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湖北高考英语完成句子解题思路2014年修订版


湖北高考英语完成句子解题思路 一、 完成句子五步法

1. 确定句子的主干(主谓宾) ,看所考查部分在句中的成分; 2. 确定句子的总体时态; 3. 将所给汉语部分译成英语; 4. 结合句子主干及时态确定应完成部分的正确形式; 5. 通读全句检查错误。 二、 1. 2. 3. 高考常考语法点 形容词及副词的比较等级(比较级、最高级、倍数的表达法) ; 动词的 11 种时态及语态; (现在进行时、现在完成时、一般将来时、 将来完成时、将来进行时、现在完成进行时的主动及被动语态) ; 非谓语动词(动词不定式-主动、将来及目的、 v-ing -主动,进行, 习惯、过去分词-被动及完成) ; 4. 定语从句(限定性定语从句、非限定性定语从句) There are 40 students in our class, ___________(其中 30%来自) our city. (come) (定语从句中,介词+引导词只有两种情形: “介词+ whom”用来指 人, “介词+which”用来指物) This is our school library, ______________( 在 它 的 西 边 )is our experimenting building. (west) to the west of which 名词性从句(四种:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句) 倒装(部分倒装、完全倒装) 强调句(it 句型的用法) 形式主语、形式宾语 I find it easy(发现容易) to finish the project myself. (easy) It is difficult for me to work it out myself. 特殊句型及短语(As far as I am concerned…, 据我所知, ) 虚拟语气(最简单的句型,wish, would rather, It’s time that sb did/ should do, “条件句+主句”的表示现在、将来、过去的虚拟) 三、 with 的复合结构的翻译
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5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

With+宾语+宾语补足语(with 的复合结构), 主语+谓语 例:① With a lot of difficult problems to settle ( 有许多难题要解决 ), the manager felt like a cat on hot bricks. (settle) (to settle 表示将来或目的) ②With so many people communicating in English(有许多人用英语交流), it has become an international language. (communicate) (现在分词表示主动、进行) ③With so many eyes fixed on her(有很多人看着她), she appeared a little nervous.(fix) (过去分词表示被动、完成) 分析:上面三个例句中,根据汉语提示和括号中所给的词,我们可以判断需 要完成的部分是动词结构, 括号后面的动词已经提供了,所以这里考查的重点不 在于选用什么词的问题, 而在于这些词该用什么形式的问题,把三个例句放在一 起分析,共同的是前面都有介词 with, 那么这三个空能填一样的形式吗?所以这 里的考点就很清楚了,老师讲解的重点在于 with 后的宾语补足语的形式,当然 with 后的宾语补足语的形式还有很多, 但在这一题型中主要考动词的形式。 根据 with 结构: ① with + 宾语 + to do (不定式) 含义: 有事情要做;动作没发生; ② with + 宾语 + doing (现在分词) 含义: 充当“宾语”这个名词是 doing 这个动作的发出者,体现的是主动 关系或正在进行的动作; ③ with + 宾语 + done (过去分词。表被动、完成) 含义: 充当“宾语” ,这个名词是 done 这个动作的承受者,即被动关系, 动作已发生。 ④With+宾语+介词短语 With a baby in her arms, a young lady came in. =Baby in arms, a young lady came in. 有了这里的分析作基础,上面三道例题以及其它与 with 有关的问题基本上 就能得到解决。 They sat together around the corner, with the door shut (门关着). (shut) (2007 年 湖北省英语高考试卷 31) 四、 情态动词 + 现在完成时态结构的翻译(实质:情态动词对过去动作的推测 或陈述) 情态动词的其他形式:情态动词+动词原形;情态动词+be done(被动式); 情态动词+be doing(must be doing) 例:①We needn’t have taken a taxi (原本不需要坐出租车) to the railway station, it’s only five-minute walk.(need, not)
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②He can’t have gone to Paris (不可能去了巴黎),for I met him at the company five minutes ago.(can, not) ③You shouldn’t have treated him like that (不应该那样对他的), after all, he didn’t mean any harm to you. (should, not) ④He must have studied abroad (一定在国外学习过), for he speaks English as fluently as a foreigner. (must) ⑤You jumped from the high wall? You might have broken your legs (可能会摔 断腿的). (might) ⑥I could have done much better (本来可以做得更好的) in the examination, but I wasn’t careful enough.