9512.net
甜梦文库
当前位置:首页 >> >>

考研英语阅读翻译1

ase to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very big deal,” says Dennis D. Crouch of the University of Missouri School of Law. It “has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents.” 现在,该国最高专利法院似乎完全准备好要缩减商业方法专利,因为商业方法专利自 从十年前第一次批准授予以来一直有争议。在一项使得知识产权律师们议论纷纷的提议中, 美国联邦巡回上诉法院声称它将利用某个具体案件来对商业方法专利进行广泛的复审。 密苏 里大学法学院 Dennis D. Crouch 说,“正如人们所知道的那样,Bilski 案例是一件非常大的事 情”它可能将消除整个专利类别”。

Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the Federal Circuit itself that introduced such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents, despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment firms armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice. 对于商业方法诉求的限制是个戏剧性的彻底变化,因为正是联邦巡回法院自己引进了 这种专利。那是在 1998 年,对于所谓的美国道富银行的案件中,联邦巡回法院做出了判决, 批准了筹集共同基金资产的方法具有专利权。 这一裁决使得商业方法专利文件以几何数级增 加,起初只是一些 自己,即使是在他们出席反对此类专利的法案中,他们也以此专利维权 自己,即使是在他们出席反对此类专利的法案中,他们也以此专利维权。 注:to the punch 的英文解释为 to the first blow or to decisive action ― usually used with beat 所以这里翻译为“先下手为强”或“抢占先机”。

The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal Circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should “reconsider” its State Street Bank ruling. 前面提到的 Bilski 案例涉及到一份已申请的方法专利,即关于能源市场的风险规避方 The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example, the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal Circuit are “reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court,” says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School. 联邦巡回法院的这一裁决效仿了最高法院。最高法院最近做出了一系列的判决,缩小 了专利持有者的受保范围。例如,去年四月,法官们认定太多的专利授予了一些显而易见的

“发明”。乔治华盛顿大学法律学院的专利法律师 Harold C. Wegner 教授表示,“联邦巡回法 院的法官

The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of communication”: Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends. 人们之所以认为影响者很重要,是因为受到了“两级传播”理论的影响,即信息先从媒 体流向影响者,然后再从影响者流向其他人。这一理论看似合理,但未经验证。营销人员接 受两级传播理论是因为该理论认为,如果他们能够找到影响者,并对他们施加影响,这些精 英们就会替他们完成大部分的营销传播工作。 这一理论似乎还可以解释某些装扮、 品牌或社 区为何 ervation about social influence: With the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey —— whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence —— even the most influential members of a population simply don’t interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics, by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won’t propagate very far or affect many people. 研究者的观点源于对社会影响力的简单观察:除了少数像 Oprah Winfrey 这样的名人 之外(她强大的人气影响力主要来自媒体影响力,而非她与观众互动的人际影响力),即使 人群中最有影响力的人也无法与那么多的“其他人”互动,从而引领潮流。然而,根据两级传 播理论,正是这些非名人影响者直接影响了他们的朋友和同事,从而推动了社会流行潮流。 但是,要让一种社会流行潮流真正发生,每个受影响的人还必须影响他的熟人,而他的熟人 又必须影响其他熟人,依此类推;但是会有多少人去关注这些熟人中的每个人,与最初的影 响者几乎没有关系。举个例子来说,在这个人际影响的网络中,如果第一个影响者受到两次 抵制,那么他的连锁影响范围就不会继续扩大,或者说影响的人不会很多。

Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of social influence by conducting thousands of computer simulations of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. They found that the principal requirement for what is called “global cascades” —— the widespread propagation of influence through networks —— is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people.

基于这一人际影响力的基本事实,研究者们研究了社会影响的动力机制。我们对不同 人群进行了成千上万次计算机模拟, 不断调整人们影响他人和受他人影响的各种变量。 他们 发现,人们所说的“全球连锁反应” —— 影响力通过(人际)网络进行广泛传播 —— 发生 的主要前提, 并不取决于是否存在着那么几个影响者, 而主要取决于易受影响的人们是否达 到了临界数量。 注:从上下文的角度来看,插入成分中的 networks 应该指“人际关系网”。

2010 年 Text 4
Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else: the accounting standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it’s just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch. 台面上,银行家们将他们的麻烦归咎于己身。(但)台面下,他们却一直把目标对准 他人:会计准则制定者。银行业抱怨会计规则迫使他们报告巨大损失,认为这不公平。规则 规定他们必须以第三方愿意收购的价格, 而非按照管理者和监管者期望它们能够卖得的价格 来评估部分资产的价值。

Unfortunately, banks' lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult. 不幸的是,银行的游说活动看来已显成效。其中细节可能无法获知,但是准则制定者 在独立性方面——这正是资产市场正常运行的关键——已经做出妥协了。 银行如果不以能够 吸引买家的价格计量有毒资产,银行系统的复苏将会非常困难。

