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高中英语语法系统讲解之八情态动词和虚拟语气


情态动词和虚拟语气
情态动词
一. 情态动词的类型和特征 1. 类型 1 只作情态动词用的有:can(could) ○ ,may(might) ,must,ought to。 2 可作情态动词也作实义动词的有:need,dare。 ○ 3 可作情态动词也作助动词的有:shall(should) ○ ,will(would) 。 4 ○ 具有情态动词某些特征的有:have(had)to,used to。 2. 特征 情态动词有一定的词义,但不能单独作谓语,须和实义动词或系动词连用,构成谓语; 且适用于主语的各种人称和数(have to 例外) ,主语是第三人称单数时,要用 has to。 二. 情态动词的基本用法 1. can 与 could 1 表示能力或客观可能性,还可表示请求和允许,她存在以下几种形式: ○ 肯定式 现在式 过去式 can could 否定式 cannot could not 缩略否定式 can’t couldn’t

如 Children can be troublesome sometimes. 2 表示惊异、推测、怀疑、不相信的态度(主要用于否定句、疑问句中) ○ 。 如 This can’t be done by him. 3 can 的习惯用法 ○ A. can but 的用法 can but“只好,至多不过” ,如 We can but do our best. B. cannot help but,cannot help 的用法 二者都表示“不得不;不能避免;不禁” ;但前者后加动词原形,后者加代词或动名词等。 如 The girl couldn’t help but live on herself. When I try to speak, I can’t help making mistakes. C. cannot … too“无论怎样??都不过分;越??越好” 如 We can’t thank you too much for what you have done for us。 We can not be too careful to cross the road. 1 can 与 be able to:can 表示有能力做某事,be able to 表示通过努力、克服 温馨提示:○ 困难做成某事。如 Although his leg was hurt, he was able to swim to the bank. 2 could 与 be able to:could 表示过去一般的能 I believe I can work it out all by myself. ○ 力,即不表示做与未做某事,而 was / were able to 表示有能力做并且成功地做了某事, 相当于 managed to do sth / succeeded in doing sth。如 She could sing like an angel when she was a child. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone was able to get out. 2. may 与 might 1 表示许可:may / might 可以表示允许别人做某事,也可征求对方的许可,还可表示“法 ○ 律、条文”等的许可。如 May / Might I trouble you to pass the book? Father said that I might play football before supper. Cars may not be parked in front of the hall. 2 表示可能性:may / might 表示可能性时,可以对现在、过去或将来进行推测,might 表 ○ 示的可能性比 may 所表示的可能性要小一些。
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A. 对现在或未来的可能性的推测:如 I must go home at once; Tom might visit me. B. 对可能正在发生的事情的推测:如 Let’s speed up. They may / might be waiting for us now. C. 对过去发生的事情的可能性进行推测:如 You know the story very well. You may / might have read it before. 3 其他用法 ○ A. may 放在句首,表示祝愿。如 May God bless you! B. may / might as well,后面接不带 to 的不定式,意为“不妨,还是??好” 。 如 You may (just) as well tell me the truth. 3. must 与 have to 1 表示必须,必要,但 have to 表客观,而 must 表说话人主观上的看法。 ○ 如 This film is not interesting. I really must go now. My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 2 二者的否定意义不相同,mustn’t 带有很强的语气,表示“禁止、不允许” ○ ;而 don’t have to 表示“不必” 。如 You mustn’t tell him about it. You don’t have to tell him about it. 3 must 只有一种形式;而 have to 有人称、数和时态的变化。 ○ 如 She had to look after her brother yesterday. 4 must 表示不服从,译为“非得;偏要” ○ 。如 Why must you make so much noise? 5 ○ must 表示“猜测” ,可以对现在、过去和将来进行猜测。其否定形式为 can’t / couldn’t, 而不是 mustn’t。如 You must be ill. I can see it from your face. You must have gone to bed late last night. Your eyes are red. He must be leaving tomorrow. 4. shall,should 与 ought to 1 shall 用于第一人称,表示征求对方的意见。如 What shall we do next? ○ 2 shall 用于第二、第三人称陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁等。 ○ 如 You shall fail if you don’t work harder. He shall have the book when I finish reading. 3 should 用于第一人称时,可以表示说话人的一种谦逊、客气、委婉的语气。 ○ 如 I should think it would be better to try it again. 4 ○ should 表推测时,接按常理和常规所作的推测,译为(按道理) “理应,应该” 。 如 It’s 8 o’clock now. He should be at work. 5 “Why / How + should”结构,表示说话人对某事不能理解,感到意外、惊异等意,译为 ○ “竟会” 。如 Why should you be so late today? 6 ought to 表义务,用于各种句式。如 You ought to go to see the doctor. ○ You ought’t to smoke so much. 7 ought to 亦可用于完成式表推测,在肯定句中表未完成的动作,意为“该做而没有做” ○ , 而在否定句中则表示完成的动作,意为“不该做而做了” 。 如 You ought to have done something to help him. You ought’t to have married her, David. It was a great mistake. 温馨提示:should 表示劝告、建议、命令时也可用 ought to 代替。但 ought to 语气重,含 有“按道理应该??”之意,用 should 时表示自己的主观看法,如要反映客观情况或涉 及法律、义务和规定时,一般用 ought to。在疑问句中,通常用 should 代替 ought to。 如 You should go to class right away. Should I open the window? 5. will 与 would 1 表示请求、建议等,would 比 will 委婉客气。如 Would you pass me the book? ○
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2 表示意志、意愿和决心。如 I will never do that again. ○ 3 表示一种习惯、倾向或趋势。如 Without water, fish will die. ○ 4 would 表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向。used to 也表示“过去常常” ○ ,但它暗含“现 在不了”之意。如 During the vacation he would visit me every week. There used to be an old temple in front of our village. (现在没了) 6. need 与 dare need, dare 既可用作情态动词, 也可用作实义动词。 用作情态动词时, 它们只有一种形式, 后跟不带 to 的动词不定式,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,它们有动词的 全部形式,即现在时第三人称单数 needs,dares,现在分词 needing,daring 以及过去式和 过去分词 needed,dared,后跟带 to 的不定式,可用于一切句式。

