1) The phone is ringing, _______________(但是没人接听。她一定不在家). 2) I can’t find my sunglasses. _______________(我可能昨天落在咖啡店里了). 3) You screamed in your sleep last night. _______________(你一定梦见什么可怕的东西 了). 4) It’s a pity. _______________(你本应该邀请她来参加你的毕业典礼的). 5) _______________(其实我没必要穿上我最好的套装去参加那次聚会的); most of the guests were wearing jeans and sweaters. 6) We need not only be under various external pressures, but also _____________ （也要面 对内心的困惑）. 7)Would you _______________（愿意来参加我们的晚会）on Friday? 8) After the operation， _____________（他的身体很健康）. 9)－ Will you be going back home for the Spring Festival？ － ___________（当然啦）.
1) but there is no answer. She can’t be at home (考点：情态动词可以表示可能性，can’t 表示“一定不”) 2) I may have left them in the coffee shop yesterday (考点：“情态动词 can/could, may/might, must + 完成式”用于表示对过去发生的动作的 主观判断) 3) You must have dreamed of something terrible (考点：同上) 4) You should have invited her to your graduation ceremony (考点：“情态动词 should/ought to + have done” 用于评论过去应该做而实际并未做的动 作，含有批评的意思) 5) I needn’t have put on my best suit to go to the party (考点：“情态动词 needn’t + have + done”表示对过去发生的动作进行评论，认为“无须发 生”，“不必做”) 6) to be in the face of the internal perplexities 解析：本句意为：我们不仅要承受种种外界压力，还要面对内心的困惑。这句话考查的 是 not only…but also 的结构。 该结构的前后部分应该保持一致， 前半部分用的是 not only to， 后半部分就应该是 but also to。另外，前半句用了 under pressure 来表达承受压力，后半句 最好也用一个介词短语来表达面对困惑之意，与前文相呼应。我们知道，face 既可以用作动
词也可以用作名词，in the case of 意为“面对，面临”。其实全句有三处相对应出现的词或表 达， 他们是： not only to & but also to； be under & be in the face of； external pressures & internal perplexities。英语里比较注重这种并行结构。 7)come to our evening party 解析：考查“参加”的表达。Join 往往是指参加俱乐部或者协会，如：join a health club； join the Communist Party，或者用 join sb 表示参加到某人的活动中来。事实上，常常与 party 搭配的动词是 come 或者 go。如 go to a wild party，或 come to a Christmas Party。“参加”的另 外一些用法有：参加会议（attend the meeting） ；参加某项活动（take part in the activity） ； 参加考试 （take/ sit /do the examination） ； 参加礼拜 （attend worship） ； 参加社会活动 （get about social activities） 。 8) he is in good health/he’s healthy 解析：本题看似简单，实际在考查汉英表达习惯差异问题。“他的身体很健康”是一句典 型的汉语表达， 然而英语里表示某人身体好的时候不用“身体”作主语， 直接用“某人”作主语。 如果译成 his body is healthy 就可谓多此一举了。 “身体健康”还可以用 to be in good condition。 9)Sure/ Certainly 解析：本题也是一道考查汉英表达差异的题。很多考生不假思索地译成 Of course。其 实，以英语为母语的人使用 of course 的频率要比中国的考生低得多，只有在回答一些总所 周知的问题或表示反语口吻时才说 of course。因为 of course 后面隐含一句话是“当然我知道 啦！ 难道我是一个傻瓜吗？”因此， of course 带有挑衅的意味， 语气很不友好。 在使用方面， sure 或 certainly 语气会婉转很多。同时 of course not 也具挑衅的意味。正常情况下的说法是 certainly not。 10)I found a few mistakes 解析：few 和 little 意为“几乎没有”，a few 和 a little 意为“还有一些，有几个”。但若在 a few 和 a little 加上 only， 意思就变了。 即 only a few＝few， 而 only a little＝little。 如： I can have only a little more. （我几乎不能再吃了。 ） She made only a few mistakes. （她几乎全对。 ） 因此， 如果译成 I found only a few mistakes，意思就恰恰相反，“你的作文我几乎没发现错误”。这 道题说明在汉译英时不能完全对应汉字翻译，而要考虑英语使用习惯和词语搭配。
1、 As Sesame Street kicks off its 40th anniversary season Tuesday, with first lady Michelle
Obama and Broadway star Lin-Manuel Miranda as guests, it is indisputably the most beloved children’s show in history, and one of television’s biggest and most enduring success stories. The series holds a record 122 Emmy Awards, not including a lifetime-achievement trophy (奖±) award, and has been adapted in more than 120 countries and territories around the globe. An estimated 100,000 Sesame products have been made available internationally, from T-shirts and costumes to high-tech toys such as Elmo Live.
