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高二英语选修8 unit2教案


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Unit 2 Cloning
I. 单元教学目标 技能目标 Goals Talk about cloning Practice expressing and supporting an opinion Use the appositive clause Write a composition about cloning Ⅱ.目标语言 目标语言 Expressing and supporting an opinion I’m happy to accept …. But…. I would never accept…. I’m not bothered about….. I don’t mind but….
功 能 句 式

I hope you’ll carry on…. Are you sure you want to…. I agree with you that…. Is it fair to….? Do you think it is wise to….? I think you should…. Well done to you for…. I don’t understand why you don’t…. I can’t help thinking…. I could never agree to…. 1. Strawberry, differ, exact, straightforward, breakthrough, disturbing, cast,
词 汇

altogether,objection,media,moral,ceiling,shortly,retire,assumption, merely,decoration,zebra,aloud 2. nucleus, gene, somatic, embryo, fate, impact, extinct, popularity, identical,
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Jurassic, bison, calf, DNA, habitat, restore, Auroch, Great Auk, Quagga 3. 词组 cast down, object to, media, favour of, the in (be) bound to (do) from …, time to time, bring back to life, pay off 4. 重点词汇 clone, commercial, producer, undertake, arbitrary,object ,forbid, accumulate bother, regulation, resist, unable, argument , reasonable, obtain
结 构

Appositive clause It is a way of….P11 The fact is that….P11
重 点 句 子

that

The question that occurred is….P12 How differently do people think of….P14 The….is …but…P14 The advantage is that….P15 How would you treat….P54 I don’t mind but….P55 I agree with you that….P55

III. 教 1. 教

教 重组

Cloning 学 点 A strawberry plant( 学 1.2 Listening 1.3 Speaking

题, 点, 学

教学,

学 词汇 Dolly the sheep(

点, 新 ) ,

Cloning

1.1 Warming Up ) Twins ( 论 , , 小组 , , 中

) Identical dogs( 点

)

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1.4 Pre-reading 是 Reading 的热身活动。 它要求采用与同学讨论交流的方式谈 论有关克隆的相关知识。 1.5 Reading 是一篇介绍克隆技术的说明文。 1.6 Comprehending 第一题所给出的表格让学生根据课文内容列举克隆技术 的优缺点。第二题让学生根据所拥有的知识来评价作者的观点。第三题要求学生 用自己的语言阐述对克隆技术的观点并给出理由。 1.7 Learning about Language 分词汇和语法两部分,其中 Discovering useful words and expressions 是 根 据 语 境 在 运 用 中 掌 握 词 汇 。 Discovering useful structures 是通过阅读和补全句子来练习。 1.8 Using Language 中的 Reading,Discussing and writing 要求学生先读, 然 后完成四个任务型的作业。即 1. 讨论并回答三个问题。回答这些问题,2. 讨论 几种已经灭绝的动物,并且讨论哪种动物应该被恢复到这个世界上,并且给出理 3. 由。 listening and speaking 让学生根据所听到的内容选择并列出文中人物观点。 2. 教材重组 2.1 从话题内容上分析,Warming Up 与 Reading 相一致;而从训练目的上分 析与 TALKING 比较一致。从教材份量来说,可将 Warming Up 和 Reading 整合 在一起,设计成一节任务型“阅读课(一) (精读课)。 ” 2.2 将 Listening 和 Workbook 中的 LISTENING 整合在一起,设计成一节 " 听力课"。 2.3 将 Using Language 与 Workbook 中的 TALKING 和 SPEAKING TASK 结 合在一起,设计成一节“口语课” 2.4 将 Learning about Language 与 Workbook 中的 USING WORDS AND EXPRESSION 整合在一起上一节“语法课” 。 2.5 将 Workbook 中的 READING TASK 和 PROJECT 以及 WRITING TASK 整合成一节“泛读与写作课” 。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st 2nd 3rd 4th period period period period Reading Listening Speaking Grammar
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5th

period

Extensive reading and writing

Ⅳ. 分课时教案

The First Period Reading Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 clone,commercial,producer,undertake,arbitrary,object,forbid,accumulate, cast down,object to,the media,in favour of b. 重点句子 It is a way of…. The fact is that…. The question that occurred is…. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to describe cloning: What is the advantages of cloning? What is the problems or dangers of cloning?What is your opinion of cloning? 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to describe cloning. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to describe cloning. Teaching difficult point 教学难点 Help the students analyze the writing techniques of the article. Teaching methods 教学方法 Skimming, task-based method and debate method. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式