After a bruising encounter with Congress, America’s Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long-term assets in their income statements. Bob Herz, the FASB’s chairman, cried out against those who “question our motives.” Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobbying group politely calls “the use of judgment by management.” 美国财务会计准则委员会(FASB)在与国会一场激烈交锋 交锋之后,匆匆通过了准则的修改。 交锋 这些修改使得银行在使用模型评估非流动资产方面用有更大的自由, 同时使得它们确认收益 表中长期资产损失时更为灵活。FASB 主席 Bob Herz 大声反对那些“怀疑我们的动机”的人 们。然而银行股票上涨了,这些修改强化了“管理层使用理性判断”的说法,这种说法是一个 游说团的客气之言。

European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes its reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. Charlie

McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did “not live in a political vacuum” but “in the real world” and that Europe could yet develop different rules. 欧洲的部长们立刻要求国际会计准则委员会(IASB)也这么做。 IASB 表示它不想没有完 整计划就冒然行动, 但它在今年下半年完成规则修订时必须屈服的压力十分巨大。 欧洲委员 会委员 Charlie McCreevy 警告 IASB 说:它不是“处在政治真空中”而是“在现实世界里”,并 表示欧洲可能最终会发展出不同的会计规则。

It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But banks’ shares trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed bargains. 正是这些银行呆错了星球,它们的账目上充斥着估值过高的资产。现在他们认为市场 价格高估了损失, 因为市场价格主要反映了市场的暂时性流动性不足, 而非坏账的可能程度。 几年内不会有人能了解到真相。但是,银行股票以低于账面价值的价格交易,这一点反应了 投资者的怀疑。死寂的市场一定程度上反应了瘫痪的银行由于怕账面损失既既不愿出售资 产,也不愿意去购买那些看似不错的廉价资产。

To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility from special interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions. 为了让银行系统重新运转起来,损失必须被确认和处理。美国收购有毒资产的新计划 只有在银行将资产定价在足够吸引买家的水平上才会有效。 成熟的市场需要独立的, 甚至是 争强好胜的准则制定者。FASB 和 IASB 以往正是这样对抗特殊利益集团的敌意的,例如改 进股权和退休金的相关规则。但是现在向批评者妥协是自寻压力,他们会进一步做出让步。



更多相关文章:
2011年考研英语(一)阅读理解全文翻译及解析.doc
2011年考研英语(一)阅读理解全文翻译及解析 - 2011 年考研英语(一)阅读理解全文翻译及解析 来源:文都教育 Text 1 The decision of the New York Ph...
2012考研英语(一)阅读翻译及解析.doc
2012考研英语(一)阅读翻译及解析 - 2012 Text 1 Come on
2011考研英语一阅读理解逐句翻译.pdf
2011考研英语一阅读理解逐句翻译 - 2011 Text 1 Paragrap
2012年考研英语阅读全文翻译.doc
2012年考研英语阅读全文翻译 - Text 1 “来吧,大家都在这样做” ,这
2017考研英语一翻译真题及答案解析 - 百度文库.doc
2017考研英语一翻译真题及答案解析 - 十年专注 只做考研 www.xuefu
2014考研英语一阅读翻译.doc
2014考研英语一阅读翻译 - Text 1 为了“让生活更美好”,减少“家庭的
1考研英语翻译真题精练精讲.doc
1考研英语翻译真题精练精讲 - 2001 年考研英语翻译真题精练精讲 一、全真试
考研英语翻译历年真题.doc
考研英语翻译历年真题 - 1、1994 年 Directions: Read t
历年考研英语一阅读真题翻译(2004-2014).doc
历年考研英语一阅读真题翻译(2004-2014)_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。2004年到2014年英语阅读理解翻译,对于提高阅读理解有很大帮助 ...
2009考研英语阅读全文翻译.doc
2009考研英语阅读全文翻译 - Text 1 习惯是一件有趣的事。 我们是无意
2017年考研英语真题与翻译.doc
2017年考研英语真题与翻译 - 2017 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一
考研英语翻译真题解析_图文.doc
考研英语翻译真题解析 - Within the span of a hundre
[实用参考]2014考研英语阅读全文翻译.doc
[实用参考]2014考研英语阅读全文翻译 - [重点实用参考文档资料] TeGt
1997年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译.pdf
1997年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译 - 1997 年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译 真题译文+题目翻译 但为君故 但为君故?整理组 但为君故系列 1 TEXT 1 凌晨 3 点 45 ...
考研英语阅读真题解析和全文翻译(1994-2005).doc
考研英语阅读真题解析和全文翻译(1994-2005) - 1 考研英语阅读真题解析和全文翻译 (2005-1994) 2005 Text 1 Everybody loves a fat pay...
考研英语翻译1.doc
考研英语翻译1 - 英译汉部分 “大家好,当你走进我的课堂,我们便被命运紧密地联
2011年考研英语阅读1翻译.doc
2011年考研英语阅读1翻译_研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。The dec
2011考研英语阅读真题翻译_图文.doc
2011考研英语阅读真题翻译 - 智达小爷 版权所有 2011 Text1 20
2001年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译.pdf
2001 年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译 真题译文+题目翻译 但为君故 但为君故?整
新东方刘赓:2018年考研英语一翻译部分解析(新东方版).pdf
暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 | 举报文档 新东方刘赓:2018年考研英语一翻译部分解析(新东方版)_研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。2018 年考研英语(一)翻译部分解析...

All rights reserved Powered by 甜梦文库 9512.net

copyright ©right 2010-2021。
甜梦文库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@126.com|网站地图