(could) 分析: 以上六个例句中,根据后面所提供的词,我们都知道它们涉及到情 态动词的用法。 情态动词的含义和用法多种多样,这些例句主要涉及到情态动词 接现在完成时态这一用法。情态动词不同,含义当然不一样,但相同的是后面的 完成时态都表示和过去有关的语气,理解这一点是做好这一类结构翻译的关键, 而情态动词接完成时态又是完成句子中的一个重要考点。如: (2007 年湖北省英语高考试卷 40) It is possible that the King of Stonehenge was linked to the stones: He may (might / could) have had a hand in (可能参与) planning the monument, or in helping transport and pull up the stones.(hand) 要把例子中所给汉语翻译过来是很容易的,但重要的是要用正确的形式。对 这一结构, 首先需要理解现在完成时态形式和过去有关,其次需要记住不同的情 态动词在这一结构中的含义: needn’t have done ... 过去没有必要做的事却做了?? didn’t need to do 过去没有必要做的事,事实上也没做 can’t have done ... 过去不可能做过?? should have done ... 过去本应该做的事而没做??; shouldn’t have done ...过去本不应该做的事做了?? must have done ... 过去一定做过?? may / might have done ... 过去很可能做??(暗含没发生) could have done ... 过去本来能够做到而没做到?? (而 should have done 表示的是“义务、责任” ) 理解了不同情态动词加现在完成时态这一结构的含义, 以上问题便可迎刃而 解。 情态动词+被动语态 五、 倒装句型的翻译 部分倒装:部分都装标志词+助动词(be 的所有形式,do 的所有形式,have 的所有形式,will, shall, should, would)或情态动词+主语+谓语… (2007 年湖北省英语高考试卷 39)Not only will help be given to(要帮助) the disabled to find jobs, but medical treatment will be provided for those who need it.(give) 倒装的类型很多,常考的有以下几种:
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① So shallow is the lake (这湖太浅了) that no fish can live in it. (so) So difficult did he find (他发现) it to work out the problem that he decided to give it up. (find) ② Only by working hard can you (只有通过努力你才能) stand among the top students. (only) ③ Only when we lose something will we realize ( 我们才会意识到 ) how important it is to us. (realize) ④ Hardly had he arrived (他一到达) at his office when he began to work. (arrive) ⑤ Child as he is (尽管他是个孩子), he knows a lot. (as) ⑥ Not until they finished the work did they return home (他们才回家). (return) 分析: 这类词有:not, never, seldom, few, little, no, nor, not only…but also, rarely, by no means 决不、 in no way 不可能. 这种情况都用部分倒装。 如: Seldom does he help me, so I dislike him. (部分倒装实际是用将助动词提到句子主语前。 am, is, are, was, were, do, did, does, have, had, had, will, would, could, 还可以用情 态动词提前。 ) 对于完成句子中倒装句的考查主要是要求学生熟悉倒装的类型, 即句子在什么情况下需要倒装。这是一个熟练的过程,当遇到考题时,根据题目 中的暗示, 确定句子需要用倒装句型,然后选择正确的助动词或情态动词等放到 主语前,上述例子是本题型中常出现的考点,并都提供了要用倒装句的线索,只 要正确地运用助动词或情态动词,我们就能轻而易举地得到答案。 Never have I been to the USA. 我从没去过美国。 Little have I known the fact. 我只知道一点真相。 John doesn’t like swimming and likes skating, ____________(Kate 也一样)。 (so) I like go climbing, _______(我的确喜欢)。 (so) 倒装的特例: 1. There be (is, am, are, was, were)… 2. There exists (existed) 某地存在… There exist a few errors (有一些错误) in his newly completed composition. (exist) 3. There lives/lived/live… 某地住着某人… 4. There lies/lied/ lie….有,坐落,位于 There lies a large lake in the centre of Wuhan City. 全部倒装的特例:(将句子的谓语部分全部提到主语前面) 1. Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。 2.Out rushed the boy. =Out he rushed. (如果句子的主语是人称代词,不倒 装) 3. There goes the bell. 4. Away they went. =Away went the boy. 那男孩离开了。 六、 动词结构的翻译 动词一向是英语考试的重点,它的重要性在完成句子中也完全体现出来了。 遇到动词结构的翻译, 首先要根据整个句子的结构来判断我们需要完成的部分中
