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【免费】2011高考英语难点突破24:不可臆断的推理题


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难点 24

不可臆断的推理题

此类题目,要求学生在通篇理解文章的基础上,依据文章提供的事实,将各种信息加以 分析,从而得出正确的结论,切不可站在自己的立场上凭空臆断。 ●难点磁场 1.(★★★★★)In July 1994 Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system, was struck by 21 pieces of comet(彗星). When the fragments(碎片)landed in the southern part of the giant planet, the explosions were watched by scientists here on earth. But what if our own planet was hit by a comet? The year is 2094. It has been announced that a comet is heading towards the Earth. Most of it will miss our planet, but two fragments will probably hit the southern part of the Earth. The news has caused panic. On 17 July, a fragment four kilometers wide enters the Earth’s atmosphere with a huge explosion. About half of the fragment is destroyed. But the major part survives and hits the South Atlantic at 200 times the speed of sound. The sea boils and an enormous wave is created and spreads. The wall of water rushes towards southern Africa at 800 kilometres an hour. Cities on the African coast are totally destroyed and millions of people are drowned. The wave moves into the Indian Ocean and heads towards Asia. Millions of people are already dead in the southern part of the Earth, but the north won’t escape for long. Tons of broken pieces are thrown into the atmosphere by the explosions. As the sun is hidden by clouds of dust, temperatures around the world fall to almost zero. Crops are ruined. Wars break out as countries fight for food. A year later civilization has collapsed. No more than 10 million people have survived. Could it really happen? In fact, it has already happened more than once in the history of the Earth. The dinosaurs(恐龙)were on the Earth for over 160 million years. Then 65 million years ago they suddenly disappeared. Many scientists believe that the Earth was hit by a space fragment. The dinosaurs couldn’ survive in the cold climate that followed and they became extinct. Will we t meet the same end? Question 1:It can be concluded that the passage is most probably part of a(n) ________. A.horror story B.news report C.research paper D.article of popular science 2.(★★★★★)The tower of Big Ben London’ most famous building,has always leaned (倾 s 斜) slightly, but construction work on a new line for the London Underground seemed likely to give the tower a real lean. Engineers have had to prop up (支撑) its base to prevent it from damaging the rest of the Houses of Parliament. To control the tower’s movement, engineers pumped grout (水泥浆) into the soil under the tower. The tower now leans an extra few centimetres, but the lean can only be seen by the most sharp-eyed observer. Between 1995 and 1997, to lengthen the Jubilee line of the Underground, builders dug a 40-metre-deep hole just 31 metres north of the clock tower. And the new tube (underground) tunnels were even nearer to the tower. John Burland, who recently helped stop the increasing lean in the Leaning Tower of Pisa and was an adviser to the Jubilee line project, believed the work would affect the tower. In his opinion, no further lean should go beyond a safety limit of 27.5 millimetres over the existing lean of 220 millimetres. www.tesoon.co m 天星教育 网

www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 To keep the lean within this limit, Burland told the British Association about the new method of pumping grout immediately under the base of the tower. More than 300 tons of grout were pumped in during construction. The tower’s, additional lean went between 10 and 25 millimetres, but never passed 27.5 millimetres. After the construction work was completed in late 1997, a review of movements in nearby walls showed that the building was in better shape than had been thought before and the safety limit was raised to 35 millimetres before any action needs to be taken. Since 1997,the tower has continued to lean, Burland told Modern Construction.The latest measurements, taken this year, suggest that the tower’s lean had just reached 35 millimetres. But following regular re-examinations of the tower, experts are sure that the tower has stabilised (稳 定). A spokesman for London Underground says: “We understand the tower has stabilised and returned to its normal movement cycle.” From Modern Construction, 16 September 2000 Question 2:We can infer from the article that________. A.the tower of Big Ben with damage the Houses of Parliament B.the Jubilee line should be stopped in Burland’s opinion C.the writer is blaming Burland for making a mistake D.the propping up work has proved to be successful 3.