Sesame’s cross-cultural, multi-generational appeal has a lot to do with the specific age group it targets. “The bulk of our audience is in the 2s and 3s, though we shoot for 2 to 4,” says executive producer Carol-Lynn Parente. At that early stage, says Spinney — who is 75, and has been with the show since Day 1 (he plays Oscar as well) — “children are basically the same, and have been through the years.” But if preschoolers’ fundamental needs and sensibilities haven’t changed much, the world around them has — not least of all on the media landscape, where Sesame Street now competes with many other kids’ shows and an ever-expanding array of new media. In 2000, the Children’s Television Workshop, the organization through which creator Joan Ganz Cooney launched Sesame Street on PBS predecessor NET, changed its title to Sesame Workshop, to reflect its expansion into the digital, interactive age. Content and presentation continue to evolve on TV as well. The show’s famously catchy theme song, Sunny Day, now has a hip-hop beat and a jazzier arrangement. Parente stresses that it’s just as important “to keep our curriculum current. The ABC’s and 123’s are always there, but we stay relevant by incorporating other things that are interesting and meaningful.” “We focus on all aspects of development — cognitive needs, social and emotional needs, health needs — and bring in advisers who are experts in each area, to make sure we’re age-appropriate,” says Rosemarie Truglio, vice president of education and research, Sesame Workshop. “But we never talk down to children, and we’re not afraid to explore sensitive topics.” Sesame has had its critics in the academic community as well. For Mary Lynn Crow, a clinical psychologist and professor of education at the University of Texas-Arlington, “shows like Sesame Street lack the potentially deep, personal emotional imprint (影响) that can and should occur between a student and teacher in an early educational experience.” On the other hand, Crow considers Sesame Street “a beautiful model of what I call high-tech learning. They can teach children about letters, numbers, color and size through repetition in ways traditional education can’t, and provide early information about attitudes, values and relationships.” 1. What do we learn about Sesame Street from the first two paragraphs? A) It rose to fame because of the first lady’s role. B) It’s successful and gains international popularity. C) It still has to win a lifetime-achievement award. D) It is the most successful show in American history. 2. What’s Spinney’s opinion on the target audience of Sesame Street? A) They are completely different than they were 40 years ago. B) Many of them are devoted fans of the performance. C) Their basic needs haven’t changed much through years. D) They continue to watch the show when they have grown up. 3. The author says that in the current world, Sesame Street _______.