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的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。如果是谓语动词,就需要考虑到动词的正确 时态和语态;如果句中已经有了谓语动词,要完成的部分需要用非谓语动词,则 需要考虑非谓语动词的正确形式,即用不定式、现在分词还是过去分词。 谓语动词(即要完成的部分所含的动词在句中作谓语):时态(11 种,常考 的时态有, 现在完成时;进行时; 将来完成式 will have done,将来进行时 will be doing,现在完成进行时 have/has been doing) ;被动语态 (be done, be being done, will/would be done, to be done, have/has been done, 情态动词+be done) 非谓语动词 (即要完成的句子本身已有谓语动词, 那么所给的动词在句中只 能被视作非谓语动词----表将来的 to do, 表进行的 doing 以及表被动和完成的 done) (一) 谓语动词的时态 在完成句子中,关于动词时态的主要考点有: ① By the time Jane gets home, her aunt will have left (已前往) for London to attend a meeting.(leave) (将来完成式) By the time he hurried to the airport, the plane had already taken off (已经起飞 了). (take off) (过去完成时) ② It was (is)the third time that he had (has) been informed of (得知) the changes of the meeting. (inform) (完成式) ③ It’s high time that the government took (should take) measures (采取措施) to prevent pollution. (measure) (虚拟语气) ④ We don’t like him as he is always talking about his past (总讲他的过去). (always) (动词的现在进行时同表示频率的副词 always, frequently, constantly, usually, often -表示说话人的情感,如厌恶、赞扬等.又如,He is always telling lies.) 完成句子在很多方面都会涉及到谓语动词的时态问题, 但考得较多的有将来 完成时 (Two years later, I will have graduated from senior high school. By the end of this month, we will have finished this project. ) 、过去完成时 (Hardly had I got to the cinema when it began to rain. No sooner…than… ),还有进行时(This time tomorrow, I will be flying to Paris. )。动词的正确时态一般由时间状语决定,介词 by 表达的时间是一个考查重点,by 后接一个表示将来的时间,句子一般用将来 完成时;by 后接一个表示过去的时间,句子一般情况下要用过去完成时;always 一般用在一般现在时态中。 (二)非谓语动词的形式 非谓语动词是这一题型的必考考点,也是学生们容易失分的地方。非谓语动 词一直是语法中的一个难点, 所以非谓语动词在完成句子中出现更是增加了考试 的难度, 但它也不是解决不了的问题。解题时首先要求学生对非谓语动词的形式 有个清楚的了解。非谓语动词包括动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词三种。这三 种形式看起来不难, 一般来说能分清楚在什么情况下使用它们就行了,难就难在 根据动作发生的时间和语态, 不定式和现在分词又有各种不同的形式,所以理解
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每一种形式的含义非常重要。 (不定式的形式有: to do, to be done, to have done, to be doing ; 现在分词的形式有: doing, being done; having done-Having finished the homework, he went out; to be doing) 如 to have done 结构:He seemed/appeared/ happened to have been there, for he knows much about it. (不定式中、动作发生在过去全部用 have done) to be doing 结构:He seems/ happens/ appears to be doing his homework. He pretended to be sleeping (睡着了). 例如: ①The bridge to be built (要修建的) will join that island to their city. (build) (不 定式的被动式, 将来被动) 分析: 从所给的词和汉语提示可以判断出这里要填的是动词,句子中已有 了谓语动词 will join, 所以要用非谓语动词的形式。 根据句子的含义可以看出 “修 建” 这个动作没有发生,非谓语动词的三种形式中只有不定式的一般时态表示动 作没有发生,因此应该用不定式。另外从语态上可以判断用被动语态,两方面合 在一起,正确答案就出来了。 ②The bridge being built (正在修建的) will join that island to their city. (build) (现在分词的被动式) 例②与例①只是时态不一样。