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8 Unit 3 Inventors and inventions

Unit 3

Inventors and inventions

1.The device was protected by patent(专利). 2.They asked her to be merciful (仁慈的) to the prisoners. 3.The teacher asked us not to be passive (消极的) in class. 4.Success in money?making is not always a good criterion (标准) of real success in


5.It’s freezing (极冷的) in here!
6.She was found innocent of any crime. 7.The telephone wires had been cut. 8.In hard times,she bore the pain with great courage.

9.The manager is now busy making a budget
for the current year. 10.I keep my reference books near my desk for convenience .

1. dive into 迅速把手伸入;一心投入 2. get through 打通电话;通过;(设法)做完 3. get down to开始,着手(做某事) 4. ring off 挂断电话

5. be aware of 意识到;知道 6. out of order次序颠倒;发生故障
7. come up with 想出 8. ring back 回复电话 9. now and then 偶尔,有时

10. call up 给??打电话

1.The next morning I got up early before the sun was hot.第二天早上,天还不是很 热,我就早早地起床了。 考点提炼 此 句 中 b e f o r e 为 从属连词 , 译 为 “ 在??之前 ”,但在不同的语境中before的 意思各异,可译为“??才??;趁??;没 过多久就??;宁愿??也不;还没来得 及??就??”。

2.Only after you have had that recognition can you say that you are truly an inventor.只有在你获得了那种认证后,你才能 说自己是一个真正的发明家。

考点提炼 该句为复合句,含有that引导的 宾 语从句;only 修饰句子的时间状语,主句用了
部分倒装 语序。

句放在句首用于加强语气时,句子要用部分倒 装,即助动词、系动词或情态动词提到主语之 前。


(3)如果only引导从句作状语,注意是其后的 主句用倒装,从句不用倒装。

3.The criteria are so strict that it is

difficult to get new ideas accepted
unless they are truly novel.(评定)专利 标准是很严格的,除非新的想法真是新颖的, 否则很难被接受。 考点提炼 (1)“so...that...”可引导 结果 状语从句 。其中的so后跟形容词或副词。如果 修饰名词短语,要用“ so+形容词+a(an)+名词” 的形式。此句型中的so用于句首时,so后面的 部分要用倒装语序,但that后的从句 不用倒装。 (2)novel在此是形容词,意思是“ 新的,新颖 的,新奇的”,其名词形式是 novelty 。

4.I’m sorry,but this phone is out of order.

考点提炼 out of order意为“ 坏了,有毛 病”,与之相反的短语是 in order ,意思是 “处于正常状况,情况良好”。


Here was a chance for me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them.(回归课本P20)

People who can not distinguish between colors are said to be color-blind.


What was it that distinguished her from
her classmates? 是什么使得她有别于班上其他同学呢? She has already distinguished herself as an athlete.


归纳总结 distinguish vi.& vt.辨别;显示……的差别 ; 使著名, 使出众。 (1)distinguish between...and...区分/辨

distinguish...from...使??有别于??, 使??具有区别于??的特征

be distinguished for...因??而出名
distinguish oneself (as...)(作为??)表现 突出

(2)distinguished adj.卓越的,著名的,杰出的 distinguishable adj.易分辨的,能区分的

could连用,tell也可表示“辨认,辨别”,常与 can或could连用,主要用于否定句和疑问句中。

即学即用 (1)你应学会明辨是非。 You should learn to distinguish between right and wrong. (2)这对孪生儿长得很像,没有人能分辨得出哪 个是哪个。

The twins are so alike that no one can distinguish one from the other.
(3)我弄不清“above all”和“first of all”

I can’t tell the difference between the usages of “above all” and “first of all”.

They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall.(回归课本P20) ?观察思考 Will 3 o’clock be convenient for you?

Please come whenever it is convenient to you. 方便的时候,请随时来。

It is not convenient for me to ring him up.

The house is very convenient for several schools. 这座房子离几所学校都很近。

归纳总结 convenient adj.方便的, 便利的; 附近的。 (1)It is convenient for sb.to do sth.做某事 对某人来说是方便的

be convenient to...到达某处很方便
(2)convenience n.方便,便利;适宜;省事 at one’s convenience在方便的时候;在适宜的

at your earliest convenience尽早 for convenience为了方便



词或代词作主语,也不能用It is convenient of
sb.to do sth.,只能用for sb.。?

