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情态动词+have done的用法

“情态动词+have done”的用法
毓思泽。 2010、1、18

一、 “must+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成“一定 做过某事”,该结构只用于肯定句。 ? 1. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面 还是湿的。
2. You must have been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话,一定是发疯了。

二、 “can't+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的否定推测,译成“不可能做过 某事”。
? 1. Mr. Smith can‘t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不 可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。

? 2. Mary can't have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱,她回家 去了。

三、 “can+have+done”
? 表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成“可 能做过……吗?”。 ? 1. There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗? ? 2. There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? 到处找不到他们,他们可能到 什么地方去呢?

四、 “could+have+done”
? 是虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意 思是本来能够做某事而没有做。 ? ? He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试, 但是他太粗心。

五、 “may+have+done”
? 表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可 能已经”或“也许已经”,用于肯定句中。 ? ? ? ? —What has happened to George? —I don't know. He may have got lost. —乔治发生了什么事? ——我不知道,他可能迷路了。

六、 “might+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同, 但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。 ? ? 1. He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) 他或许会多给你一 些帮助,即使他很忙。 ? 2. She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如果你多给她 点机会,她可能已经取得更大的成绩。

七、 “would+have+done”
? 虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思 是“本来会做”。 ? 1. I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. 我本来会告诉 你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。 ? 2. Without your help, I wouldn't have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助,我是不 会取得如此大的成绩。

八、 “should+have+done”
? 意思是“本来应该做某事,而实际没做。” “shouldn‘t+have+done”表示本来不应该做某 事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责的含意。 ? ? 1. Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这 项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。 ? 2. Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他 如此严厉。

九、 “ought to+have+done”
? 表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成 “理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与 “should+have+done”用法基本一样。
I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。 ? You ought not to have given him more help. 你不应该帮助他那么多。

十、 “need+have+done”
? 表示本来需要做某事而没有做。 “needn‘t+have+done”则表示“本来不需要做 某事而做了”。 ? I needn?t have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来 了五个人。 ? He need have hurried to the station. In that case, be wouldn't have missed the train. 他本来需要快 点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。

? 【经典考例1】 The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. (2006江西) ? A. should have taken B. could have taken ? C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken ? 【经典考例2】 We ________ have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. (2006天津) ? A. needn't B. may not ? C. shouldn't D. mustn't ? 【经典考例3】 As you worked late yesterday, you ________ have come this morning. (2006陕西) ? A. mayn't B. can't ? C. mustn't D. needn't


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