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2011年高考英语语法复习教案-倒装句和省略句


高考语法专题:倒装句和省略句
------李在刚

1.全部倒装
全部倒装是指整个谓语放到主语的前面,即谓语在前,主语在后。有下列几种: (1)there be (lie, stand, live...)句型。there be是谓语,其后的名词是主语。 There are different forms of energy. On the top of the mountain there stands an old temple. Once upon a time, there lived a poor fisherman. (2)在以here, there, out, in, up, down, away,now,then等开头的句子中。 There goes the bell. Here comes the bus. Out rushed the boy. Away went the children. The door opened and there entered a middle-aged man. 【注意】主语是人称代词时不倒装。例如: Here it is.给你。 Away he went.他走了。 (3)直接引语在句首。 “What does it mean?” asked the boy. (4)为了使句子保持平衡,有时需要倒装。 Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. On the winding path were to be found footprints of some strange animals.

2.部分倒装
即将谓语的一部分提到主语之前。 相当于变为一般疑问句中的谓语, 是倒装句 的重点,也是高考考查的热点之一。 部分倒装主要有以下几种情况: (1)Only +状语在句首: Only then did I realize that I was wrong. Only when the war was over in1918 was he able to get happily back to work. 【注意】如果only后没有状语,即使在句首也不倒装。 例如:Only a doctor can do it. (2)否定副词在句首。 这类副词主要有:hardly, seldom, little, not, nor, neither, not only...but also, no sooner...than, hardly...when,in no time等。 Little does he care about what others think. Not a single mistake did he make. Never shall I forget it.
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Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus started. No sooner had I reached home than it began to rain. Not until he came back did I leave. At no time should you leave your post. (3)由so引起的表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(或东西)或由neither/nor引 起的表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句型: She is a teacher. So is her brother. You can drive. So can I. She can’t do the work. Neither/Nor can I. 注意:如果是重复相同的意思,不倒装。 例如:—It was cold yesterday. —So it was. (4)so...that 句型,如果so在句首。 So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. So shallow was the water that there were no fish in the lake. (5)省略了if的虚拟条件句。 Had I been informed earlier, I could have done something. Should anyone call, tell him to wait for me here. Were I not engaged in my present work, I would be quite willing to do what you ask me to. 3.只把表语、宾语、状语提到句首。这类倒装既不是全部倒装,又不同于部分倒 装,只把表语、宾语、状语提到句首,谓语动、词并不倒装。 (1)as引导让步状语从句: Young as he is, he is very brave. Child as he is, he knows a lot. (2)however与no matter how引导的让步状语从句: However great the difficulty may be, we won’t lose heart. (3)感叹句: What a warm welcome they received! How fast he ran! (4)the more...the more句型: The farther away a thing is, the smaller it looks.

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省略句
1.省略主语: (I) Haven’t seen you for ages. (It) Doesn’t matter. (It) Looks like rain. 2.省略谓语或谓语的一部分: (Is there) Anything you want? (Is) Anything the matter? (Does) Anybody need help? (Are) You hungry? 3.省略宾语: —Which of them is the better choice? —Well, it’s hard to tell (it). —Where is George? —I don’t know (where he is). 4.省略主语和谓语: What a pity (it is) you can’t go to the lecture. (I’m) Sorry! (I’m) Afraid I can’t come. —Did you like the film? —Oh, very much. 5.省略不定式: He didn’t come, though we had invited him to (come). 6.简单句中的省略,对话中最普遍。 —Will you join us? —I should love to. —Are you tired? —Not very. —What made Tom unhappy? —Losing the match. —I went to an exhibition this morning. —With whom? Hope to hear from you soon. Anybody against it? 7.复合句中的省略: —Did you know anything about it? —Not until you told me. —Shall I make a copy of it? —Yes, if time permits. —Is he coming back tonight?
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—I guess so. —She may not be free today. —If so, we’ll have to put the meeting off. 8.在状语从句中也有省略现象: When (it is) completed, the power station will supply enough electricity. If (it is) necessary, I’ll go there myself. She told the children not to talk while (they were) eating. Anyone, no matter who (he is), may point out our shortcomings. 9.并列句中的省略:后面分句与前句相同的部分,可省略。 I work in a factory and my brother (works) on a farm. My room is on the second floor and his, on the third. He majors in English and I in French.

高考新剖析
1. Hearing the dog barking fiercely, away____________ . [2009年高考上海卷] A. fleeing the thief B. was fleeing the thief C. the thief was fleeing D. fled the thief 2. — Shall we have our picnic tomorrow? —____________ it doesn’t rain.[2009年高考山东卷] A. Until B. While C. Once D. If Key: DD 3. Never in my wildest dreams____________ these people are living in such poor conditions. A. I could imagine B. could I imagine C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine 4. It was announced that only when the fire was under control____________ to return to their homes.[2008年高考江西卷] A. the residents would be permitted B. had the residents been permitted C. would the residents be permitted D. the residents had been permitted 5. —Who should be responsible for the accident? —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order______.[08年福建卷] A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told Key: BC A 6. — How was the televised debate last night? —Super! Rarely____________ so much media attention.
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A. a debate attracted B. did a debate attract C. a debate did attract D. attracted a debate 7. I have been living in the United States for twenty years, but seldom ____________so lonely as now. A. have I felt B. I had felt C. I have felt D. had I felt 8. ____________homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. A. So much B. Too much C. Too little D. So little 9. —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it? —Yes. ____________ yesterday. A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it Key: BAAA 10. Little ____________we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. A. he realized B. he didn’t realize C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize

精题新探究
1. — We have managed to put out the fire. —But, ____________we can’t be too careful. A. even though B. even so C. therefore D. so 2. You may take them all home____________. A. if possible B. if can C. if impossible D. if you are possible 3. Water, ____________ enough, can change into vapor quickly. A. when heated B. while heating C. when to be heated D. when is heated Key: DBAA 4. —Should I look up each word that I don’t understand? —No, turn to your dictionary only when____________. A. you are necessary B. you need C. necessary D. you are needed 5. ____________that he found it difficult to stop at the red light. A. So fast he was driving B. So fast he drove C. So fast was he driving D. So fast drive he 6. They waited and waited, ____________they had been looking forward to. A. then came the hour B. then did come the hour
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C. then the hour came D. the hour then came 7. ____________,I have never seen anyone capable as John. A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled so much C. Much as I have traveled D. As I have traveled so much Key: C C AC 8. ____________,I will learn it well. A. Whatever difficult English is B. No matter how difficult is English C. However difficult English is D. Difficult as is English 9. — Why can’t I smoke here? —At no time____________ in the meeting room. A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit 10. ____________ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I 11. On the top of the hill_________ where the old man once lived. A. a temple stands there B. a temple standing C. stands a temple D. does a temple stand 12. —Can you tell me where my uncle is? —Yes, of course, _________. A. here your uncle comes B. here comes your uncle C. comes your uncle here D. your uncle here comes Key: C AC C B 13. ____________ ,he would have passed the exam. A. If he worked hard B. If he were to work hard C. Had he worked hard D. If he was to work hard 14. No sooner ____________the top of the mountain _________the sun rose. A. they had arrived on; than B. had they reached; than C. had they climbed to; when D. they got to; when 15. Only____________ as an interpreter____________ how important it was to practise speaking English. A. when I worked; I realized B. when did I work; did I realize C. when I work; did I realize D. when I worked; did I realize Key: C BD
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