Step I Lead-in
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This topic is difficult for students. So teacher should help the students learn more about it. Do this in the way of asking and answering questions. T: You can imagine how rapidly the modern science and technology develop. I think most of you must know something about space traveling, submarine exploration, robot, maglev train, gene engineering etc. But in recent years, a hot topic, cloning is often mentioned, especially when the cloning Dolly the sheep appeared. You may have first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though. First things first, what is cloning and a clone? The dictionary says cloning is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism. A clone is said to be all descendants derived asexually from a single individual, as by cuttings, bulbs, by fission, by mitosis, or by parthenogenesis reproduction. It sounds very different and complicated to us. In fact, I mean, in our daily life, this happens often. For example, gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. You often see that your mother picks a small branch from a growing plant to make a new one. If she likes this kind of flowers, she can do cloning. Cloning also happens in animals or human beings when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. The fact is that cloning plants is straightforward but the cloning of animals is more complicated. The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", aroused worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. You can give your questions if you are interested in this topic. I am here today one of the scientists who work in this field. I am ready to answer any of your questions. S: Now we know what is cloning. Are there different types of cloning? T: When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called reproductive cloning. There are different types of cloning however, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing the genetic twin of another organism. A basic understanding of the different types of cloning is

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key to taking an informed stance on current public policy issues and making the best possible personal decisions. The following three types of cloning technologies will be discussed: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, (2) reproductive cloning, and (3) therapeutic cloning. S: Was Dolly created by what cloning? And why was Dolly so important? T: Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. She was the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA taken from an adult cell. Previously, animals had only been cloned using embryo cells which already have the potential to become a complete embryo in its own right. The big breakthrough with Dolly was to make a clone from an ordinary, adult cell ? in this case from a female goat’s udder. S: Have you seen Jurassic Park? In this feature film, scientists use DNA preserved for tens of millions of years to clone dinosaurs. They find trouble, however, when they realize that the cloned creatures are smarter and fiercer than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs. T: In theory? Yes. What would you need to do this? A well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur, and a could serve as a surrogate mother. In reality? Probably not. It’s not likely that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time. However, scientists have tried to clone species that became extinct more recently, using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples. More questions about cloning are given in the appendix. The information above is for reference only. Or you can choose several students and ask them to act out a short play whose main topic is as follows: An old man who was dying left all his fortune to his own son. But the did not know that his son was cloned. So two same young men both claimed that they were the old man’s son. They quarreled and fought with each other; at last they went to the judge. The judge let them check DNA. The result was that their DNA was the same. Now even the judge did not know what to do.

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In this part the teacher can give the students some advice to act out. According to this play teacher ask the students several questions: 1. Do you want to be cloned or not? Why? 2. If you are the judge what will you do? 3. Can you tell me the advantages of cloning? 4. And what is the disadvantage? Discussion In this part the students will discuss the relationship between the development of technology and social customs. T: As the technology develops day by day, it has a more and more important influence on the whole society. Technology affects social customs and ethics, sometimes technology may go against the conventional thinking, then comes the problem that whether we should stop the development of research or change the ethics. S1: As technology develops in almost every field, a lot of our original customs and ethics changed, either because they are out of time or not so scientific. For example millions of years ago human ate meat of animals without heating them. Later people used fire and no longer ate raw meat and they also used fire to scare dangerous animals. S2: I think we could not stop the development of technology, for it may develop in the way which is acceptable by social customs. … Look at pictures T: Look at the pictures and discuss which ones are natural clones and which ones are man – made. Then explain how they differ. S: I think the twins are natural clones and the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: You are right! Can you explain how they differ? S: The twins were born at the same time, but the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: Anything else? Who want have a try?
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S: I think the identical dog is man-made. T: Good Job Step II Pre-reading Before class, ask the students to search for some information about this topic. Now show your questions on the screen, and then let them discuss with each other. T: Now please work in pairs and discuss about cloning. Then list the questions you want to find out. Share your list with your partner. Ss: Yes, sir / madam. Questions about cloning: 1. What is a clone? 2. How is a clone produced? 3. What benefits can humans gain from cloning? 4. What problems may arise when humans are cloned? 5. Should we clone human? 6. Could cloning replace sex as the means of creating new human life? 7. Could a parent clone a child who is dying of a terminal illness? After a few minutes. T: Do you have other questions? Volunteer! S: I have! What is the writer’s opinion? T: Good job! I think many of you have questions, now let us read the article with the questions.

Suggest answers: 1. It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. 2. This happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones, and when small parts of a plant are taken and gown in a laboratory. It also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg.

