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5 介词 教师


介词
介词又叫做前置词,是一种虚词,不能单独在句子当中担当成分,它后面必须接名词、 代词或相当于名词的其他词类搭配 (介词+宾语) 构成介词短语; 和动词搭配构成短语动词, 然后才能够在句子当中充当成分。 介词分为简单介词,如:at, in, on, besides, since, for 等;合成介词,如:inside, outside, without, within, into, onto 等;短语介词(或成语介词) ,如:because of, in front of, instead of, in spite of 等;二重介词,如:from behind, until after 等。 一、介词短语的句法功能 介词在句子中可以充当定语、状语、表语、以及宾语补足语等。 1. 作定语 介词短语在句中做定语时须位于被修饰词之后。 The key to the door is missing. The water-tower in front of our school was built in 1988. 2. 作表语(或称为:主语的补足语) Some students are in the classroom, and some on the playground. As we know, Japan is to the east of China. 作宾语补足语(或称为:宾语的表语) Did you see a pen under my desk this morning? They have sent another rocket into the sky. 作状语 1) On Sundays, the family are mostly out. (时间状语) 2) On top of the hill stands a TV tower. (地点状语) 3) He is used to sleeping with all the windows open. (伴随状语) 4) In the search for the lost child, the villagers went all out. (目的状语) 5) All the work must be done by hand. (方式状语) 6) At times, I go to the cinema. (频度状语) 7) She is by far the best student in our class. (程度状语) 8) Because of poverty, he couldn’t go to school. (原因状语) 9) To my surprise, he got the first prize in the contest. (结果状语 / 或评注性状语) 10) Without our Party, we couldn’t live a happy life. (条件状语) 11) In spite of great efforts we failed to carry our plans through. (让步状语) 12) As a matter of fact, nobody agreed to his project. (评注性状语) In my opinion, you’d better go with us.

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二、介词的复合结构 “介词+宾语+补足语”可以构成介词的复合结构,在句子当中可充当表语、定语、状 语、补语等。这种结构中的宾语和补足语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,使得句子意义 更加丰富。常见的这类介词有 with, without, like, of 等。 1. 介词+宾语+形容词 He is used to sleeping with all the windows open. 2. 介词+宾语+分词 Bamboo leaves swing in the wind like slim fingers reaching to touch something. At the beginning of school, the noise of desks being opened and closed and lessons (of

being) repeated at the top of the children’s voices could be heard out in the street. The wounded boy glared at the nobleman with his teeth clenched. 3. 4. 5. 介词+宾语+不定式 The cat humped its back just like a fierce tiger to jump upon me. 介词+宾语+副词 The little boy rushed out of the house without anything on. 介词+宾语+介词短语 The teacher entered the classroom with a book under his arm.

三、介词的叠用 在少数介词之后还可接另一个介词短语,也就是我们所称的二重介词。如: The naughty boy suddenly rushed out from behind the tree to frighten the girl. In the spring, new bamboo shoots come out from around their own roots. He kept on working until after lunch. 四、介词+and+介词 有些介词短语用两个意义相反的介词构成从而使句子精简化。 Not knowing what to do, the worried officer walked up and down the room. There are many trees in and outside the town. 五、介词与其同形的与副词区别 有些介词可做副词用, 但我们知道副词可以单独在句子中担当成分, 而介词须加宾语构 成短语才可在句子中充当成分。 试比较: Please come in. (in 为副词 = into the room) We have no car, but we can go there without. (without 为副词 = without a car) Although the exam was difficult, I managed to get through. (through 为副词 = through the exam) 六、常易混用介词的区别 1. 表示“上、下”等方位的介词。见下图:

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表示地点的 in 和 at 的区别 a) at 表示位置,in 表示“在…内”如: — Where is he? — He is at the cinema. (问话者想知道的是位置) — Is he in the cinema? — Yes, he is. (问话者可能已经在影院门外) b) at 表示小地点,in 表示大地点 They arrived at the village at seven. They arrived in Beijing at seven. 但若某一个大地点并不是最后的终点,仍然用 at。例如: The train from Beijing to Guangzhou will arrive at Wuhan at twelve o’clock. (武汉只是从北京开往广州这趟列车途中的一个站,并非目的地。)