情态动词 肯定式 否定式 肯定疑问式 否定疑问式 He needn’t / daren’t escape. Need / Dare we escape? Needn’t / Daren’t he escape after all?

实义动词 He needed / dared to escape. He doesn’t need / dare to escape. Do we need / dare to escape? Doesn’t he need / dare to escape after all?

如 He daren’t speal English before such a crowd, dare he? You needn’t buy the book. ---Need I finish the work today?---Yes, you must. I dare to swim across this river. I wondered how he dared (to) say that. I need to have a long holiday. You don’t need to worry about your son. He’s no longer a small child. 三. 易混情态动词辨析 1. may,can,must 与 should 表“推测” 1 may(might)表示主观的推测, ○ “也许,可能” ,一般用于肯定句,其否定式 may not, 表示“可能不” 。如 He may be right. He may not come tonight. 2 can(could)表示主观的推测,常用于否定句(can’t“不可能” ○ )和疑问句;用于肯定句 时,can 表示一时的、客观的可能性。 如 He can’t be at home, since I met him in the street just now. Can he tell you all that he knows? 3 must 表示主观的推测“一定” ○ ,语气十分肯定。其否定式为“can’t,不用 mustn’t。 如 He must be in the classroom now. You can’t have known the truth. 4 should 表示根据常规、事理、经验作出的判断, ○ “想必、应该“。 如 Today is Sunday. Our teacher should be at home. 2. can’t 与 mustn’t can’t 多表示“没能力”或否定的推测“不可能” ,也可表示“不可以,不允许”等含义; 而 mustn’t 表达“禁止,不允许”含义时更常用,而且语气更强。 如 He can’t be that foolish. Students mustn’t smoke. 3. “情态动词 + have done”用法区别 情态动词 + 完成式 must have done 用法 表示对过去已经发生的行为进行推测, 意为 “想必 / 准是 / 一定做了某事” 。 例句 The lights were out. They must have been asleep.
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can have done

cannot have done could have done may / might have done

表示对过去发生的的行为的怀疑和不肯定, He cannot have forgotten it. 通常用在否定句和疑问句中。 用于肯定句,表示“可能已经??” ,还表 You could have done better, 示过去没有实现的可能性 “本来可以??” 。 but you were too careless. 表示对过去已发生行为的推测, “也许已 经??” ;也表示“本来可能??” ,但实际 上没有发生的事;还表示“本来应该或可以 做某事” 。 用于肯定句时,表示“本该做某事” ,而实 际上未做;用于否定句时,表示“不该做的 事反而做了” 。 肯定式表示“本来有必要做某事” ,否定式 表示“做了本来不必去做的事” 。didn’t need to do 表示“没必要做某事” 。 意为“当时最好做了某时” ,否定式表示相 反的含义。 表示“当时宁愿做了某事” ,否定式表示相 反的含义,两者都表示“后悔”之意。
She might have caught a cold.

