lots last month revealed the park's drop in popularity: the recordings showed an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than 150 people on a typical weekday. An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as Carlton Park, the town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing. 当 Stanley 公园第一次开放的时候,它是本市最大 ,使 用频率最高的公园。现在它仍是最大的,但使用频率已经 不再高了。上个月在公园停车场架设的摄像机发现公园的 受欢迎度下降了:录像显示平均每天只有 50 辆车。与之 相比,位于商业区中心地带的 Carlton 小公园在工作日每 天游客超过 150 人。一个很明显的差异就是 Carlton 公园 与 Stanley 公园不同,它提供充足的座椅。因此,如果 Stanley 公园想要和 Carlton 获得同等的受欢迎度的话,显

67.The following appeared as part of a business plan developed by the manager of the Rialto Movie Theater. "Despite its downtown location, the Rialto Movie Theater, a local institution for five decades, must make big changes or close its doors forever. It should follow the example of the new Apex Theater in the mall outside of town. When the Apex opened last year, it featured a video arcade, plush carpeting and seats, and a state-of-the-art sound system. Furthermore, in a recent survey, over 85 percent of respondents reported that the high price of newly released movies prevents them from going to the movies more than five times per year. Thus, if the Rialto intends to hold on to its share of a decreasing pool of moviegoers, it must offer the same features as Apex." 尽管已成立 50 余年的当地机构 Rialto 剧院地处闹市, 它必须采取重大变革,否则就将面临永久停业。它应该借

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鉴城外商业街上新的 Apex 剧院的例子。Apex 去年开业的 时候,它拥有视听走廊,豪华地毯和座椅,以及最先进的 音响系统。而且,最近一次调查中,超过 85%的被访者报 告说新发行影片的过高票价致使他们看电影的次数每年 至少减少五次。因此,如果 Rialto 想在电影观众减少的情 况下保持市场份额,它必须提供和 Apex 相同的设施和服 务。

construction. Given these data, plus the fact that Zeta has a stable workforce with little employee turnover, we recommend using Zeta rather than Alpha for our new building project, even though Alpha's bid promises lower construction costs." 10 年以前我们公司在两个不同地区拥有两座地方办公 建筑。它们由两家建筑公司--Alpha 和 Zeta 分别建造。尽 管两座建筑的平面布局基本相同,由 Zeta 所建造的建筑 造价高出了 30%,但去年的维护费用是由 Alpha 建的楼 的 50%。而且,Z 大楼建成以来的能耗每年都比 Alpha 大 楼要少。这些数据,再加上 Z 公司拥有稳定的员工队伍且 雇员流动性很小的事实,表明我们应该使用 Z 建筑公司而 不是 A 公司来建造未来的建筑工程,尽管 A 的标书承诺造 价会更低。

68.A recent study reported that pet owners have longer, healthier lives on average than do people who own no pets. Specifically, dog owners tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease. In light of these findings, Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an adopt-a-dog program. The program would encourage dog ownership for patients recovering from heart disease, which should reduce these patients' chance of experiencing continuing heart problems and also reduce their need for ongoing treatment. As a further benefit, the publicity about the program would encourage more people to adopt pets from the shelter. And that will reduce the incidence of heart disease in the general population. 一项最近的研究报告说养宠物的人平均而言比不养宠 物的人活得更长更健康。特别是,养狗的人心脏病发病率 更低。根据这些发现,Sherwood 医院应该和 Sherwood 动物收养所合作建立一个"收养狗"的计划。这一计划将会 鼓励正在治疗心脏病的患者养狗,这将通过减少这些患者 接受治疗的次数而减少医疗费用。而且,对于这一计划的 宣传将鼓励更多的人从收养所领养宠物,这将减少整体人 群患心脏病的危险。

71.The following is a letter to the editor of the Waymarsh Times. "Traffic here in Waymarsh is becoming a problem. Although just three years ago a state traffic survey showed that the typical driving commuter took 20 minutes to get to work, the commute now takes closer to 40 minutes, according to the survey just completed. Members of the town council already have suggested more road building to address the problem, but as well as being expensive, the new construction will surely disrupt some of our residential neighborhoods. It would be better to follow the example of the nearby city of Garville. Last year Garville implemented a policy that rewards people who share rides to work, giving them coupons for free gas. Pollution levels in Garville have dropped since the policy was implemented, and people from Garville tell me that commuting times have fallen