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in, to 和 on 在方位名词前的区别 in 表示在某范围之内;to 表示某范围之外的地方;on 表示“毗邻、接壤” Taiwan lies in the east of China. Taiwan lies to the east of the mainland of China. Mongolia (蒙古) is (lies) on the north of China. 表示时间的 in 和 after 用于将来时态时,in 后面接“时段” ;after 后面接“时点” 。试比较: He will be back in five hours. He will be back after five o’clock. after 后面也可接“时段” ,但应该用在过去时态的句子中。 They came back after five days.

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表示时间的 at, in 和 on 1) at 表示“钟点时刻、黎明、正午、黄昏、夜晚、午夜、周末、节日期间” He often gets up at daybreak (dawn). They will begin their journey at New Year. 2) 3) in 表示“上(下)午、晚间、星期、月份、年份、世纪” He was born in 1988. on 表示具体日期或具体的上(下)午,节日的当天,美国英语周末前也用 on. He died on the morning of August 15th, 1985.

但若 morning, afternoon, evening 等词前面有 early 或 late 等修饰语则仍然用 in。 如: He died in the early morning of August 15th, 1985. 6. 表时间的 since 和 for since 后接时点;for 接时段,均常与完成时态连用。 He has been here since last Friday. He has been here for five days. 当表示“多少次” 时不能用 for; 表示“第几次”位于句首时须加 for,而位于句 尾时 for 可以省略也可保留。 He has been to Beijing three times. (不可用 for three times) For the first time, I have come here. I have come here (for) the first time. 表示位置的 between 和 among between 表示“个与个之间” ,并非只能指两者,可用“…and…”也可接复数名词。 如: The teacher sat between Tom, Jack, Kate, Jane and Mary. You’d better eat nothing between meals. among 则笼统地指“在…之中” ,后接复数名词或代词。 The teacher sat among the students. except, besides, but, except for, but for, except that/ when 1) except 用作介词,意为“除了” 。整个句子所表达的意思重点在 except 所构成 的介词短语上。例如: Nobody felt anxious except him. (只有他才焦虑不安) 2) except 和 besides 两者都有“除去”之意,但前者指“但并不包括” ,是“排除”之意;后者指

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“除此之外还有” ,有“外加”之意。例如: There are six of us besides Tom. (除汤姆外,另外我们还有 6 个人。 ) except 和 but but 用作介词时,意思是“除…外” , “别无…” , “只有…” ;but 多与 no one, nothing,who,all,everyone 等连用,它可与 except 互换。例如: No one but a fool would believe it. Who but he would do such a thing? except for 和 except that/when 二者意为 “只是” 或 “除…外” , 表示理由或细节, 修正前面所说的情况。 except for 后面接单词,except that/when 后面接句子。整个句子所表达的意思重点 在主句中,而 except 所构成的介词短语只是次要的。例如: Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes. (= Your composition is good except that there are a few spelling mistakes.) 比较:All the compositions are good except Li Hua’s. (大家的作文都好,只有李华的除外。) except for 和 but for except for 用于陈述语气,but for 用于虚拟语气“要不是…” 。例如: Except for its temples,the place is not worth seeing. But for your help, I couldn’t have finished the work on time. except but 十动词不定式 (可带 to 或不带 to, 当 but 或 except 之前没有动词 “do” 的某种形式时,其后的不定式要带 to。 )例如: They did nothing except/but watch TV. I could not do anything except/bur just wait for him to come round.