(★★★★★)The use of the word imitation(模仿) reminds me that we ought to make some more comments on the risk of people imitating what they see on the screen in the way of crime(犯 罪)or violence.First there was always a risk of children acting out scenes which could be dangerous.For example,I remember a woman who was head of a middle school telling me that she had happened to look out of her window when the children were in the playground and had seen them putting a small boy on a chair with a rope round his neck and the rope over the branch of a tree;fortunately she was in time to get there before the child was hung.I remember a film in particular in which the hero who was imprisoned had escaped by electrocuting(通电触死)his guard,the technique of doing this being shown in detail.This was the kind of scene which we could cut for these reasons. In films for young people and adults we always tried to keep off the screen any details of criminal techniques,such as how to open a locked door with a piece of hard plastic or how to open a safe;if we were consulted(请教)before production,I used to advise that the details should not be shown.When I gave talks in prisons about film checking I had full support for this ,since fathers who were in prison for criminal offences did not want their children to get on crime. Every time I gave a talk in a prison someone used to mention the French film Rififi made by Jules Dassin in 1954.This remarkable film showed in great detail a robbery of a jeweller’s shop,the robbery lasting about half an hour and being backed only by natural sound…one of the most brilliant film sequences(连续镜头)of all time.I remember our discussions at the time.We thought that the robbery was finished only with the use of advanced and obviously expensive equipment and that only the most experienced and skilled criminals could possible imitate it;we believed therefore that it was relatively safe.When talking in prisons some years later I learned that there had been several robberies in which the techniques had been copied,so perhaps we were wrong. Question 3:It can be inferred from the passage that________. A.it is hard for the children to tell the differences between real life and the imaginary www.tesoon.co m 天星教育 网

www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 B.only the people in prison supported film checking C.only children imitated what they had seen on the screen D.the writer used to advise the details of crime should be shown 4.(★★★★★)The next time you try for a high-ranking post, you could let your possible boss listen to a recommending(推荐) phone call “made” by US President George W. Bush or British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Of course, neither of them could really do that for you—you would just“borrow” their voices. At & T labs will start selling speech software that it says is so good at reproducing the sounds of a human voice that it can recreate voices and even bring the voices of long-dead famous people back to life. The software, which turns printed text into speech, makes it possible for a company to use recordings of a person’s voice to say things that the person never actually said. Possible customers for the software, which is priced in the thousands of dollars, include telephone call centres, companies that make software that reads digital(数字的) files aloud, and makers of automated voice devices(装置). The advances raise several problems. Who, for example, owns the rights to a famous person’s voice?(Some experts even believe that new contracts(合同) will be drawn that include voice-licensing clauses.) And although scientists say the technology is not yet good enough to commit fraud(假冒), would the synthesized(合成的)voices at last be able to trick people into thinking that they were getting phone calls or digital audio recordings from people they know? Even Mr Fruchterman, one of AT& T lab’s possible first customers, said he wondered what the new technology might bring. “Just like you can’t trust a photograph anymore.” he said, “you won’t be able to trust a voice either.” Question 4:According to the passage, you can infer that ________. A.the software will turn out to be an immediate success in the market B.the government will forbid the sale of the software in the market C.it’s hard to decide whether the software will enjoy popularity D.the software will soon prove to be nothing but rubbish ●案例探究 1. Grossroads International How does Grossroads work? Crossroads is a resource network. We take goods Hong