69/70/115.The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of a large, highly diversified company. "Ten years ago our company had two new office buildings constructed as regional headquarters for two regions. The buildings were erected by different construction companies—Alpha and Zeta. Although the two buildings had identical floor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to build. However, that building's expenses for maintenance last year were only half those of Alpha's. In addition, the energy consumption of the Zeta building has been lower than that of the Alpha building every year since its

considerably. There is no reason why a policy like Garville's shouldn't work equally well in Waymarsh." W 的交通已经成为一个大问题。尽管 3 年前一个全国的 交通调查显示开车上班族需 20 分钟,而最近调查显示现 在却要 40 分钟。市议会已经建议修筑更多的公路来解决 这一问题,但这需要很多钱,同时工程也给本地百姓带了 一些不便。我们应该效仿临近的 G 市,去年 G 市实施一 项政策鼓励人们合伙搭车 ,并给他们免费的加油卷。政策 实施后,G 的污染减轻了,一些 G 的人们告诉我在路上的 时间明显的快了很多。因此,我们 W 采用相同的政策也 一定会达到相同的效果。

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72.The following appeared as a letter to the editor of a national newspaper. "Your recent article on corporate downsizing* in Elthyria maintains that the majority of competent workers who have lost jobs as a result of downsizing face serious economic hardship, often for years, before finding other suitable employment. But this claim is undermined by a recent report on the Elthyrian economy, which found that since 1999 far more jobs have been created than have been eliminated, bringing the unemployment rate in Elthyria to its lowest level in decades. Moreover, two-thirds of these newly created jobs have been in industries that tend to pay above-average wages, and the vast majority of these jobs are full-time." *Downsizing is the process whereby corporations deliberately make themselves smaller, reducing the number of their employees. 你们最近关于 E 国集体裁员的文章里称很多在企业面 临严重经济困难的时候裁员而导致失业的有能力的工人 通常要用几年的时间找到另一份合适的工作。但这种观点 与最近一次关于 E 国经济的报告相矛盾,报告发现自 1999 年以来新增的就业机会数量远超过被取消的岗位数量。, 并且使 E 的失业率达到了近几十年的最低水平。另外,新 增就业机会中有三分之二是那些提供高于平均水平薪酬 的企业提供的,而且这些岗位绝大多数是全职工作。

到摇滚。第三,学校员工包括一些本地最著名的音乐家。 最后,很多 Mozart 的毕业生已经成为著名而且较高收入 的音乐家。

74/147/148/149/156.The following recommendation was made by the president and administrative staff of Grove College, a private institution, to the college's governing committee. "Recently, there have been discussions about ending Grove College's century-old tradition of all-female education by admitting male students into our programs. At a recent faculty meeting, a majority of faculty members voted in favor of coeducation, arguing that it would encourage more students to apply to Grove. However, Grove students, both past and present, are against the idea of coeducation. Eighty percent of the students responding to a survey conducted by the student government wanted the school to remain all female, and over half of the alumnae who answered a separate survey also opposed coeducation. Therefore, we recommend maintaining Grove College's tradition of all-female education. We predict that keeping the college all-female will improve morale among students and convince alumnae to keep supporting the college financially." 最近,人们一直讨论关于结束 G 大学一个世纪以来的 女校传统,开始接受男学生。在最近的一次学院会议上, 有大部分员工投票赞成男女同校 ,认为这会使更多的学生 申请 Grove。但是 G 的学生,不论现在还是已经毕业的, 都反对同校教育。由学生会所组织的一次调查中,有 80 %的被访学生要求学校维持女校形式,并且在回应了一次 单独调查的校友中超过一半的人也反对男女同校。因此, 我们建议继续维持 G 的女校形式。我们预计保持女校的形 式将促进学生的精神状态并且让校友继续对学院进行财 政资助。