A) has slight edge over other shows targeting children B) has made some changes so as to keep up with the times C) tries to cater to adults who accompany their children to the show D) is doomed to fail due to its out-dated content and presentation 4. What can be inferred about Sesame Street from Rosemarie Truglio’s words? A) It tries to prepare children both for school and life’s lessons. B) Its writer has changed the theme of the story for kids. C) Children seem to be looked down upon in the show. D) Sensitive topics have always been banned in the show. 5. Mary Lynn Crow is negative about Sesame Street because she thinks it _______. A) only touches up superficial relationships B) is too complicated for children to understand C) goes against ways of traditional education D) repeats basic knowledge over and over again
2、The radical transformation of the Soviet society had a profound impact on women’s lives. Marxists had traditionally believed that both capitalism and the middle-class husbands exploited women. The Russian Revolution of 1917 immediately proclaimed complete equality of rights for women. In the 1920s divorce and abortion were made easily available, and women were urged to work outside the home and liberate themselves sexually. After Stalin came to power, sexual and familial liberation was played down, and the most lasting changes for women involved work and education. These changes were truly revolutionary. Young women were constantly told that they had to be equal to men, that they could and should do everything men could do. Peasant women in Russia had long experienced the equality of backbreaking physical labor in the countryside, and they continued to enjoy that equality on collective farms. With the advent of the five-year-plans, millions of women also began to toil in factories and in heavy construction, building dams, roads and steel mills in summer heat and winter frost. Most of the opportunities open to men through education were also open to women. Determined women pursued their studies and entered the ranks of the better-paid specialists in industry and science. Medicine practically became a woman’s profession. By 190, 7 percent of doctors in the Soviet Union were women. Thus Stalinist society gave woman great opportunities but demanded great sacrifices as well. The vast majority of women simply had to work outside the home. Wages were so law that it was almost impossible for a family or couple to live only on the husband’s earnings. Moreover, the fun-time working woman had a heavy burden of household tasks in her off hours, for most Soviet men in the 1930s still considered the home and the children the woman’s responsibility. Men continued to monopolize the best jobs. Finally, rapid change and economic hardship led to many broken families, creating further physical, emotional, and mental strains for women. In any
event, the often-neglected human resource of women was mobilized in Stalinist society. 1. The main idea of this passage is that women in Stalinist society ______. A) had economic opportunities that had never been available before B) had difficulty balancing their work and family responsibilities C) had new opportunities but also many hardships D) moved quickly into the highest levels of government 2. In the last paragraph, "monopolize" probably means ______. A) hold B) earn C) leave D) pay 3. The author’s main purpose in writing this passage is to ______. A) compare different systems of government B) tell stories about women in Soviet Union C) amuse the reader D) provide information 4. The author’s tone in this passage can best be described as ______. A) disapproving B) emotional C) objective D) sympathetic 5. We can conclude that the economic and social status of women in Stalinist society ______. A) had been improved B) was worse than before C) had not Changed much D) was better than that in capitalistic countries
3、 Computer science and technology is developing so fast that no one can predict exactly what new technology might be developed in the near future, and the development of computer law can hardly keep up with the developing computer technology. The wide spread application of computers in business has created new situations that no existing laws are adequate to cope with. In the following cases, computer generated information was used as evidence but was not all accepted by the court. A man received some treatment at a hospital but refused to pay the hospital bill because he claimed the figures were not correct. The hospital sued the man. As proof of the amount owed to it, the hospital offered in evidence a computer printout of the services rendered to the defendant and the amounts owed for them. Hospital employees testified that information as to amounts owed by patients in the hospital were stored in a computer as part of a regular business routine. The man objected to the admission of the computer printout as evidence on the ground that there was not a proper comparison checking of original slips showing services rendered against the computer printout. The court decided that the computer printout was admissible as evidence when it was shown that the entries were made with proper equipment in a regular courses of business. The objection that there was not a sufficient checking of the printout did not make the printout