Kong doesn’t want and give them to people who badly need them.We collect those goods and give them out in the welfare arena(福利 院)in Hong Kong,Mainland China,elsewhere in Asia,Eastern Europe and Africa.So Crossroads is just that:a Crossroads between need and resource. Who do we help? The welfare agencies we help do not run on large budgets(预算).They are grass-root groups who have seen a need and tried to meet it.They can’t get the job done without back-up,though,so our task is to help them do their task.Our warehouse is full of goods,from computers to high chairs,clothing to books,stationery to medical provision,cupboards to dining sets.They send us a list of their needs and we try to match it with the resource we have in stock. How do we operate? www.tesoon.co m 天星教育 网

www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 Crossroads itself also operates on a low budget.We do not buy the goods we send.They are donated(捐赠).Similarly,rather than raising funds for freight(货运),we ask transport companies to donate their services.Nobody in our organization receives a salary.Even our full-time staff work on a voluntary basis. Those that donate goods and services: ●Factories ●Manufacturers ●Hospitals ●Hotels ●Educational Institutions ●Householders ●Transport Companies ●Offices ●Other Charities One resource that we are always in need of is people.While we receive large quantities of goods and there is never a short supply of requests for them,we are always in need of hands to help sort and prepare them for shipping. What can I do? We are always in need of people.We have a lot of tasks.If you are volunteering regularly,we can offer work in some of the following categories,some of the time.You are welcome to number your top three choices and we will do our best to accommodate(提供) them. ●Clothing categorization ●Sewing ●Toy categorization ●Furniture handling ●Book categorization ●Driving ●Household goods categorization ●Office work ●Electrical goods categorization ●Book keeping ●Stationery categorization ●Fund-raising ●Medical categorization Where to find us All volunteer work is done at our warehouse: Located in Basement Zone M of the Kai Tak Government Building Our warehouse hours: Tues~Sat,10am~5:30pm Postal Address: 16 Man Tong,Silvermine Bay,Lantau Island, Hong Kong Office details: Ph:29849309 27409657 Fax:29847452 E-mail:106122.2524@compuserve.com Question:From the above brochure,we can conclude that________. A.people who work at Crossroads get low pay from it B.Crossroads doesn’t give goods directly to the people who need them C.you can do whatever you like if you offer help at Crossroads D.Crossroads has collected more goods than needed 命题意图:本题旨在考查学生选取有用信息进行推理判断的能力,属五星级题目。 错解分析: 本题错选的原因主要在于对选项的理解不准确, 以及对文章中的有关信息研 读不细致。 解题方法与技巧: (1)仔细阅读题干,准确理解 conclude 一词的准确含义(即:推断,
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www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 得出结论)(2)仔细研读选项,把握其准确意思,从文章中选取相关信息,与此对照,去 。 伪存真。 (3)文章首段告诉我们“We collect those goods and give them out in the welfare arena in Hong Kong…” 第二段作者又叙述道: , 福利院将人们的需求列成清单报给 Crossroads,Crossroads 负责配齐这些物品,由此可见,Crossroads doesn’t give goods directly to the people who need them。 答案:B 2.When I opened my e-mail the other day,a pretty woman named Rachel appeared on my computer screen.She greeted me by name and started talking with great enthusiasm(热情).Every now and then she stopped to smile at me or blow a kiss.She was reading to me an e-mail from my brother,and a lot of it was about the trouble he had getting the phone company to give him a high-speed Internet connection.It was pretty cool. Rachel was there thanks to a new technology called Facemail.Facemail lets you send e-mail that gets read to the recipient(收件人) by an attractive male or female form or by a clown(小 丑).The software,which is free,can be downloaded at www.facemail.com. Facemail faces are lifelike,and they simulate(模拟) emotions based on emotions—for example—that you put in your text.Type in:-X,and Rachel blows a kiss. Life FX,the company that develops the Facemail,is sure there are broad business uses.The reason e-business is not popular,the company says,is that buying over the Internet lacks the human touch.But what if you went to the Nike website and Michael Jordan greeted you by name,waited on you and personally closed the sale?And it is talking with Whirpool(惠尔普公司) about using the technology in a computer screen on a fridge.Then if Mom can’t be home when the kids get back from school,she can leave a note with voice and image telling them what there is to eat. Facemail could get hot fast.Personally,I’m a fan.But Facemail should be used with care.The clown looks lively and funny at first.But if you select the clown,put a few rude words in an e-mail and add some angry emotions,you’ve got psychomail(疯人型电子邮件). Question:We can infer from the passage that Facemail ________. A.is likely to be used in other aspects(方面) of our daily life B.can destroy your e-mail if not properly used C.can be downloaded free of charge D.will take the place of the e-mail system 命题意图:考查推理判断能力。