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3. It can help cure disease and can help couples who have no baby to bear a new baby. 4. There may be more bad people like Hitler. 5. In my opinion, I do not agree, for it may cause many moral problems. 6. No. Because cloned human has the same quality as the real human, natural born baby’s quality is higher than his parents. 7. No. The cloned baby also has the disease. Step III While- reading Get the students to comprehend the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students form a good habit of reading. T: Have you not the answers of your questions? Now please skim the passage fast to obtain a general understanding of the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea of each part. Show the following. Para. 1 Cloning is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. Para. 2 Cloning has two major uses. Para. 3 The problems of Dolly. Para. 4 The effect of Dolly. Para. 5 It is forbidden to clone human being. Step IV Post-reading Ask the students to read the passage again to finish three tasks. T: Now let’s listen to the. While listening, pay more attention to the correct pronunciation and tone. Then read the text by yourselves to get the answers to the three tasks. You can work in groups. T: First, What are the problems or dangers of cloning? S: Let me have a try! First, the cloned animals have the same illness of old animals and the same goes with the other species. Second, the cloned animals have short life and can cause moral questions. T: You are right! And what are the advantages of cloning?
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S: I know! Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. Thirdly, it suddenly opens everyone’s eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses, and even producing human beings. T: What is the writer’s opinion? What do you think is the writer’s point of view in this reading passage? Is it in favour of cloning or against is? S1: I think the writer is in favour of it, because there are many advantages of cloning. It can help people solve many problems in our daily life. S2: I think the writer doesn’t agree with it, because if the cloning technology can be used in an evil way, it can cause much trouble to our society. T: The next question: What is your opinion of cloning? Give the reasons. S1: As a coin has two sides, everything has two aspects. First, if the cloning is used in a correct way it can bring many conveniences to us. Such as: curing serious illnesses and being used to produce commercial qualities of plants. On the other hand, if the cloning is used in an evil way it can cause much troubles: such as moral questions. S2: My view on cloning and nuclear transfer is that it is ethical. So actually I find no reason to clone presently. I have this opinion currently, because scientists are unable to successfully clone using nuclear transfer as of today. S3: I also have a problem with the possible effects of using nuclear transfer on a large scale. This is because I fear that cloning could greatly reduce genetic diversity. I believe if we were to interfere with the genetic diversity of an entire population we would undoubtedly fail. S4: As you can see I believe cloning using nuclear transfer should not be used on humans for any reason. I think if we were to use cloning it should be closely monitored as to what dangers are involved in having copies of people. I also think this technology should not be used until success. S5: I agree that we should develop cloning. I’m not afraid of cloning Hitlers or excited to clone Einsteins. I would say the time and the environment produced Hitler, not his DNA. So you do not need DNA from Hitler to produce a Hitler. In fact, there
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are Nazis already present. We should make use of cloning to benefit future generations. You can imagine that how happy the people are if they can recover from the serious illness or get back the son who has just lost his life in an accident by cloning. T: Good job! Yes, if we our human beings use the scientific technology properly it can bring many advantages to us! S: Why did Dolly’s appearance raise a storm of objections and have a great impact on the media and public imagination? T: Because nothing really prepared the world for the 1997 announcement that a group of Scottish scientists had created a cloned sheep named Dolly. Many folks believe that within the next decade, we will hear a more shocking announcement of the first cloned human. Scientists in South Korea have already created human embryonic stem cells through cloning. Until now, the idea of human cloning has only been possible through movie magic, but the natural progression of science is making human cloning a true possibility. We’ve cloned sheep, mice and cows, so why not humans? Some countries have set up laws banning cloning, but it is still legal in many countries. Imagine using a piece of your great-grandmother. This opens the door to many ethical problems, but it’s a door that could soon be opened. S: So what happens next? T: Whatever the reasons, the new cloning technologies have sparked many ethical debates among scientists, politicians and the general public. Several governments have considered or enacted legislation to slow down, limit or ban cloning experiments outright. It is clear that cloning will be a part of our lives in the future, but the course of this technology has yet to be determined. Cloning could cause birth defects, but it’s not going to change society. In the absence of any legislation or regulation, cloning attempts will quietly continue. Eventually, cloning will succeed (if it hasn’t happened already), and humankind will have taken another step down the road of biological engineering. You should study hard today, and you will be able to face this difficult problem and know how to deal with it.

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Explanation T: Now let’s deal with some language points. Turn to page 11. Let’s look at the sentence: It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. 全句汉语 意思:它是一种精确复制另一个动物或植物的方式。Here a way of means a manner of 一种……的方式。 T: Turn to page 12. Look at the 8th line. Dolly’s appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. In this sentence, raise means lead. (引起/导致)。全句意思是:多利的出现引起一场反对风 暴,并且对媒体和公众思想产生了很大的冲击。 T: Turn to page 12. Look at the sentence: However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us. “whether cloning will help or harm us”, “where it is leading us” is the objects of the word “wonder” 全句意思是: 科学家一直致力于研究克隆到底会有助于我们还是会伤害我们, 它们将我们引向 何方。 Step V Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Complete the exercises on page 13. 2. Recite the key sentences in the text. 3. What is Cloning? You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. Have you ever wished you could have a clone of yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park or went out with your friends? Imagine if you could really do that. Where would you start?

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