(1)在你方便的时候,请来接我。 Come by to pick me up at your convenience. (2)你明天开始工作方便吗? Will it be convenient for you to work tomorrow? (3)你会发现这种食物既快又方便准备。 You’ll find these meals quick and convenient to prepare . start

I can’t bear the smell of ____ on the barbecue.(回归课本P24) ?观察思考 The pain was almost more than he could

这种痛苦几乎使他无法忍受。 I doubt if that chair will bear you weight. 我怀疑那把椅子能否承受得了你的体重。

She was born in 1978.她出生于1978年。

归纳总结 bear vt. 忍受,忍耐; 负担; 生产,生育,过去

式为bore,borne 。 bear doing/n./to do...忍受??
bear sb./sb.’s doing sth.忍受某人做某事 bear sb./sth.out证实;为??作证 bear with sb./sth.耐心对待;容忍 bear sth.in mind牢记



义词有:endure,tolerate,stand等。 (2)borne和born是bear的两个过去分词,表示 “出生,出自”时用born,并且仅用于被动式。 表示“生育”时用borne。

(1)她生了三个孩子。 She has borne three children. (2)他无法忍受遭人嘲笑。

He can’t bear being laughed at./He
can’t bear to be laughed at. (3)你要记住你的父母希望你成为一名好医生。

You must bear it in mind that your
parents hope to depend on you to become a good doctor.

Although he is most often associated with

the invention of the telephone,...(回归
课本P26) ?观察思考 I’ve never associated you with this place.

I don’t like you associating with those people. 我不喜欢你和那些人混在一起。?


associate vt.联想 , 联系; n. 同伴,伙伴。 (1)associate sb./sth.with sb./sth.把??

be associated with...和??有关
associate with sb.与某人交往或常打交道 associate oneself with sth.声称或表示自己赞 同某事物 (2)association n.联合;联想;交往;协会,团

in association with...与??合伙/合作 (3)associated adj.有关联的,相关的


(1)He is closely associated in the public
mind with my childhood. (2)Salaries and associated costs have risen substantially. (3)The book was published in association with British Heritage.

5.call up
When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset.(回归课本P20)

Please call me up this afternoon. 请在今天下午给我打电话。 The smell of the sea called up memories of her childhood. 大海的气息勾起了她对童年的回忆。


call up意为:给??打电话 ;使想起往事 。
call up后的宾语如果是代词,则该代词应置于 call与up之间;如果是具体的人或事物,则置于

相关链接: (1)call at拜访(某个地点) call in顺路(到某处);找来,请来;收回 call off取消,停止

call on/upon拜访(某人);号召
call for需求,需要;去接(某人) call out大声喊叫;召集

(2)与打电话有关的短语: ring/call back回复电话

ring off挂断电话
give sb.a ring给某人打电话 sb.be wanted on the phone有某人的电话 answer the phone接电话 hang/hold on不挂断电话?

即学即用 (1)我昨晚给你打电话,但没人接。 I tried to call you up last night,but no one answered the phone. (2)这张老照片勾起了我对童年的回忆。 This old photo calls up memories of childhood. (3)比赛因大雨而被取消。 The game was called off due to the heavy rain. (4)你回家时能顺便探望一下奶奶吗? Could you call in on grandma on your way home? my

6.set about
I set about researching the habits of
snakes to find the easiest way to trap them.(回归课本P20) ?观察思考 The young workers set about their work with great enthusiasm. 青年工人们怀着极大的热情开始了工作。 They set about making preparations for

spring sowing.

归纳总结 set about意为: 开始,着手,其中about是介词, 后接 、代词或 。 动名词 名词 set down放下;记下;登记 set about doing sth.着手做某事 set off出发;使爆炸;引起;使(某人)开始 (做某事) set up建立;竖立 set back阻碍某事物发展;把(钟表指针)往回 拨 set aside把??置于一旁;留出 be set in以??为背景 set out (to do)开始做;出发,动身;安排;摆 放;陈述

即学即用——用set的相关短语填空 (1)Let’s set aside my personal feeling for now. ( 2 ) I set down w h a t m y t e a c h e r s a i d yesterday. (3)The girl attendant has set about cleaning the room.

( 4 ) A f u n d w i l l b e set up f o r t h e d e a d
men’s families. (5)A gang of boys were setting off fireworks in the street.

7.get through
I can’t get through.(回归课本P26)

He got through his business as quickly as he could. 他尽快完成了他的事务。 We were all delighted when we heard you had got through (your exam). 听到你(考试)及格时,我们都很高兴。

The government managed to get the new law
through. 政府设法使新法案通过了。 Her father has been trying to get it through to her that she must work harder

if she wants to pass the exam.
她父亲一直试图让她明白,如果她想通过 考试,就必须更加努力。

归纳总结 get through意为:__________________________ 设法联系上;打通电话;完成, 通过;使某人理解。

(1)get across被理解;使人了解
get down to认真地静下心来(工作)(to为介词) get over克服 get on进展,进步 get in收获 get around/round到处走动;传播出去

(2)go through检查;经历 pass through从??中穿过;走过??中 look through浏览;仔细查看 see through看穿,识破 live through活过(一段时间);经过??后仍

break through突破(障碍)?