73.The following appeared on the Mozart School of Music Web site. "The Mozart School of Music should be the first choice for parents considering enrolling their child in music lessons. First of all, the Mozart School welcomes youngsters at all ability and age levels; there is no audition to attend the school. Second, the school offers instruction in nearly all musical instruments as well a wide range of styles and genres from classical to rock. Third, the faculty includes some of the most distinguished musicians in the area. Finally, many Mozart graduates have gone on to become well-known and highly paid professional musicians." Mozart 音乐学校显然应该是所有学音乐学生家长的第 一选择。首先,Mozart 学校面向所有年龄段和能力的孩子 们进行招生,并且没有任何的面试。其次,学校提供几乎 所有的乐器以及范围广泛的曲风和流派学习课程,从古典

75.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a Batavia newspaper. "The department of agriculture in Batavia reports that the number of dairy farms throughout the country is now 25 percent greater than it was 10 years ago. During this same time period, however, the price of milk at the local Excello Food Market has increased from $1.50 to over $3.00 per gallon. To prevent farmers from continuing to

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receive excessive profits on an apparently increased supply of milk, the Batavia government should begin to regulate retail milk prices. Such regulation is necessary to ensure fair prices for consumers." Batavia 的农业部门报告说全国奶牛农庄的数量比 10 年前增加了 25%。然而就在同一时期,当地 Excello Food Market 牛奶的价格从每加仑$1.5 上涨到了$3.0。为防止 农场主在牛奶供应量明显增加的情况下获取过多的利润, Batavia 的政府应限制牛奶的零售价。这种规定对于稳定 物价是必需的。

revenue that the city can use to fund much-needed public improvements." 两年前 SV 建造了一个新的市立高尔夫球场和度假旅 馆。此后,SV 旅游局报告说旅客增加了 20%,另外当地 银行报告说他们今年受到的新的商业贷款申请大幅提升, 同时 SV 的税收也增加了,并使 SV 的当局宣布要计划改 善当地的道路和桥梁。我们建议 B 也应该建立一个和 SV 类似的高尔夫球场和度假旅馆。我们预计该项目会提升我 们的税收以来去扶持当地公共设施的改善。

78/114/117/116.The following appeared in a memo 76.The following appeared in a newsletter offering advice to investors. "Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reduce their intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores. Since many of the food products currently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the company's sales are likely to diminish greatly and company profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares, and other investors not to purchase stock in this company." 最近一次调查中超过 80%的回应者表达了他们想减少 含脂肪和胆固醇的食品的愿望,现在很多食品商店都提供 丰富的低脂肪食品。由于 Old Dairy Industries 当前生产的 很多产品都有很高的脂肪和胆固醇含量,该公司的销量有 可能严重下降,其盈利无疑会减少。因而我们建议 Old Dairy 的贡持有者抛出他们所持的股份,其他投资者也不 应购买该公司的股份。 from the vice president of a food distribution company with food storage warehouses in several cities. "Recently, we signed a contract with the Fly-Away Pest Control Company to provide pest control services at our fast-food warehouse in Palm City, but last month we discovered that over $20,000 worth of food there had been destroyed by pest damage. Meanwhile, the Buzzoff Pest Control Company, which we have used for many years, continued to service our warehouse in Wintervale, and last month only $10,000 worth of the food stored there had been destroyed by pest damage. Even though the price charged by Fly-Away is considerably lower, our best means of saving money is to return to Buzzoff for all our pest control services." 最近我们和 Fly-Away Pest-Control 公司签订了一项合 同来为我们在 Palm City 的快餐食品仓库提供杀虫服务, 但上个月我们发现,那里有价值超过$20000 的食品被害 虫破坏。同时,我们使用多年的 Buzzoff Pest-Control 公 司继续在 Wintervale 的仓库服务,上个月那里只有价值 $10000 的食品被害虫破坏。尽管 Fly-Away 的收费低廉的 77/169.The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of Brindleburg to the city council. "Two years ago, the town of Seaside Vista opened a new municipal golf course and resort hotel. Since then, the Seaside Vista Tourism Board has reported a 20% increase in visitors. In addition, local banks reported a steep rise in the number of new business loan applications they received this year. The amount of tax money collected by Seaside Vista has also increased, allowing the town to announce plans to improve Seaside Vista's roads and bridges. We recommend building a similar golf course and resort hotel in Brindleburg. We predict that this project will generate additional tax 79.Since those issues of Newsbeat magazine that featured political news on their front cover were the poorest-selling issues over the past three years, the publisher of Newsbeat has recommended that the magazine curtail its emphasis on politics to focus more exclusively on economics and personal finance. She points to a recent survey of readers of general interest magazines that indicates greater reader interest in economic issues than in political ones. Newsbeat's editor, however, opposes the proposed shift in editorial 多,我们节省收费的最好方式就是重新使用 Buzzoff 公司 来提供我们所有的杀虫服务。