三种非谓语形式中只有现在分词表示进行时 态,语态和例①一样,所以,正确答案应该为 being built。 ③The bridge built last year (去年修建的) is very important in joining that island to their city. (build) (过去分词的一般式) 过去分词表示动作已完成, 语态为被动形式,所以正确答案为 built last year。 做好和非谓语动词有关的翻译练习, 关键在于理解每一种形式的正确含义并 理解整个句子的含义,同时多练习,这样才能熟练掌握。 七、从句的翻译 完成句子还可能包括一个完整的句子, 如果不加分析, 只按照汉语翻译的话, 可能会漏掉连接词的问题。因此,除了看汉语提示,还得分析和判断需要完成的 是什么从句,该用的连接词是什么,然后按照句子的结构翻译过来。常见的重要 考点有: ① What comedians have in common(喜剧演员的共同点) with other players in a concert is their way of playing with words.(common) (have…in common) It’s uncertain whether he will come to my wedding. ② The news that our team won (我们队赢得比赛) the match made us excited. (win) ( 能被同位语从句说明的名词有:news, information, belief, rumour, reply, hope, thought, question…) He is a famous professor, whose wife is a excellent doctor.(他的妻子是一名优秀 的医生) ③ The moment ( 一 ? ? 就 ? ? ) I saw him, I knew there was no hope.(moment) Hardly (No sooner) had I got to the cinema(我一到电影院) when (than) it began
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to rain. (get) ④You can use my bike on condition that you take good care of it (只要你能爱 护它). (condition) (on condition that=if, providing, provided) ⑤This comment applies to every state-run hotel in the country, as is said in the document ( 这 在 文 件 中 已 说 过 ). (as) 【 sign up for/apply for / apply to/ application/applied English grammar】 ⑥ You’d better take something to read when you go to see the doctor in case you have to wait (以防你不得不等候). (case) ⑦ As is reported (这一点已报道) in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. (as) 八、特殊的句型翻译 ① It occurred to me (我突然想到) that I hadn’t locked the car. (occur) ② There is no need (没有必要) to create new art as many people find new art difficult to appreciate. (need) ③ It is said that (据说) the King was encouraged by the spider weaving its web in the cave where he was hiding and defeated his enemy at last.(say) ④ There seemed to be no point (似乎毫无意义) in working on my PhD. I didn’t expect to survive that long.(point) ⑤ It is no wonder (难怪) he didn’t attend the conference. (wonder) ⑥ It makes no difference (没什么关系)to me whether he will come or not. (difference) ⑦ When it came to(当提到) the suggestion, the boss went angry. (come) ⑧ When+ doing/done , 主语+谓语 When (you are) crossing the street, you should be more careful. When (one is) criticized, every one will feel embarrassed. 所谓特殊句型就是关于某个词的固定表达和固定含义, 掌握它关键在于平时 的积累。 It 句型总结(点击获取超链接) 九、词和短语的翻译 关于词和短语的考点在于特殊词的用法,如 despite 表达“尽管”之类的让 步关系时,是一个介词,所以后面接宾语(名词或动名词等) ;另外,特殊短语 的搭配也是重要考点, 学生在学习过程中要善于总结和积累,把含义和用法结合 起来,那么在考试时就能灵活自如地运用了。 十、虚拟语气基本格式 1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟语气形式 If +主语+动词的过去式(be 要用 were)…,主句主语+would (或 should ,could, might )+动词原形。 If he were here, I would tell him the secret. = Were he here, I would tell him the secret. If you telephoned her now, I would give you a hug.