即学即用 (1)陈老师正在仔细检查学生们的论文。

Ms.Chen is going through the students’

I tried to ring my girlfriend but I couldn’t get through. (3)你的意思并未真正被别人理解。 Your meaning didn’t really get across.

(4)—What did your parents think about your decision? — They always let me do I should. D I think

C.how 解析




8.Every time you do you will be certain
to find something that you have never seen before.当你这么做的时候,你一定会 发现你从未见过的东西。

Every time he come,I’m out.
他每次打电话时我都不在家。 Every time we date,he is always late. 我们每次约会他都迟到。

归纳总结 every time用作连词,意为“ 每次做??时 ”, 引导的是 时间状语从句,其用法相当于the first time,each time,next time,其从句谓语动词的

除此之外,还可以用一些貌似副词实则是连词及 名词词组来引导时间状语从句。 (1)the+瞬间名词,如the moment,the minute,the instant等,表示“一??就??”

(2)the day,the week,the year (3)the spring,the summer,the autumn,the

(4)the+序数词+time,the last time,(the) next time (5)every/each time,any time (6)immediately,instantly,directly


Every time he comes,he always brings me a gift. (2)我一看见他就认出了他。 The moment I saw him,I recognized him.

(3)下次你一来,我就告诉你怎样应付这种局面。 Next time you come,I’ll tell you how to
cope with the situation.

转化法串联扩展? 方式 词 例

X-ray由 “X光” 转义为 “透视” ? dust由 “尘土” 转义为 “弹掉尘土” ? 名词→动词 face由 “脸” 转义为 “面对” ? back由 “背,后面” 转义为 “支持;后退” stage由 “舞台” 转义为 “上演” slow由 “慢的” 转义为 “放慢” 形容词→动 empty由 “空的” 转义为 “倒空” ? 词 better由 “较好的” 转义为 “改善”



down由 “向下” 转义为 “击落(敌机); 放下(工具,即罢工)” to take a walk中的walk? to have a look中的look? to have a try中的try? to take the lead中的lead the the the the wounded受伤的人? unemployed失业的人? beautiful美丽的东西? blind盲人

形容词→名 词

1.It is difficult for college dropouts to 肄业者 2.When children enter the equation,further tension may arise within a marriage. 综合体 3.He shook his head in disapproval. 不赞成 4.This book is a follow-up to her excellent television series. countryside. 后续之作 护卫者 5.Farmers should be guardians of the

find jobs in this company.

6.The government has drawn up guidelines on

the treatment of the mentally ill.
指导方针 7.He made a half-hearted attempt to justify himself. 不尽力的 8.She hated having to wear her sister’s

long-term illness. with the problem.


9.Luckily he had insured himself against 投保;长期的 10.The law proved ineffective in dealing 无效果的

【例1】I tried phoning her office,but I

A.get along C.get to 解析



B.get on D.get through


打不通。get along进展;get on上车;get to 到达,均不合题意;get through通过,接通电 话,符合题意。 课文原文

I can’t get through.

【例2】—Ann is in hospital. —Oh,really?I know.I go and

visit her.
A.didn’t;am going to B.don’t;would C.don’t;will D.didn’t;will




道Ann在住院”这个情况就已经成为过去,所以 要用一般过去时,因此可以排除B、C两项;我 去看她这个动作发生在将来,是临时决定要去 做某事,没有计划和安排性,所以用will,不

用be going to结构,由此可以排除A项。故此

答案 D 课文原文

The next morning I got up early before
the sun was hot.

【例3】Owen wouldn’t eat anything cooked it himself. A.until C.unless B.since D.while






自己做的。A项意为“直到”;B项意为 “从??以来”;C项意为“除非”,引导条件 状语从句;D项意为“当??的时候”。 课文原文

The criteria are so strict that it is
d i f f i c u l t to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel.

【例4】John was given the same suitcase his
father and grandfather school. A.took C.were taking B with them to (北京高考) B.had taken D.would take


定语从句his father and grandfather

with them to school中的动词take动作发 生在was given之前,故应用过去完成时态。 课文原文 ...,and they seem to have made their home here,not far from the walnut tree.

【例5】Would it be D
airport? A.free C.handy

for you to pick me
(山东高考) B.vacant D.convenient

up at four o’clock and take me to the



便吗?free自由的;vacant未被占用的;handy 手边的,附近的;convenient便利的,方便的。 课文原文 They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall.