属五星级题目。 错题分析:本题错选 B、C 项的学生较多。主要原因是文章研读不细和只重事实不重推理。 解题方法与技巧: (1)准确理解题干的关键词汇“infer” ,意为“推断出” ,故所选答案 不可以是文章所列事实, 以此可排除 C 项。 准确理解 B 项含义: (2) 如果使用不当, Facemail 会毁坏你的 e-mail。在文章中找出相对应的语句:But if you select the clown,put a few rude words in an e-mail and add some angry emotions,you’ve got psychomail(疯人型电子邮件)。此 句含义并非 Facemail can destroy your e-mail。 根据尾段前两句话 Facemail could get hot(流 (3) 行) fast.Personally,I’m a fan,以及文章前部分对 Facemail 用途的描述,可得出答案。 答案:A ●锦囊妙计 1.仔细阅读题干,抓住关键词汇。例:infer,conclude,imply,suggest,… 2.仔细研读选项,把握其准确意思,从文章选取相关信息,与此对照,去伪存真。 3.站在作者立场思考,把握作者意图,切忌推己及人,凭空臆断。 4.注重依据事实推断,不可简单选择和文中某一事实完全相同的选项。
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www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 ●歼灭难点训练 A I’m afraid to grow old—we’re all afraid .In fact, the fear of growing old is so great that every aged person is an insult(伤害)and a threat to society .They remind us of our own death,that our body won’t always remain smooth and responsive(敏感的), but will some day betray(暴露) us by aging. The ideal way to age would be to grow slowly invisible, gradually disappearing, without causing worry or discomfort to the young. In some ways that does happen. Sitting in a small park across from a nursing home one day, I noticed that young mothers and their children gathered on the “wrong” side, chasing(追逐) a ball or just trying to cover all the available space, the old people would lean forward and smile. But before any communication could be established(开始), the mother would come over, making embarrassed(尴尬) apologies, and take her child back to the “young” side. Now, it seemed to me that the children didn’t feel any particular fear and the old people didn’t seem to be threatened by the children. The division of space was drawn by the mothers. And the mothers never looked at the old people who lined the other side of the park. These well dressed young women had a way of sliding(忽视) their eyes over, around, through the old people; they never looked at them directly. The old people may as well have been invisible, they offended(冒 犯) the aesthetic(审美的) eye of the mothers. My early experiences were somewhat different; since I grew up in a small town, my childhood had more of a nineteenth century flavor(特点). I knew a lot of old people, and considered some of their friends. 1.(★★★★★)It can be inferred that young mothers would try to keep their children away from the old because ________. A.they feared their children might hurt the old B.they didn’t like their children to take up the space belonging to the old C.they felt it was wrong to play balls near where the old stayed D.they didn’t want their children to have anything to do with the old B In spite of the strong opposition to new and stricter environmental laws,however,it is still possible to attack the problem of chemical pollution;but we must attack it from three directions.First,we need more independent research into the effects of chemicals by scientists who are not paid by the government or by the large industrial companies.Second,scientists need to educate the general public and inform them about the dangers of chemicals in the environment.If the public knows that a certain chemical threatens the health of their childen,then they will put pressure on politicians in local and national governments.If the politicians want to remain in office,they will take action to correct the situation.Third,economists need to educate governments about the long-term economic costs of chemicals.It will be extremely expensive to clean areas of land which are polluted by chemicals;it will be even more costly to give medical treatment to people who are suffering from serious illnesses after exposure to dangerous chemicals.If governments realize this,the short-term economic benefits of chemicals will seem much less attractive to them. If we can put pressure on governments in these three ways,perhaps they will begin to behave more responsibly(有责任心地),and they will perhaps pass new laws against pollution and enforce them strictly.Perhaps,then,the chemical producers will begin to behave more responsibly.