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2。与过去事实相反的虚拟语气形式 If +主语+ had +过去分词…,主句主语+would(或 should,could,might ) +have + 过去分词。 If you had gone there yesterday, you would have been given a present. = Had you gone there yesterday, you would have been given a present. 3。与将来事实相反的虚拟语气形式 If+主语+动词的过去式(或 were to+动词原形,或 should+动词原形)…,主句主语 +would (或 should,could,might)+动词原形。 If it rained tomorrow, I wouldn’t go there. = If it were to rain tomorrow, I wouldn’t go there.(=Were it to rain tomorrow, I wouldn’t go there.) =If it should rain tomorrow, I wouldn’t go there.(=Should it rain tomorrow, I wouldn’t go there.) ? 虚拟语气特例 1。虚拟语气用在动词 wish 带的宾语从句中 ,宾语从句的谓语动词形式为: ①谓语动词用过去式(be 用 were)表示现在的情况。 ②谓语动词用过去完成式表示过去的情况。 ③谓语动词用 would(或 could,might)+动词原形表示将来的情况。 2. as if (=as though)引导的从句和 if only 后面所跟的句子也要用虚拟语气,其形 式和动词 wish 所带的宾语从句的形式相同。 3。用介词短语(without…,but for…)、副词(otherwise)表示某种假设的情况,相 当于 if 引导的虚拟条件句。如: Without electricity, human life would be quite different today. (对现在或将来的虚 拟) Without your timely help, I wouldn’t have finished the project. (对过去的虚拟) 4。虚拟语气用在 It + be + important (necessary,strange,natural)+that 从句(形 式主语)句型中,that 从句的谓语动词应为“(should+)动词原形”。 (要注意被动 语态)如: It is necessary that he be sent to the hospital at once. 5. 虚拟语气用在 It +be +time +that clause 句型中, that clause 的谓语动词应为“动 词的过去式(be 用 were)或 should+动词原形”。如: It is time that he went /should go to bed. 6。虚拟语气用在 order,ask,suggest(建议),demand, request, insist(坚持要)等动 词后面的宾语从句中,宾语从句的谓语动词应为“(should+)动词原形”。如: He suggested that she start/should start at once. 7。虚拟语气用在 advice, idea, order, plan, suggestion, demand, proposal 等名词后 面的表语从句或同位语从句中, 从句在的谓语动词应为“(should+)动词原形”。 如: ①My suggestion is that you should hold the meeting next Sunday.
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②The teacher gave orders that the work be finished/should be finished before 4 o'clock. 8. 在表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词,如 arrange, command, demand, desire, insist, order, propose, request, require, suggest, beg, move(提议)后面的宾语从句 中, 谓语动词用 should + 动词原形, should 可以省略, 而引导宾语从句的 that 不 能省略。 The old man insisted that he (should) be sent to hospital at once. 9。 虚拟语气用在 It +be +suggested (ordered, demanded, requested…)+that clause 句 型中,that clause 的谓语动词应为“(should+)动词原形”如: It is suggested that we ________the work at once . (start) 十一、基本题型训练 1. The building __________(去年建的) is our library; 2. The radio program _____________( 在 仔 细 听 )by the children now. (listen) 3. Our project _______________ (将建好) by the end of this May.(build) 4. The experiment seems ____________(在做)in the lab. (conduct). 5. The tower _____________ (从上面我们可以看到) our school is very tall. (see) 6. The foreigners ___________( 他们中大多数 ) come from Europe are attending the meeting. (most); 7. It’s four years since _________(我们上次见面)。 8. It is the third time that we ____________ (合作)。(co-operate) 9. ___________ (很让人困惑) that they didn’t go there that day. (confuse). 10. ____________(人们认为他) to have lied for so many times. (believe) 11. He happened ____________ ( 给 你 错 打 了 电 话 ) for one time 。 (telephone) 12. _____________ (将门关上) and we can have the discussion. (close) 13. ___________ (他没来) made all of us very upset. (come) 14. The news _____________ (Johnson 先生会来 ) surprised all of us. (come) 15. We are amazed at __________ (他所做的一切) (do)

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