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policy, pointing out that very few magazines offer extensive political coverage anymore. 鉴于过去三年中 N 报纸销量最低的几期杂志是在封面 上刊登了国际新闻故事的那几期,N 报纸出版商建议该杂 志减少对政治的关注而应更多的转向经济和个人理财方 面。她指出在最近的一次大众感兴趣的杂志调查中显示大 部分读者对经济问题的关注大于对政治方面的关注 。然后 N 报纸的编辑却反对这样的变革,他指出很少有杂志会大 量的报道政治内容。

cans. The chemists did find small amounts of the three remaining suspected chemicals but pointed out that these occur naturally in all canned foods." 去年由于有大量消费者投诉说产生了眩晕和恶心, 下结论说这些罐头根本不含任何有健康危害的化学物质。 这一结论基于这样的事实,即 Promofoods 的化学家测试 了回收的罐头样本,并发现 8 种最常见的导致眩晕和恶心 症状的化学物质中,有五种都没有在任何被测试的罐头中 被发现。化学家确实发现剩下三种受怀疑的化学物质在所 有其他罐头食品中都存在 ,并指出这在所有的关头中都存

80.The following is taken from a memo from the advertising director of the Super Screen Movie Production Company. "According to a recent report from our marketing department, during the past year, fewer people attended Super Screen-produced movies than in any other year. And yet the percentage of positive reviews by movie reviewers about specific Super Screen movies actually increased during the past year. Clearly, the contents of these reviews are not reaching enough of our prospective viewers. Thus, the problem lies not with the quality of our movies but with the public's lack of awareness that movies of good quality are available. Super Screen should therefore allocate a greater share of its budget next year to reaching the public through advertising." 最近我们的市场部门调查显示,尽管观众们对 S 的正面 评价增加,但去年来 S 影院的人数为近几年最低。很明显, 这些评价还未能深入我们未来的观众的心理。因此,目前 的问题不在于我们的影片质量而是大众根本没有意识到 我们拥有如此高质量的影片。因此,S 影院应该将明年更 多的预算资金用于广告以来让更多人认识到我们的影片。


83/84.The following is a letter to the editor of an environmental magazine. "In 1975 a wildlife census found that there were seven species of amphibians in Xanadu National Park, with abundant numbers of each species. However, in 2002 only four species of amphibians were observed in the park, and the numbers of each species were drastically reduced. There has been a substantial decline in the numbers of amphibians worldwide, and global pollution of water and air is clearly implicated. The decline of amphibians in Xanadu National Park, however, almost certainly has a different cause: in 1975, trout—which are known to eat amphibian eggs—were introduced into the park." 1975 年国家公园野生动物调查显示其有 7中两栖动物, 每种的数量都很丰富。然而到了 202 年在公园中只观察到 4 种两栖动物,并且每种动物的数量都显著下降。同时全 球两栖动物数量也在持续的下降 ,有可能是由于全球空气 和水质的污染。但 X 公园的下降有几乎确定是另外一种原 因导致的:1975 年的在公园水域引入鲑鱼的行为(鲑鱼 捕食两栖动物的卵)。

81.The following appeared in a business magazine. "As a result of numerous complaints of dizziness and nausea on the part of consumers of Promofoods tuna, the company requested that eight million cans of its tuna be returned for testing. Promofoods concluded that the canned tuna did not, after all, pose a health risk. This conclusion is based on tests performed on samples of the recalled cans by chemists from Promofoods; the chemists found that of the eight food chemicals most commonly blamed for causing symptoms of dizziness and nausea, five were not found in any of the tested 85/87.In a study of the reading habits of Waymarsh citizens conducted by the University of Waymarsh, most respondents said that they preferred literary classics as reading material. However, a second study conducted by the same researchers found that the type of book most frequently checked out of each of the public libraries in Waymarsh was the mystery novel. Therefore, it can be concluded that the respondents in the first study had misrepresented their reading habits.