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www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 2.(★★★★★)Which of the following can be inferred from this passage? A.The economy is more important to government than people’s health is. B.Governments think chemicals brings them more economic benefits than economic cost. C.The public knows enough about the dangers of chemical pollution. D.The governments fully realize the long-term economic costs of chemical pollution. C Vincent Van Gogh was an important painter of the 19th century.He was born in Holland,but he lived much of his life in France.He was a very emotional man,and there was much suffering in his life. His style of painting was very different from classical art.He painted pictures of the sunny,hot regions of France.He looked for interesting shapes and exciting colors.He liked to work freely and quickly.There is fast movement in many of his paintings.Sometimes the trees look like fire.The sun,moon,and stars move rapidly in the sky.He also painted pictures of people. Paul Gauguin was another 19th century painter.He was French and a friend of Van Gogh.Before he became an artist,Gauguin had been a businessman for many years.He made a lot of money and he liked to buy modern,paintings. At the age of 35 Gauguin decided to become a painter himself.Money had become too important to many people.Gauguin wanted to discover more important things about man.He went to a different Part of France to live with the farmers.He painted pictures of French country people there.Two years later he went to live in a small place in the Pacific Ocean,thousands of miles from France.He wanted to learn about the simple life there.His most famous and interesting paintings were painted at that time. 3.(★★★★★)What can you infer from the article? A.The classical art is much too dull and lifeless. B.Both of the two artists learned a lot from the classical art. C.Both of the two artists had a very hard life,especially suffered from poverty(穷困). D.The classical art has been the aim of the two artists. D In many countries today,laws protect wildlife.In India the need for such protection was realized centuries ago. About 300 BC an Indian writer described forests that were somewhat like national parks today.The killing of game beasts was carefully supervised.Some animals were fully protected.Within the forest,nobody was allowed to cut trees,burn wood for charcoal,or trap animals for their furs.Animals that became dangerous to human visitors were trapped or killed outside the park,so that other animals would not become uneasy. The need for wildlife protection is greater now than ever before.About a thousand species of animals are in danger of extinction,and the rate at which they are being destroyed has increased.With mammals,for instance,the rate of extinction is now about one species every year;from AD 1 to 1800,the rate was about one species every fifty years.Everywhere,men are trying to solve the problem for preserving wildlife while caring for the world’s growing population. 4.(★★★★★)Which of the following statements is implied but not stated? A.The growth of the world’s population has meant greater danger to wildlife. B.About a thousand species of animals are in danger of dying out. C.The rate of extinction of mammals is lower now than it was from AD 1 to 1800.
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www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 D.Hunters who kill endangered species are severely punished by law. E After entering the WTO,China will enjoy the most favored nation status as a member country.This will enable China’ products to enter foreign markets at a lower tax.After joining the s WTO,China has to carry out the WTO’s rules and open its home markets;this will help further improve the investment (投资)environment and strengthen the appeal(吸引力)of Chinese markets to foreign investment.It is conducive(有利的)to speeding the readjustment of our industrial structure.And it helps continue deepening China’s economic restructuring(改进). It helps China to take part in the formulation of new rules of international trade,protecting China’s rights and interests and raising China’s international status. Of course,in joining the WTO,China will have to take up some duties,this will surely bring certain pressure and challenge to us. Firstly,further opening the market will cause some domestic products,enterprises and industries to face stronger competition. Secondly,China’s foreign economic and trade management will,to a certain extent,be restricted by the WTO rules. In looking at the advantages and disadvantages of China’s joining the WTO,we cannot base ourselves on one or several industries,instead we should keep an eye on the development of the entire economy.Looking upon the matter from the entire industry,entry into the WTO will bring to China’s industries greater opportunities than its side effects.Most Chinese industries will gain more opportunities for development. To ordinary people,entry into the WTO means cheaper foreign goods.At present,some imported goods are very expensive because our country collects very nigh taxes on them.After entry into the WTO,these taxes will be cut down gradually so that it will force down the prices of imported goods coming into China.Home customers will benefit greatly.But it is not wise to hope that all foreign goods will become cheap overnight.In fact,according to the WTO agreement,there is a period of time during which some important but underdeveloped industries are protected so that they will not be destroyed by the rush of cheaper foreign goods.The car industry is a good example.It is believed that during the first few years after China’s entry into the WTO,the prices of cars will remain comparatively stable (稳定). 5.(★★★★★)It is implied but not said directly that ________ after joining the WTO. A.some industries will not develop because of strong competition B.China’s foreign trade will be restricted by the WTO rules C.China’s car industry will develop fast D.ordinary people can buy cheaper goods F We welcome you aboard the Finnair Flight and will do our best to make your trip comfortable and enjoyable. For your safety and convenience To begin the trip , we would like to draw your attention to some safety—related details. These are also explained on the instruction card in the seat pocket in front of you.Seat belts must remain fastened while the “Fasten seatbelts” sign is on.It is advisable to keep them fastened at all times while seated . All flights are non-smoking . The use of mobile telephones is now allowed when the airplane is on the ground and “the fasten seatbelts”sign is turned off. During the flight www.tesoon.co m 天星教育 网