inadmissible. It was up to the jury to decide how much weight or importance should be attached to computer printout. In order to make it possible to admit evidence protected by computer, the law of evidence of the United States has changed greatly. According to the new rule, computer printouts of business records stored on electronic computing equipment are admissible in evidence if relevant to the material, without the necessity of identifying, locating, and producing as witnesses the individuals who made the entries in the regular course of business, if it is shown that the electronic computing equipment is recognized as standard equipment, the entries are made in the regular course of business at or reasonably near the time of the happening of the event recorded, and the foundation testimony satisfies the court the sources of information, method and time of preparation were such as to indicate its trustworthiness and justify its admission. 1. The man refused to pay the hospital bill because he claimed . A) the hospital overcharged himB) he couldn’t afford the money C) the computer printout offered by the hospital was not consistent with original slips D) the hospital couldn’t show any proof for the amount of money he should pay 2. The court’s final decision is . A) the man must pay the bill B) the computer printout was not admissible C) the hospital failed for lack of evidence D) not mentioned in the passage 3. According to the passage, which of the following is true? A) The computer printout was not in keeping with the service rendered. B) The computer printout was in keeping with the service rendered C) The computer printout was checked to compare it with the service rendered D) The computer printout was not checked to compare it with the service rendered 4. In order to make the computer evidence admissible, the United States . A) has completely changed the law of evidence B) has begun to draw up the law of evidence C) has abolished the law of evidence D) has revised the law of evidence 5. The best title for this passage is . A) The Computer Evidence B) The Law of Evidence C) The Computer and the Law of Evidence D) A Case on Computer
4、 In the Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society, Revised and Enlarged Edition (W.W. Norton) Schlesinger provides deep insights into the crises of nationhood in America. A new chapter assessed the impact both of radical multiculturalism and radical monoculturalism on the Bill of Rights. Written with his usual clarity and force, the book brings a noted historian’s wisdom and perspective to bear on America’s “culture wars.” Schlesinger addresses the questions: What holds a nation together? And what does it mean to be an American? Describing the emerging cult of ethnicity, Schlsinger praises its healthy effect on the campaign of multicultural advocates to divide the nation into separate ethnic and racial
communities. From the start, he observes, the United States has been a multicultural nation, rich in its diversity but held together a shared commitment to the democratic process and by the freedom of intermarriage. It was this national talent for assimilation that impressed foreign visitors like Alexis de Tocqueville and James Bryce, and it is this historic goal that Schelsinger champions as the best hope for the future. Schlesinger analyses what he sees as grim consequences of identity politics: the widening of differences. Attacks on the First Amendment, he argues, threaten intellectual freedom and, ultimately, the future of the ethnic groups. His criticisms are not limited to the left. As a former target of McCarthyism, he understands that the radical right is even more willing than the radical left to restrict and weaken the Bill of Rights. The author does not minimize the injustices concealed by the “melting pot” dream. The Disuniting Of America is both academic and personal, forceful in argument, balanced in judgment. It is a book that will no doubt anger some readers, but it will surely make all of them think again. The winner of Pulitzer prizes for history and for biography, an authoritative voice of American liberalism, Schlesinger is uniquely positioned to bring bold answers and healing wisdom to this passionate debate over who we are and what we should become. 1. According to Schlesinger, the United States is . A) a melting pot B) a nation with diverse cultures held together by the democratic process C) a federation of ethnic and racial communities D) a nation with one culture despite its various ethnic and racial groups 2. We can infer from the passage that Schlesinger . A) advocates the assimilation of different cultures into one nationhood B) holds that each racial group should keep its distinct identity C) gives full support to the emerging cult of ethnicity D) prefers multiculturalism to monoculturalism 3. We can infer form this passage that America . A) is experiencing a crisis of nationhood B) has ended its history of racial prejudice C) is trying to restrict the Bill of Rights D) has tried to obstruct intellectual freedom 4. According to the author, Schlesinger’s book will . A) put an end to the culture wars in America. B) cause anger among the radical right C) cause anger among the radical left D) provoke thinking among all readers 5. This passage is most probably taken from . A) a history book B) a new report C) a book review D) a journal of literary criticism.
5、After the earthquake, the text messages came streaming in to 4636 — reports of trapped people, fires, polluted water sources, and requests for food, water and medical supplies. Hundreds of volunteers translated them from Creole and French into English, tagged them with a location and passed them on to aid agencies on the ground. Yet not one of the volunteers was anywhere near Haiti.