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在一次由 W 大学所举行的关于 W 居阅读习惯的调查 中,多数被访者说他们倾向于阅读古典文学 。然而,由相 同的研究人员随后进行的调查发现 W 所有公共图书馆中 最经常被借阅的书是神秘小说。因此,我们可以得出结论, 第一次调查的被访者错误地表达了他们的阅读习惯

eastern preserve, the imported western gazelle population has been virtually eliminated. Since the slight reduction in rainfall cannot be the cause of the virtual elimination of western gazelle, their disappearance must have been caused by the larger number of predators in the eastern preserve. 3 年前,由于 P 西部野生动物保护区的洪水,100 只狮 子和 100 只西部羚羊被转移到了东部,这里也是很多与西 部物种属相同种族的物种的家,尽管数量更大,同时也是 西部羚羊的近亲-东部羚羊的家。气候上唯一的区别就是东 部雨量微少一些。不幸的是,3 年后,东部保护区的外来 西部羚羊几乎绝迹。因为雨量的微小差别不可能是导致西 部羚羊灭绝的原因,其灭绝原因一定是因为东部保护区内 大量的食肉动物的存在。

86/89.The following appeared in a memo at XYZ company. "When XYZ lays off employees, it pays Delany Personnel Firm to offer those employees assistance in creating résumé and developing interviewing skills, if s they so desire. Laid-off employees have benefited greatly from Delany's services: last year those who used Delany found jobs much more quickly than did those who did not. Recently, it has been proposed that we use the less expensive Walsh Personnel Firm in place of Delany. This would be a mistake because eight years ago, when XYZ was using Walsh, only half of the workers we laid off at that time found jobs within a year. Moreover, Delany is clearly superior, as evidenced by its bigger staff and larger number of branch offices. After all, last year Delany's clients took an average of six months to find jobs, whereas Walsh's clients took nine." 当 XYZ 裁员的时候,它雇佣了 Delany 人事公司在这些 下岗员工有需要的时候为他们在写简历和提高面试技巧 方面提供帮助。下岗员工从 Delany 的服务中极大受益: 去年获得了 Delany 帮助的员工找工作比没有找 Delany 的 员工快的多。最近,有提案提出用收费较少的 Walsh 人事 公司代替 Delany。这将是一个错误,因为在 8 年前,XYZ 使用的就是 Walsh,我们当时裁减的员工只有一半在一年 之内找到了工作。而且,Delany 显然更好,理由是它的员 工更多,分支机构也更多。不论如何,去年 Delany 的客 户平均用六个月找到工作,而 Walsh 的客户平均用了 9 个月。

92.Workers in the small town of Leeville take fewer sick days than workers in the large city of Masonton, 50 miles away. Moreover, relative to population size, the diagnosis of stress-related illness is proportionally much lower in Leeville than in Masonton. According to the Leeville Chamber of Commerce, these facts can be attributed to the health benefits of the relatively relaxed pace of life in Leeville. 小城镇 L 的的员工病假天数比 50 英里外的大城市 Mason 要少。而且,相对于人口数量,L 的抑郁类诊断人 数也远远少于 M。根据 L 的商业部门总结,这样的健康状 态归结于 L 相对比较悠闲的生活节奏。

97.The following appeared in an e-mail sent by the marketing director of the Classical Shakespeare Theatre of Bardville. "Over the past ten years, there has been a 20 percent decline in the size of the average audience at Classical Shakespeare Theatre productions. In spite of increased advertising, we are attracting fewer and fewer people to

91.Three years ago, because of flooding at the Western Palean Wildlife Preserve, 100 lions and 100 western gazelles were moved to the East Palean Preserve, an area that is home to most of the same species that are found in the western preserve, though in larger numbers, and to the eastern gazelle, a close relative of the western gazelle. The only difference in climate is that the eastern preserve typically has slightly less rainfall. Unfortunately, after three years in the

our shows, causing our profits to decrease significantly. We must take action to attract new audience members. The best way to do so is by instituting a 'Shakespeare in the Park' program this summer. Two years ago the nearby Avon Repertory Company started a 'Free Plays in the Park' program, and its profits have increased 10 percent since then. If we start a 'Shakespeare in the Park' program, we can predict that our profits will increase, too."