You might have given him more help, though you were busy. You should have come to the meeting earlier. You shouldn’t have told her the truth. You needn’t have taken a taxi here, for it was very near to my house. You’d better scolded her. not have

should / ought to have done

need / needn’t have done had better have done would rather have done

I would rather have taken her advice.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不表示客观存在的事实。其通过谓 语动词的特殊形式来表示。 一. 虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的用法 表示与现在、过去和将来的事实相反,主句和从句的动词变化规则见下: 所述情况 与现在事 实相反 与过去事 实相反 与将来事 实相反 从句 if + 主语 + 动词过去式( be 动词用 were) if + 主语 + 动词过去完成式
1 if + 主语 + 动词过去式 ○ 2 if + 主语 + were to + 动词原形 ○ 3 if + 主语 + should + 动词原形 ○

主句 主 语 + would / could / might / should + 动词原形 主 语 + would / could / might / should + have + 过去分词 主 语 + would / could / might / should + 动词原形

如 If my brother were here, everything would be all right. If you had worked hard, you would have passed the exam. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. 二、一些特殊的虚拟条件句 1、错综时间条件句:有些条件句中,从句表示的动作与主句表示的动作发生的时间不一致, 这类句子称为错综条件句。这时,动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整。 eg: If you had taken her advice, you wouldn’t be in such a trouble now. (从句动作发生的时间 是过去, 主句动作发生的 时间是现在。)
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2、含蓄条件句:是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用其他手段来暗示虚拟条件。但 是这类隐含式虚拟条件句往往都可以转化为 if 引导的条件句。常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件 的手段有: 1 介词或介词短语有 but for, but that, without, in case of, under more favourable condition 等。 ○ eg: But for the leadership of the Party, we could not be living a happy life today. 2 连词有 so that, unless, in case, supposing, lest, provided (倘若??), for fear that (惟恐), in ○ order that, on condition that, if only (要是??就好了)等。 eg: She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted. = If she listened carefully, she might discover exactly what he wanted. 3 ○ 通过上下文及内在含义,句中往往有 but, otherwise, unfortunately 等类似转折词。 eg: I thought the children would be sleeping when we returned home, but they were still awake. 4 形容词及其比较级。 ○ eg: A more careful person would not have made so many mistakes. 3、 情态动词完成式暗示虚拟语气。 eg: I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t. 二. 虚拟语气的常用句型 1. It is(high / aout)time(that)…后的定语从句中常用动词的过去式,或 should + 动词 原形。此句型表示“现在该??” ,用来表示提议。 如 It is high time we started out. It’s about time we began / should begin our discussion. 2. I’d rather that + 主语 + did …(对现在的虚拟) + had done(对过去的虚拟) 如 I’d rather they didn’t hear of the news. I’d rather everything hadn’t happened in the past. 3. I wish that(clause)+ 用动词的一般过去式(did)来表示对现在情况的虚拟 / 用动词的 过去完成式(had + done)来表示对过去情况的虚拟 / 用 would + do 表示对将来的主观 愿望。如 I wish I were a bird and could fly freely in the sky. 4. 如果条件从句中有 were / had / should,可以把 if 省略,把这几个词放到主语之前,构成 主谓倒装。如 Were I you (= If I were you), I would not do it. Had I the time (= If I had the time), I would go. Should you change your mind (= If you should change your mind), no one would blame you. 5. 表建议、愿望、命令等词后的宾语从句常用 should + 动词原形构成虚拟语气。常见的宾 语从句中需用“should + 动词原形”的动词有: 一个坚持:insist;两个命令:order, command;三个建议:suggest, advise, propose; 四个要求:demand, require, ask, desire 易错误区:当 suggest 作“暗示、表明”讲,insist 作“坚持说”讲,即坚持事实是怎样 时,后边 that 从句不用虚拟语气。如 Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything. The look on his face suggested that he was angry. 6. 在表“建议、命令、要求、主张”的名词后的同位语从句或表语从句中,谓语动词习惯 用 (should) + do (动词原形) , 其中 should 可省略。 其名词有: advice, suggestion, motion, order , command , direction , instruction , demand , requirement , request , proposition , arrangement,desire 等。 如 My suggestion is that you (should) try another means. (表语从句)
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Order came that the army (should) reach next town before dark. (同位语从句) It’s required that all the students (should) go to school on foot. (主语从句) 7. 在 It + adj. (表示 “有必要、 必须的、 重要的” ) + that 主语从句中, 谓语动词习惯用 (should) + do(动词原形) ,其中 should 可省略。 如 It’s necessary / important / natural that we (should) clean the room every day. 8. 在 It is / was a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) + that 从句中, 谓语动词习惯用 should do, should 可省略。如 It was a pity / a shame / no wonder that our team should lose the game. 9. as if(though)引导的表语从句或方式状语从句中,其动词形式的判断要看它与主句谓语 动词在时间上的先后。 如果从句动词与主句动词同时进行, 从句的动词形式用 did / were; 如果从句动词先于主句动词发生,从句动词用 had done;如果从句动词后于主句动词发 生,用 would / could / might + do。如 He lools as if / though he were an artist. He talks as if he had really been to the heaven. 10. 有 should / need / could / would(not)+ have done 表示的虚拟。 如 The flowers are all dead, I should have watered them. (事实上我没给花浇水 ) You needn’t have waited for him, he would not come. (事实上你等了他) He shouldn’t have cheated in the exam, how regretted he feels now.(事实上他在考试中 舞弊了)

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