The 4636 texting service is part of a new generation of web-based efforts to help disaster relief that has emerged from the revolution in texting, social networking and crowdsourcing. Its impact on the ground is tangible (确凿的). For example, a Haitian clinic texted 4636 that it was running low on fuel for its generator. Within 20 minutes the Red Cross said it would resupply. 4636 is run by a small organization called Ushahidi.com, originally set up in Kenya to gather reports of violence after the 2008 election. Within days of the earthquake on 12 January that flattened Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince and numerous surrounding towns, it had set up a Haitian operation and recruited hundreds of volunteers to help translate messages, many of them Haitians living in the U.S. The service is free, courtesy of Digicell, Haiti’s largest mobile network operator, which had 70 per cent of its network running within 24 hours of the quake. Nicolas di Tada, who helped set up 4636 on the ground in the first days after the disaster, says that was the easy part. “The challenge was making responders on the ground aware of us.” A stroke of luck made a big difference. One of the first texts was from a hospital which had 200 beds, and doctors, nurses and medical supplies on standby, but no patients, because hardly any relief agencies knew they were there. Forwarding that message on told a large number of organization about 4636. Now, radio stations help spread the word. As people generally don’t send messages to say their request has been fulfilled, Ushahidi has no way of knowing how successful it has been. Still, “the system is unprecedented,” says Christopher Csikszentmihalyi, director of the Center for Future Civic Media at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1. Who tackled text messages on earthquake-hit Haiti that poured into 4636? 2. The example of a Haitian clinic receiving response from the Red Cross suggests that the 4636 texting service has ______________ 3. The original purpose of creating 4636 was to ______________ that followed the 2008 Kenya election. 4. According Nicolas di Tada, the difficult part of work for 4636 Haitian operation is______________ . 5. Ushahidi is not clear of the effect of 4636 since senders usually do not give a feedback when ______________ .
6、 As Toyota and Hummer have learned, growing too fast can be a dangerous thing. From its origins, success in the auto industry has been about scale. In the early decades of the 20th century, Henry Ford was able to democratize the car and dominate the early auto industry because he built, and then continually improved, an assembly line that could make huge numbers of cars in a short amount of time. Bigger was always better. But two items from yesterday’s dispatch in the ongoing car dramas indicate why that’s not always true. Item No. 1: The Toyota debacle ( 失 败 ). The mass failings of Toyota’s legendary
quality-control efforts are now on full display in the hearings that have subjected CEO Akio Toyoda to a ritualized set of apologies and humiliations (羞辱). In recent years Toyota rode its efficiency and better financial management — it didn’t have to contend with the burdensome pension and health-care benefits that sandbagged the Big Three (i.e. General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler) — to large gains in market share and significant growth. In 2007 Toyota surpassed GM as the largest carmaker in the world. But something got lost in the process. As Toyoda acknowledged on Wednesday: “I fear the pace at which we have grown may have been too quick. I would like to point out here that Toyota’s priority has traditionally been: first, safety; second, quality; and third, volume. These priorities became confused.” In other words, Toyoda seemed to admit, the company went wrong by moving size — i.e., volume — to the front of the line. Item No. 2: After a series of failed efforts to sell it, GM announced that its Hummer brand would be wound down. Hummer had a different problem with bigness than Toyota has. It wasn’t that its production volumes were too high. In 2008 only 2,710 Hummers were sold. Rather, the outsize Hummer was simply too big — too inefficient, too out of step with the times — to succeed in a marketplace in which oil spiked to $150 per barrel and seems to have settled at a plateau above $70 a barrel. As the economy tanked, energy prices rose, and the spirit of the time shifted in favor of conservation, the gas-guzzling Hummer faced a double whammy (厄运): consumers had difficulty affording the vehicle’s high list price as well as difficulty affording its high operating price. Size does matter when it comes to auto production. But not always in the way manufacturers think. 1. The example of Henry Ford’s assembly line suggests that the success in the auto industry was built on__________ . 2. According to the author, Toyota’s fast growth in recent years was attributed to__________ . 3. CEO Akio Toyoda seemed to admit that Toyota betrayed its tradition of putting __________at top priority. 4. According to the passage, GM decided to gradually bring its Hummer brand to an end because of __________ . 5. According to the passage, whether purchasing or operating a Hummer, consumers found it hard to __________ .