1.It was hard to d istinguish one twin from another. 2.He ate a light lunch in expectation (期望)

of a good dinner.
3.They chatted merrily(愉快地). 4.Each product has a number of easy identification (辨认). 5.He dialled the number and waited.

6.Ralph t apped me on the shoulder.

7.This ladder doesn’t seem very stable(稳 固的). 8.The train came to an a brupt stop,making many passengers fall off their seats.

9.Every file (文件) on the same desk must
have a different name. 10.The packet of white power(粉末) the police found in his room turned to be cocaine.

out of order,hang on to,now and then,call up,in truth,set about,set out,get through,

dive into,ring off
1.The boy told his parents that he would go to school but in truth he didn’t. 2.There must be something wrong with your telephone,for I couldn’t get through to

your office the whole morning.
3.George doesn’t go home every week,only now and then .

4.It was late in 2008 that he set about shooting the film. 5.Someone called me up at midnight,only to find he dialled the wrong number. 6.He dived into the bag and brought out two red apples. 7.We set out to paint the whole house but finished only the front part. 8.The car is said to have been out of order on the halfway last week.

9.The telephone rang,but before I could answer it,it rang off. 10. Hang on to the strap:the bus is about to start.

1.Researchers in this field have made some important new discoveries (有了一些重大的 新发现). 2.Sometimes reality and fantasy are hard to distinguish (很难区分). 3.A bicycle is often more convenient than a

car(比汽车更方便) in towns.
4.There was a general expectation that he would win (普遍希望他会赢).

5.The details of today’s flights are

displayed on the monitor (列在显示屏上).
6.The contract had been validly(有效地) drawn up.

7.We received 400 applications(收到400份申
请) for the job. 8.The ice is too thin to bear your weight (承受不住你的重量). 9.The helicopters appeared as two black dots(像两个小黑点出现) on the horizon. 10.Someone tapped at the door (轻轻叩门).

1.It is important to language. A.determine B.identify

D between the rules

of grammar and the conventions of written




辨别;有确定事实或身份之意;explore探索, 探究;distinguish区别,distinguish between...and...=distinguish...from...区


2.I don’t think I’ll need any money but

I’ll bring some
A.at last C.once again

B . B.in case D.in time


in case表示“以防万一”。

3.—What time are they planning to
the journey round the world? —Tomorrow,I guess. A.set down C.set off 解析 aside放到一边;收拾起来。



B.set aside D.set up

set off出发;set down放下;set

4.The latest


of the Oxford English

Dictionary includes 62 new words representing the changes in our culture

A.section C.edition 解析 B.version D.publication




5.You have been sitting on my hat and now

it is badly out of
A.date C.order

B . B.shape D.balance


out of shape是“变形”的意思,根据

前 面 “ 你 坐 在 我 的 帽 子 上 ” 可 判 断出 帽 子 是 “变形”了。out of date过时;out of order 混乱;out of balance失衡。

6.To add to the festive atmosphere,the park B A.dots with some grand lights during some B.will be dotted special festivals.

C.are dotted

D.have dotted




7.—How about going to the net bar after school? —Better not. D A.How can C.What about 解析 the teachers catch us B.How will D.What if

playing games in the bar?

what if如果??怎么办?

8.She won


from the president for her B.contribution D.attraction

great achievements. A.recognition C.devotion 解析


总统的认可。recognition认可;contribution 贡献;devotion奉献;专心;attraction吸引。

9.Everyone has periods in their lives everything seems very hard. A.when C.which B.where D.that





10. C

I call on him,he is out.

A.The moment
C.Every time 解析

B.So far as


Every time和The moment都能引导时间状语从
句。Every time意为“每当”;The moment意 为“一??就”。根据句意C项符合句意。

11.We all write not much to say. A.now and then C.step by step


,even when there is B.by and by D.more or less C

12.The law is made to protect the
punishing the guilty. A.rich C.innocent 解析 B.evil D.chronic



面的punishing the guilty意义相反。

13.Her father objected to her older than herself. A.agreement C.charge 解析


with men

B.association D.move


的男人交往。association表示“联系,结交, 交往”,符合语意要求。

14.—Could you drive through the

downtown?It’s not the shortest way.
—Oh, B .I’m in no hurry. A.I don’t like

B.I don’t mind
C.I’m afraid not D.believe it or not 解析 考查交际用语。I don’t mind我并不介 意。司机善意地提醒乘客,不是最近的路(要

多花钱),由下文“I’m in no hurry.”可判

15.If it is quite you next Tuesday. A.convenient


to you,I will visit B.fair


be convenient to/for sb.对某人来说

方便。句意为:如果对你来说方便的话,我将 在下星期二拜访你。


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