【母题 1】 People with an impulsive personality refer to those who tend to do things without considering the possible dangers or problems first. According to a new study by researchers at the University of Georgia, such people may be more likely to have food addiction. The study found that people exhibiting impulsive behavior weren’t necessarily overweight, but impulsiveness was related to a direct relationship with food, and therefore, less healthy weight. Food addiction has b een compared to addictive drug use. Studies have linked the dopamine (多巴胺) release that occurs after tasting delicious food to the dopamine release that happens when people consume other addictive substances. Impulsive behavior involves several personality traits (特点). Two of these traits, known as negative urgency and lack of perseverance, were particularly associated with food addiction and high BMI (身体质量指数) during the study. Negative urgency is characterized by the tendency to behave impulsively when experiencing negative emotions. Some people might drink alcohol or take drugs. For others, it could mean eating to feel better. Lack of perseverance is when a person has a hard time finishing hard or boring tasks. People with a lack of perseverance might have difficulty attempting to change addictive eating behavior, which could also cause obesity. “Impulsiveness mig ht be one reason why some people eat in an addictive way despite motivation to lose weight,” said Dr. Ashley Gearhardt, a clinical psychologist. He was involved in developing the Yale Food Addiction Scale in aid of those people. “We are theorizing that if food addiction is really a thing, then our measure, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, should be related to helping controlimpulsive acti on,” said Gearhardt. Clinical psychologist Dr. James MacKillop, whose lab was conducting the study, believes that therapies used to treat addictive drug behavior could h elp people who suffer from addictive eating habits. “Most of the programs for weight loss at this point focus on the most obvious things, which are clearly diet and exercise,” MacKillop said. “It seems that managing strong desires to eat would naturally fit in with the skills a person would need to eat healthily.” 12. According to Paragraph 1, the result of food addiction is ________. A. less healthy weight B. motivation to lose weight
C. negative emotions
D. taking alcohol or drugs
13. How does the author introduce the two personality traits in Paragraph 4? A. By making comparisons and conclusions. C. By presenting questions and answers.
B. By explaining caus es and effects. D. By giving definitions and examples.
14. What can be inferred about the Yale Food Addiction Scale from the text? A. It has been successfully carried out among overweight people. B. It might help some impulsive people with food addiction to lose weight. C. It will prove whether food addiction is a problem to impulsive people.
D. It is theoretically a proper treatment for addictive food and drug behavior. 15. Which of the following can be the best title for the text? A. Dopamine release caused by food addiction C. Impulsive personality linked to food addition 【答案】 12A 13D 14B 15C B. Food addiction compared t o drug use D. Food addiction contributing to obesity
13.D 推理判断题。根据第四段第一句 Negative urgency is characterized by the tendency to behave impulsively when experiencing negative emotions.和第四段第三句 Lack of perseverance is when a person has a hard time finishing hard or boring tasks.可知这两句是 Negative urgency 和 Lack of perseverance 两个概念的定义。 同时本段 2、 3 句 Some people might drink alcohol or
take drugs. For others, it co uld mean eating to feel better.和最后一句 People with a lack of perseverance might have difficulty attempting to change addictive eating behavior, which could also cause obesity 给出的是这两个概念的例子。所以作者是通过定义和举例来介绍这两个定 义的。故 D 正确。 14.B 推理判断题。根据第五段最后一句“We are theorizing that if food addiction is really a thing, then our measure, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, should be related to helping control impulsive action,” said Gearhardt. 和第六段第一句 Clinical psychologist Dr. James MacKillop, whose lab was conducting the study, believes that therapies used to treat addictive drug behavior could help people who suffer from addictive eating habits 可知耶鲁大学的这个研究可以帮助控 制冲动的行为，并帮助那些因为冲动而有不好的饮食习惯的人。故 B 项说法正确。 15.C 标题概括题。本题属于主旨大意题中的标题概括题，根据第一段第二句 According to a new study by researchers at the University of Georgia, such people may be more likely to have food addiction.一项新的研究显示性格冲动的人很可能会有食物成瘾的行为。在后几段中介 绍了人们对于这两者之间联系的研究。 所以 C 项 “Impulsive personality linked to food addition” 与文章主题一致。
【母题 2】 A team of engineers at Harvard University has been inspired by Nature to create the first robotic fly. The mechanical fly has become a platform for a ser ies of new high-tech integrated systems. Designed to do what a fly does naturally, the tiny machine is the size of a fat housefly. Its mini wings allow it to stay in the air and perform controlled flight tasks. “It ’s extremely important for us to think about this as a whole system and not just the sum of a bunch of individual components (元件),” said Robert Wood, the Harvard engineering p rofessor who has been working on the robotic fly project for over a decade. A few years ago, his team got the go-ahead to start piecing together the components. “The added difficulty with a project like this is that actually none of those components are off the shelf and so we have to develop them all on our own,” he said. They engineered a series of systems to start and drive the robotic fly. “The seemingly simple system which just moves the wings has a number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of which individually has to perform well, but then has to be matched well to
everything it’s connected to,” said Wood. The flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success of the project proves that the flying robot with these tiny components can be built and manufactured.