7、 The home service industry in Beijing is expected to become more attractive both as a job and as an industry. Sources at the Beijing People’s Political Consultative Conference said resistance to home service work is melting away from minds of the city’s laid-off workers. The Conference suggested the establishment of municipal centers which supervise property management, household
mending and installation, and house keeping services. Modern city life is creating a need for industrialization home services. This will create job opportunities for laid-off workers, said Vice director of the Social Judicial Committee of the Conference. Beijing residents have long desired a home service industry. The demand is expected to drive new economic growth. There are few high quality home help services in Beijing and customers are always complaining. In the past, few laid-off workers in Beijing desired to work as home helpers, jobs largely taken by young women from the countryside. At the same time, some city residents have not felt safe trusting rural girls with modern household machines or with their small children. Many people would pay more for reliable house keepers who are more familiar with city life, but they have had no way of getting one, even though the city is home to thousands of laid-off workers. By the end of June this year, there were 30,600 jobless workers in the city. Most of them are women in their 40’s, who are not blessed with particular skills and who have had their work ethics shaped by the planned economy. Many of them were at a loss when they first realized they had lost their jobs and a way of life they had got used to for decades. They never imagined being laid-off by state-owned enterprises; they never considered other kinds of employment. For them, the private sector meant taking risks; housekeeping implied lower social status. Gao yunfang, 44, is a pioneer who is breaking the ice. She sells the Beijing Morning Post in the morning, and works at two households in the afternoon. She earns 1,000 yuan per month. So she no longer worries about her daughter’s tuition at a university in Shanghai. 1. What is talked about in the passage? A) Home service. B) Modern city life. C) Laid-off worker. D) Social status. 2. What does the word "laid-off’ in the passage mean? A) Heavily-burdened. B) Old. C) Inexperienced. D) Jobless. 3. Why were many laid-off workers at a loss? A) Because they didn’t get used to the new way of life. B) Because they are too old to find a new job. C) Because they dislike being laid off. D) Because they think they lost their social status. 4. Why didn’t the laid-off workers like to do home services in the past? A) Low salary. B) Lower social status. C) Dirty working condition. D) Too much extra work. 5. In which ways is home service industry good for our society? A) It meets the needs of modern life. B) It provides work opportunities for the laid-off worker. C) It is a new industry. D) A and B. 参考答案：1、B C B A A2、CADCA3、ADDDC4、BAADC 5、1. Hundreds of volunteers； 2. tangible impact； 3. gather reports of violence ； 4. making responders on the ground aware of them；5. their request has been fulfilled 6、1. scale ；2. its efficiencyand better financial management ；3. Safety； a series of failed effort to sell it ；5. afford the high prices 4.
Colleges and Universities More than 60 percent of all high school graduates continue their formal education after graduation. Many attend colleges that offer four-year programs leading to a bachelor's degree. College students are called undergraduates, and their four years of study are divided into the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. In most colleges the first two years are designed to provide a broad general education, and during this time the college student is usually required to take courses in general areas of study, such as English, science, foreign languages, and social science. By the junior year the student begins to major in one particular field of study, or discipline. Some institutions of higher learning offer only the four-year college program. A university offers graduate or post-college programs, as well. Graduate degrees in fields such as English literature, chemistry, and history are granted by graduate schools of arts and sciences. These schools may offer one- or two-year programs leading to a master's degree (M. A. ), and programs lasting three years or more that lead to the degree of doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D. ). A candidate for a Ph. D. must meet certain course requirements in his field, pass written and oral examinations, and present a written thesis based on original research. Some universities offer postdoctoral programs that extend study and research beyond the Ph. D. Many universities also have what are called professional schools for study in such fields as law, medicine, engineering, architecture, social work, business, library science, and education. Professional schools differ widely in their requirements for admission and the lengths of their programs. Medical students, for example, must complete at least three years of premedical studies at an undergraduate school before they can enter the three- or four-year program at a medical school. Engineering and architecture students, on the other hand, can enter a four- or five-year professional school immediately upon completion of secondary school. The various disciplines, or fields of study, are organized by department. These departments are staffed by faculty members ranging from full professors to instructors. A full professor has tenure, which is permanent appointment with guaranteed employment at the institution until his retirement. Ranking below the full professors are the associate professors, who may or may not have tenure, depending on the policy of the particular college or university. Next are the assistant professors, who do not have tenure. At the bottom of this academic ladder are the instructors. They are usually young teachers who have just received their doctorates or will receive them shortly. Sometimes graduate students are employed as part-time teaching assistants while they are completing their graduate work.