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在过去的 10 年间,CS 剧院的平均观众人数下降了 20%。尽管广告的力度加大,但却越来越难以吸引观众来 看我们的演出,结果导致我们的利润明显下滑 。我们必须 要采取行动来吸引新的观众,最好的方式就是在今年夏天 举办一个“Shakespeare in the park”活动。因为 2 年前, 临近的 A 公司开展了一次“free play in the park”的活动后, 利润上涨了 10%。如果我们开展一次“Shakespeare in the park”活动,我们预计我们的利润也会上涨。

若干因素表明 KNOW 电台应该把它的节目从摇滚乐转 成连续的新闻节目。举例来说,我们覆盖范围内的老年人 数量显著增加,而总的听众数量最近减少了。而且,我们 地区音像店中音乐的销量下降。最后,邻近城市的连续新 闻节目非常成功。从摇滚乐转型到 24 小时新闻节目将会 吸引更多的老年听众并将会保障 KNOW 电台的未来。

113/126/127/161.The following is a recommendation from the personnel director to the president of Acme

101/103.There is now evidence that the relaxed pace of life in small towns promotes better health and greater longevity than does the hectic pace of life in big cities. Businesses in the small town of Leeville report fewer days of sick leave taken by individual workers than do businesses in the nearby large city of Masonton. Furthermore, Leeville has only one physician for its one thousand residents, but in Masonton the proportion of physicians to residents is five times as high. Finally, the average age of Leeville residents is significantly higher than that of Masonton residents. These findings suggest that people seeking longer and healthier lives should consider moving to small communities. 现有证据表明,在小城市的悠闲生活方式比在大城市快 节奏的生活更有利于健康和长寿。小城镇 Leeville 的商业 行业所上报的员工病假天数比邻近大城市 Mason 要少。 而且,Leeville 每千人只有一名医生,而 Mason 市医生的 比例是 Leeville 的五倍。Leeville 居的平均年龄显著高于 Mason 居。这些数据表明寻求更健康更长寿生活的人应该 考虑移居到小型社区。

Publishing Company. "Many other companies have recently stated that having their employees take the Easy Read Speed-Reading Course has greatly improved productivity. One graduate of the course was able to read a 500-page report in only two hours; another graduate rose from an assistant manager to vice president of the company in under a year. Obviously, the faster you can read, the more information you can absorb in a single workday. Moreover, Easy Read would cost Acme only $500 per employee—a small price to pay when you consider the benefits. Included in this fee is a three-week seminar in Spruce City and a lifelong subscription to the Easy Read newsletter. Clearly, to improve productivity, Acme should require all of our employees to take the Easy Read course." 很多其他公司最近指出他们的员工参加了 Easy Read 的速读课程之后生产效率显著提高。这个课程的一名毕业 生能够在两个小时之内读完长达 500 页的报告,另一名毕 业生在一年内从助理经理上升到了副总裁。显然,你的阅 读速度越快,在一天之内所能吸收的信息就越多。而且,

109/110.The following appeared in a memorandum from the general manager of KNOW radio station. "Several factors indicate that radio station KNOW should shift its programming from rock-and-roll music to a continuous news format. Consider, for example, that the number of people in our listening area over fifty years of age has increased dramatically, while our total number of listeners has declined. Also, music stores in our area report decreased sales of recorded music. Finally, continuous news stations in neighboring cities have been very successful. The switch from rock-and-roll music to 24-hour news will attract older listeners and secure KNOW radio's future."

