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A-Level 化学-卤素 Halogens
Revision: Halogens Trends in chemical properties chlorine will displace bromine and iodine bromine will displace iodine but not chlorine iodine will displace neither chlorine or bromine Oxidizing Power F2>Cl2>Br2>I2 Reactions with Cl2 …… Reactions with Br2 …… Reactions with I2 …… Trend in electronegativity decreases as atomic number increases …… Trend in boiling point all exist as diatomic molecules

三立教育 ap.sljy.com attraction = weak intermolecular forces van der Waals forces increase with size of molecule Tests Tests for halide ions Reagents …… Energetics Standard enthalpy of formation enthalpy change when 1 mol of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions all reactants and products in their standard states Standard enthalpy of combustion enthalpy when 1 mol of a substance is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions and all reactants and products in their standard states Standard enthalpy of neutralization enthalpy change that accompanies the neutralization of an acid by a base to form 1 mol of H2O under standard conditions

三立教育 ap.sljy.com Standard conditions 298 K 100kPa 1mol dm-3 Redox Oxidation loss of electrons addition of oxygen Reduction gain of electrons loss of oxygen Reactions which involve both oxidation and reduction Oxidizing agent is reduced – an electron pair acceptor Reducing agent is oxidized – an electron pair donor



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