Today almost 5 million men and more than 3 million women attend more than 2500 colleges and universities. Approximately 85 percent of these schools are coeducational, which means that both men and women are enrolled in the same institutions. Colleges range in size from a few hundred students to many thousands. Several universities have more than 20, 000 undergraduate and graduate students on one campus. A number of large state institutions maintain branches on several different campuses throughout the state. Classes vary from seminars, or small discussion groups, of fewer than twenty to large lecture courses for hundreds of students. Approximately one-fourth of all college and university students attend private institutions. The rest study at state or municipal, publicly financed colleges and universities. Every state has at least one public university, and in addition there are several hundred state and locally supported colleges. The academic programs of these private and public institutions are very similar. Indeed, there are only a few important differences between public and private colleges. Private colleges are privately organized and privately run; public institutions are operated under the control of state or local officials. The other differences involve admissions policies and the methods by which public and private institutions are financed. Admission to a state university is usually open to all men and women who have graduated from high schools of the state and who have satisfactory high school records. Many state universities require students to earn high scores on achievement and aptitude examinations, but the underlying philosophy is that all students who want an education and are qualified should have the opportunity to continue their education at public institutions. Tuition rates are low, compared to private-college costs, and scholarship aid and loans are frequently available. A few nonresidents are admitted to state schools, but they must pay much higher tuition fees than residents of the state. Admission to some private colleges is more selective and rigid than admission to some public institutions, and frequently the student body is smaller. High school applicants to some private colleges must submit detailed application forms, and they must take scholastic aptitude and achievement examinations. College admissions committees decide which students to accept, basing their judgment on these applications, the results of the examinations, high school records, and other factors such as personal interviews with the applicants and letters of recommendation from high school teachers. For certain colleges, such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, and Columbia, applications usually far exceed the number of students who are accepted. In 1975 , for example, Harvard received 7620 applications for 1500 available places. The average private college tuition in the early 1970s was $ 2161 a year. This figure was approximately four times greater than the average public-college tuition. At Harvard, tuition cost $3200 in 1973-1974. The University of Massachusetts, a publicly supported institution in the same state, charged $ 300 for a state resident. These tuition figures do not include the costs of room, food, and other everyday living expenses. Some students receive scholarship assistance and loans to help pay for the cost of their education. Many students at private and public colleges
work while they are attending school, in order to pay their expenses. Almost 1500 American colleges and universities are privately organized and financed. More than half the income of these institutions comes from student tuition payments. The rest comes from private gifts, endowment earnings, and some federal research grants, Because of steadily rising costs, many private institutions have had to raise tuition rates, reduce scholarship aid, and limit some academic programs. The poor financial condition of most private institutions is a very serious problem in the world of higher education today. Student fees account for only 15 percent of the income of public colleges and universities. The rest comes from municipal or state and some federal government sources. Although public institutions have also experienced the problem of rising costs, they have often been able to depend on state legislators for financial support. In large part this support may be explained by the legislators' response *o the wishes of the people who elected them and to general acceptance of the American tradition that everyone who is qualified should have the opportunity to continue his climb up the educational ladder at publicly financed institutions. 