Easy Read 的学费只有每人 500 元,当考虑到它给 A 公 司带来的效益的时候这就是个小数目。这个费用包括在 S 市举行的为期三周的研讨会和 Easy Read 新闻刊物的终 生赠阅。显然,A 公司通过要求所有员工参加 Easy Read 的课程将会极大地受益。

132134/136.The following appeared in a letter to the school board in the town of Centerville. "All students should be required to take the driver's education course at Centerville High School. In the past two years, several accidents in and around Centerville have involved teenage drivers. Since a number of parents in Centerville have complained that they are too busy to teach their teenagers to drive, some other

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instruction is necessary to ensure that these teenagers are safe drivers. Although there are two driving schools in Centerville, parents on a tight budget cannot afford to pay for driving instruction. Therefore an effective and mandatory program sponsored by the high school is the only solution to this serious problem." Centerville 高中的所有学生都应该被要求参加驾驶员 教育课程。在过去两年中,Centerville 周围有几起交通事 故涉及了青少年驾驶者。由于 Centerville 的一些家长抱怨 说他们太忙没有时间教他们的孩子驾驶,必须有一些其他 的课程来保证这些孩子成为安全的驾驶者。尽管在 Centerville 已经有两所驾校,手头不宽裕的家长无法负担 驾校学费。因此由学校组织的有效的强制性课程是解决这 一严重问题的唯一方案。

in streets or parking lots had not been wearing any protective clothing (helmets, knee pads, etc.) or any light-reflecting material (clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads, etc.). Clearly, the statistics indicate that by investing in high-quality protective gear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in an accident. 医院对那些滑板事故后来医院急救的人的调查显示他 们需要更具保护性的设备 。在那群人中,75%在大街或停 车场发生事故的人没有穿着任何防护衣服(头盔,护膝等 等)或任何的反光物质(小手电,或者夜光护腕等等)。 很明显,该数据表明投资高质量的防护工具及反光设备, 滑板玩家们会大大减少其在事故中受伤的机率。

152/153.The following appeared in a memo to the 135/137/140.The data from a survey of high school math and science teachers show that in the district of Sanlee many of these teachers reported assigning daily homework, whereas in the district of Marlee, most science and math teachers reported assigning homework no more than two or three days per week. Despite receiving less frequent homework assignments, Marlee students earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required to repeat a year of school than are students in Sanlee. These results call into question the usefulness of frequent homework assignments. Most likely the Marlee students have more time to concentrate on individual assignments than do the Sanlee students who have homework every day. Therefore teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week. Attra 州的教育部建议高中学生应该每天都被布置家庭 作业。然而最近一项对于全州的数学和理化高中教师的调 查却对每天布置家庭作业的作用提出了疑问。在 Sanlee 地区,86%的教师报告说他们每周布置 3-5 次家庭作业, 而在 Marlee 地区,只有少于 25%的教师报告说每周布置 3-5 次作业。而 Marlee 地区的学生综合成绩更好,而且 比起 Sanlee 的学生更不容易留级。因此,我们高中的所 有教师每周布置作业都不应该超过两次。 157/158.The following appeared in a memo from the marketing director of Top Dog Pet Stores. "Five years ago Fish Emporium started advertising in the magazine Exotic Pets Monthly. Their stores saw 142.Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the emergency room after roller-skating accidents indicate the need for more protective equipment. Within that group of people, 75 percent of those who had accidents sales increase by 15 percent after their ads began appearing in the magazine. The three Fish Emporium stores in Gulf City saw an even greater increase than that. Because Top Dog Pet Stores is based in Gulf City, board of directors of Bargain Brand Cereals. "One year ago we introduced our first product, Bargain Brand breakfast cereal. Our very low prices quickly drew many customers away from the top-selling cereal companies. Although the companies producing the top brands have since tried to compete with us by lowering their prices and although several plan to introduce their own budget brands, not once have we needed to raise our prices to continue making a profit. Given our success in selling cereal, we recommend that Bargain Brand now expand its business and begin marketing other low-priced food products as quickly as possible." 一年以前我们推出了第一种产品 Bargain Brand 早餐麦 片。我们低廉的价格迅速从一些销量最大的麦片厂商那里 吸引了大量客户。尽管这些厂商曾经试图通过降低价格来 与我们竞争,并且尽管有一些公司打算推出他们自己的廉 价品牌,但我们从未需要通过涨价来持续盈利。基于我们 销售麦片的成,Bargain Brand 应该扩展业务,并且尽快 开始推出其他的廉价食品。