While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source, the goal is eventually to equip it with a built-in power source, so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield. “Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly a round,” he said. Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and computation technologies on board could have much broader applications. “You can start thinking about using them to answer open scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the animals, but using these robots instead,” he said. “So there are a lot of technologies and open interesting scientific questions that are really what drives us on a day to day basis.” 8. The difficulty the team of engineers met with while making the robotic fly was that __________. A. they had no model in their mind B. they did not have sufficient time C. they had no ready-made components D. they could not assemble the components 9. It can be inferred from paragraphs 3 and 4 that the robotic fly __________. A. consists of a flight device and a control sys tem B. can just fly in limited areas at the present time C. can collect information from many sources D. has been put into wide application 10. Which of the following can be learned from the passage? A. The robotic flyer is designed to learn about insects. B. Animals are not allowed in biological experiments. C. There used to be few ways to study how insects fly. D. Wood’s design ca n replace animals in some experiments. 11. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
A. Father of Robotic Fly B. Inspiration from Engineering Science C. Robotic Fly Imitates Real Life Insect D. Harvard Breaks Through in Insect Study 【答案】 8C 9B 10D 11C
9.B 推理判断题。根据第三段倒数第二句 “he flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems”可知 A 项是错误的。根据第四段第一句“While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source”和“Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,”可知，目前由于电池等的限制，只能在有限的区域飞行。因此 B 项是正确的。 根据第四段的“so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield”可知该飞行器是在 someday 将来的某一天才能从不同的 地方收集信息，而不是现在，因此排除 C 项。纵观全文，讲述的是该飞行器尚处于开发的 初级阶段，有很多地方需要改善，因此 D 项广泛投入使用是错误的。综上所述，选 B 项。 10.D 细节理解题。根据第四段的 it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield 可知，A 项是错误的。B 项中 animals are not allowed 是 错的，应该是 difficult with animals,即有些用动物来做试验是困难的，不是不允许。C 项在文 中并没有提到以前方法的多少，文中只是说 offers a new way to study，提供了新的方法，故 排除 C 项。根据最后一段的 you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the
animals, but using these robots instead，可知，有些试验用动物很苦难，但是可以用机器人来 替代，故选择 D 项。
【名师点睛】 本文属于主旨大意题中的标题概括题。我们可以根据以下原则来选择最好的标题—选帽原 则。
英语文章的标题可以是单词、 短语， 也可以是句子， 它高度概括了文章内容， 点明文章主题， 它是文章中心思想最精练的表达形式。 那如何选择文章的标题呢？如同选择文章的主题思想 一样，标题要有概括性、全面性、针对性。标题要避免概括不够，即以部分代整体，或以事 实细节代替具体的大意；也要避免概括过度，即脱离了文本内容的过度发挥，导致标题范围 太大，缺乏针对性。像帽子一样，大小合适才行。另外，标题要简洁、突出、新颖。标题是 文章的点睛之笔，所以它还要具有醒目的特点，能吸引读者。 本文的重点观点在第一段， 主要讲述的是哈佛大学从自然界的昆虫那里得到了灵感， 设计开 发了第一款机器苍蝇。所以 C 项最概括第说明了文章的大意。