1. It can be inferred from the passage that all high school graduates who want an education and are qualified will have the opportunity for further education in either public or private universities. 2. According to the passage, about three fourths of college and university students are studying in the public institutions. 3. Private institutions. enjoy higher reputation of good teaching quality, although they have similar academic programs with public institutions. 4. Students can study for a master's degree or the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in any institutions as long as they can meet all the requirements. 5. The assistant professors are right next to the full professors in the academic ladder. 6. The average tuition of private colleges was about four times more than that of public colleges in the early 1970s, which accounted for half of the total income. 7. The majority of the students who graduate from high schools go on with their education in the institutions of higher learning. 8. A college senior is supposed to focus his study on______. 9. That the operation of the colleges and universities rests with state or local government is the characteristic of______. 10. The admissions committees of private colleges are responsible for______. I. Y 2. Y 3. NG 4. N 5. N 6. N 7. Y 8. his major 9. public institutions 10. deciding which students to accept
According to BT’s futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millennium(a period of 1，000 years), when supercomputers
will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life. Pearson has __1__ together to work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a __2__ millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key __3__ and discoveries to take place. Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an __4__ life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs __5__ into use between now and 2040. Pearson also __6__ a breakthrough in computer human links. "By linking __7__ to our nervous system, computers could pick up __8__ we feel and, hopefully, simulate __9__ too so that we can start to __10__ full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck," he says. But that, Pearson points __11__, is only the start of man-machine __12__:"It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will __13__ lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century."__14__ his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However, there are still no __15__ for when faster-than-light travel will be __16__, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible. But he does __17__ social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, __18__ problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic __19__ robots will mean people may not be able to __20__ between their human friends and the droids. And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage. 1.[A]taken [B]pieced [C]kept [D]made 2.[A]complicated [B]delicate [C]subtle [D]unique 3.[A]breakthroughs [B]findings [C]events [D]incidents 4.[A]expanded [B]extended [C]enlarged [D]enriched 5.[A]being [B]becoming [C]carrying [D]coming 6.[A]schedules [B]plans [C]predicts [D]designs 7.[A]directly [B]instantly [C]precisely [D]automatically 8.[A]that [B]how [C]what [D]all 9.[A]thinking [B]hearing [C]sight [D]feeling 10.[A]form [B]develop [C]find [D]undertake 11.[A]out [B]at [C]to [D]toward 12.[A]program [B]production [C]experiment [D]integration 13.[A]finally [B]ultimately [C]utterly [D]absolutely 14.[A]Through [B]Though [C]During [D]By 15.[A]forecasts [B]articles [C]stories [D]meetings 16.[A]advisable [B]affordable [C]available [D]valuable 17.[A]solve [B]arose [C]exercise [D]expect 18.[A]confront [B]cause [C]witness [D]collect
19.[A]lovely [B]likely [C]lifelike [D]lively 20.[A]distinguish [B]differ [C]diagnose [D]deviate 答案： 1.B piece together 拼凑，结合 2.D complicated 复杂的；delicate 精致的，脆弱的；subtle 狡猾的，敏感的；unique 唯 一的，独特的 3.A breakthrough 突破；finding 发现；event 事件；incident 事件，事变 4.B expanded 膨胀的，扩张的；extended 伸出的，延长的；enlarged 放大的，扩大的； enriched 浓缩的，强化的；extend life expectance 延长寿命。 5.D come into use 开始投入使用 6.C schedule 确定时间；plan 计划；predict 预测；design 设计 7.A directly 直接地；instantly 立即；precisely 精确地；automatically 自动地 8.C 9.D 根据上文 what we feel,以及下文 full sensory environments，可知 D 符合文意。 10.B 11.A point to 和 point at 都是“指向”的意思，point out 指出，提出 12.D integration 综合，集成，此处指人机一体化 13.B finally 表示久等之后，有时表示在一系列因素的最后一个，eg:After putting it off three times,we finally managed to have a holiday in Greece. ultimately 指最后，终于，基本上，即达到最高界线。eg:Ultimately people rely on science to gain an understanding of biological phenomena. 14.A through 为连词，后应接句子；during 表示过程；by 表示方式、手段或借助某种工 具。 15.A forecast 先见，预测 16.C available 可利用的，可行的 17.D 注意主语是人，不选 arose 18.B 19.C lovely 可爱的，有趣的；likely 可能的；lifelike 逼真的；lively 活泼的 20.A distinguish between;differ from;diagnose 诊断；deviate from 背离