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it seems clear that we should start placing our own ads in Exotic Pets Monthly. If we do so, we will be sure to reverse the recent trend of declining sales and start making a profit again." 五年前,F 商店开始在 EP 月刊杂志上做广告,此后其 为 TD 宠物商店就座落在 G 市,看起来很明显我们应该开 始在 EP 月刊上做广告了。如果这样做,我们一定会扭转 最近的销售颓势并且在此盈利。

pay city taxes, and therefore only residents understand how that money could best be used to improve the city. We recommend, then, that the Committee for a Better Oak City vote to restrict its membership to city residents only. We predict that, without the interference of non-residents, the committee will be able to make Oak City a better place in which to live and work." O 城市改善委员会的主要责任就是在如果更好使用有 限的预算方面给予其建议 。但是,在最近的会议上我们没 有做出任何的重要的决定 ,是因为在会议上一些并非 O 市 民的委员们提出的愚蠢的反对意见。那些只在 O 工作而不 居住的人是根本不可能完全了解这里的政治和经济的 。总 而言之,只有 O 的市民缴税,因此只有他们才知道如何使 用这笔钱更好的改善本市 。所以我们的建议是城市改善委 员会的委员们只有 O 市市民才可以投票。我们预计没有了 外地人的干预,这个委员会会使我们 O 市变成更适宜工作 和居住的城市。

160/172.The following appeared in a recommendation from the President of the Amburg Chamber of Commerce. "Last October, the city of Belleville installed high-intensity lighting in its central business district, and vandalism there declined almost immediately. The city of Amburg, on the other hand, recently instituted police patrols on bicycles in its business district. However, the rate of vandalism here remains constant. Since high-intensity lighting is clearly the most effective way to combat crime, we recommend using the money that is currently being spent on bicycle patrols to install such lighting throughout Amburg. If we install this high-intensity lighting, we will significantly reduce crime rates in Amburg." 去年 10 月 Belleville 市在其中央商业区安装了高照度灯 光,那里的破坏公物的行为几乎立即减少。Amburg 市最 近开始在其中央商业区安排警察骑自行车巡逻,但破坏公 物的发生率并没有变化。由于高照度灯光显然是震慑犯罪 的最有效途径,我们建议应该把原来用于巡逻的开销用来 在 Amburg 全市安装这种灯光。如果我们安装这样的高照 度灯,那么 Amburg 的犯罪率会大幅降低。

170.The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of a company that builds shopping malls around the country. "The surface of a section of Route 101, paved just two years ago by Good Intentions Roadways, is now badly cracked with a number of dangerous potholes. In another part of the state, a section of Route 40, paved by Appian Roadways more than four years ago, is still in good condition. In a demonstration of their continuing commitment to quality, Appian Roadways recently purchased state-of-the-art paving machinery and hired a new quality-control manager. Therefore, I recommend hiring Appian Roadways to construct the access roads for all our new shopping malls. I predict that our Appian

168.The following is a letter that recently appeared in the Oak City Gazette, a local newspaper. "The primary function of the Committee for a Better Oak City is to advise the city government on how to make the best use of the city's limited budget. However, at some of our recent meetings we failed to make important decisions because of the foolish objections raised by committee members who are not even residents of Oak City. People who work in Oak City but who live elsewhere cannot fully understand the business and politics of the city. After all, only Oak City residents

access roads will not have to be repaired for at least four years." 两年前由 G 筑路公司修筑的 101 公路的一段,表面现 已严重开裂,并存在危险的坑洼。在同一州的另一个地区, 四年多以前由 Appian 筑路公司修筑的 66 公路的一段现在 依然状况良好。Appian 公司最近购买了最先进的筑路机 械,并雇佣了一名新的质量监控经理。由于 Appian 公司 更优秀的工作和质量保证 ,我们应该和他们而不是 G 公司 签订合同修筑我们新的商业街前面的通道。我们预计这条 有 A 修筑的通道最少 4 年不用维修。

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