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巩固训练
1. 2. Do you still remember the film we saw ________the end of last week? A. in B. by C. at D. to That he had a lot of practice ________volleyball was the reason why he defeated all the other players. A. in B. at C. on D. about ________the sound of the knocking on the door, he rose and went to open it. A. At B. On C. To D. Heard You can find the store ________No. 19 Beijing Road. A. on B. at C. near to D. in Please wait for me ________the corner of that street ________three o’clock. A. in; at B. at; on C. in; for D. at; at I bought these books ________one yuan a copy. A. at B. by C. on D. in I can’t buy it ________such a price. A. of B. for C. at D. with The student is sitting ________his desk. A. over B. around C. at D. for when the spaceship leaves the earth ________very high speed, the astronauts feel as if they are being crushed ________the spaceship.

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

28. 29. 30.

A. with; in B. at; on C. with; to D. at; against The child hid himself ________the door. A. after B. behind C. in the front of D. ago She left the party ________her headache. A. because B. since C. in spite of D. because of You shouldn’t eat so much chocolate ________meals. A. except B. between C. unless D. through some animals sleep ________day and wake up ________night. A. by; by B. at; by C. by; on D. on; in —What time is it, please? —It is seven ________my watch. A. in B. at C. for D. by You’ll be able to speak English ________practicing from time to time. A. in B. by C. with D. for ________the end of last year we had leaned five English songs. A. At B. By C. In D. On A man should not be judged always ________what he says. A. by B. in C. with D. to The guests will be here ________two o’clock. A. in B. on C. for D. by some people got up and left the hall ________the show. A. while B. during C. between D. through How much must I pay you ________the tickets ________tonight. A. of; of B. for; for C. for; about D. for; to I am grateful ________your help ________me. A. to; for B. for; to C. to; to D. for; for Joan is always praised ________her cleverness. A. of B. in C. for D. by It’s quite warm today ________January. A. for B. in C. at D. on I bought this book ________fifty cents. A. at B. about C. at D. for Chinese is a language ________more native speakers than any of the other languages. A. with B. spoken C. which D. has Please write ________pencil, not ________ink. A. in; with B. in a; with C. with a ; in D. with; in ________the development of science and technology, our country has become richer and stronger. A. In B. By C. At D. With ________the rise in prices, life is getting harder. A. With B. On C. As D. For He has no good pen ________. A. to write B. to write with C. to write on D. writing Mary was disappointed when she found but they had gone to the ball ________her.

A. except B. except for C. for D. without 31. Xiao Li masters several other foreign languages ________English. He studies German, Japanese and Russian. A. beside B. besides C. but D. except 32. The soldier stood quite still, ________his lips moved slightly. A. except that B. except for C. except D. besides 33. Your composition is good ________a few spelling mistakes. A. besides B. except C. except for D. except that 34. Peter’s car is excellent ________the color. A. except B. besides C. except for D. only except 35. Everybody went to the exhibition ________Mary. A. not B. but C. for D. by 36. We live a long way ________the factory. A. to B. for C. from D. in 37. The town lies ________the west of the river. A. at B. in C. from D. to 38. Let’s walk over ________the sun on the other side of the street. A. in B. to C. under D. by 39. There are a lot of news ________today’s newspaper. A. in B. on C. at D. with 40. Say something about your school ________English. A. in B. with C. by D. for 41. The girl ________will give us a report. A. on blue B. of blue C. in blue D. at blue 42. Please ask him if he will join us ________playing table tennis. A. on B. at C. in D. with 43. This vegetable is very rich ________iron. A. of B. in C. with D. for 44. He has been caught ________the rain and is wet through and through. A. by B. in C. at D. up with 45. Look, there is a hole ________the wall. A. on B. at C. in D. of 46. What is the difference________ pronunciation ________these two words? A. of; in B. in; between C. in; among D. of; between 47. The doctor will be back ________ten minutes. A. after B. in C. on D. at 48. The desk stands ________the corner of the room near the window. A. on B. at C. under D. in 49. Do you like dressing yourself ________new clothes? A. on B. in C. with D. by 50. Please come to see me ________two day’s time. A. during B. after C. for D. in KEY: 1—10. CBABD ACCDB 11—20. DBADB BADBB 21—30. BCADA CDABD 31—40. BACCB CDBAA 41—50. CCBBC BBDBD



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