www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 the use of CD and DVD players is now allowed. For your entertainment To help you enjoy your trip, we provide a range of newspapers on international flights . On our MD—11 and Boeing aircraft,we are also pleased to provide music and video programs. On Airbus A321/320/319,aircraft route maps and short videos are shown. Details of entertainment programs available on MD—11 aircraft are shown on the separate“On the Air” brochure located in your seat pocket. For your children Special reading material is provided for children and no longer flights there are also audio and video programs for them. On long-distance flights, first-time flyers between the ages of 2 and 15 can join our Finnair Junior Plus Club. Meals and drinks During most flights we serve you a tasty meal with drinks to accompany it . Beer, wine and other drinks are served free of charge.Coffee , tea and juice are served free of charge on all domestic flights of over 35 minutes. On domestic flights leaving before nine and on all flights to northern Finland, a snack is served. We value your opinion. In this magazine you’ll find a special form for your comments about our service.Kindly return the form to our crew or any Finnair office . It will be forwarded directly to the appropriate department . You can also fax it (+358-(0)89819—7729)or send your comments by e-mail to feedback@finniar.com. Our crew is pleased to answer your questions during the flight whenever possible. 6.(★★★★★)You may find this passage in ________. A.a newspaper B.a book C.a magazine D.an official document G Looking back on my childhood,I realize that naturalists are born and not made.Although we were all brought up in the same way,my brothers and sisters soon gave up their pressed flowers and insects.Unlike them,I had no ear for music and languages.I was not an early reader and I could not do mental arithmetic. Before World War Ⅰ we spent our summer holidays in Hungary.I have only the unclear memory of the house we lived in,of my room and my toys .Nor do I recall clearly the large family of grandparents,aunts,uncles and cousins who gathered next door. But I do have a clear memory of the dogs,the farm animals,the local birds,and above all,the insects. I am a naturalist,not a scientist.I have a strong love of the natural world and my eagerness has led me into varied studies or research.I love discussing my favorite topics and enjoy burning the midnight oil while reading about other people’s observations and discoveries.Then something happens that brings these observations together in my sensible mind.Suddenly you imagine you see the answer to the puzzling question,because it all seems to fit together.This has resulted in my publishing 300 papers and books,which some might honor with the title of scientific research. But curiously,a sharp eye,a good memory and enjoyment of the animal and plant worlds do not make a scientist;one of the best-known and important qualities required is self-training,a quality I lack.A scientist requires not only self-discipline but hard training,determination and a goal.A scientist,up to a point,can be made.A naturalist is born.If you can combine the two,you get the best of both. www.tesoon.co m 天星教育 网

www.tesoon.com 天星教育网版权所有,侵权必究 7.(★★★★★)It can be inferred from the passage that the author was ________. A.a scientist as well as a naturalist B.a naturalist as well as a scientist C.no more than a born naturalist D.first of all a scientist H There is probably no field of human activity in which our values and lifestyles are shown more clearly and strongly than they are in the clothes that we choose to wear.The dress of an individual is a kind of “sign language ” that communicates a set of information and is usually the basis on which immediate impressions are formed.Traditionally,a concern for clothes was considered to be an affair of females,while men took pride in the fact that they were completely lacking in clothes consciousness(意识). This type of American culture is by degrees changing as man dress takes on greater variety and color.Even as early as 1955,a researcher in Michigan said that men attached rather high importance to the value of clothing in daily life.White-collar- workers in particular viewed dress as a symbol(象征) of ability,which could be used to impress or influence others,especially in the work situation.The white-collar worker was described as extremely concerned about the impression his clothing made on his superiors(上司).Although blue-collar workers were less aware(察觉到的) that they might be judged on the basis of their clothing,they recognized that any difference from the accepted pattern of dress would be made fun of by fellow workers. Since that time,of course,the patterns have changed:the typical office worker may now be wearing the blue shirt,and the laborer a white shirt;but the importance of dress has not become less.Other researchers in recent years have helped to prove its importance in the lives of individuals at various age levels and in different social and economic status groups(阶层). 8.(★★★★★)The passage mainly suggests that ________. A.now men pay more attention to their clothes than women do B.women always like beautiful dresses C.people have paid more and more attention to the importance of dress D.American culture is changing greatly

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