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Eg: I always dream that I can enter a key university. My dream is that I can enter a key university. That I can enter a key university is my dream. I have a dream that I can enter a key university. 主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句在复合句中的作用相当于名词,故这四种从句被 称为名词性从句。 名词性从句的连接词有连接代词和连接副词,见下表: 连接代词 连接副词 连接词 who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever how, why, when, where, however, wherever that, whether, if, because as if /as though(不充当从句的任何成分) 注意: 引导主语从句不可省略的连词: 1.介词后的连词 2.引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。

1. 宾语从句
【1】 概述:宾语从句在复合句中起宾语的作用,常常放在主句谓语动词、形容词或介词之 后。 Eg: a. I think ( that ) women can reach very high achievements in many fields of science. b. I’m sure that I will pass the exam. c. The boy showed great interest in what he saw in the toy shop. d. We consider it necessary that we should improve our spoken English e. I wonder whether / if Lin Qiaozhi remembered how many babies she had delivered. 【2】宾语从句的时态 A. 在含有宾语从句的主从复合句中,当主句的谓语动词为过去时态时,从句须用表示过去的 某种时态(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时) 。 如:

He asked when they would go to the party. Miss Green said she had been to Beijing before. B. 在宾语从句中,当主句的时态为一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时等时态时,后面从 句的时态不受主句限制,可根据情况,先用适合的时态。 如: Do you know when we’ll have a football match? You know he has gone to Shanghai. C. 当宾语从句表述的是客观事实、科学真理、现在的习惯动作以及格言等时,其时态不受主 句限制,都用一般现在时。如: The teacher told us that light travels faster than sound. 【3】 宾语从句的语序 A. 如果是助动词 do,does,did 构成的疑问句,在转换为宾语从句时,要去掉这些助动词, 从句中的谓语动词要根据主句的时态作出相应的变化。如: Does he sing well? The teacher asked him. →Teacher asked him whether/if he sang well. B. 如果是 will,be,have,can 等助动词、情态动词构成的问句,在转换为宾语从句时,要把 这类词还原到句中原来谓语的位置上,同时根据主句的时态作出相应的变化。如: She asked me. Will you be free tomorrow? → She asked me if I would be free the next day. [提示] 带有宾语从句的复合句的标点符号,取决于主句的句式,与从句无关。若主句是陈述 句,句末用句号,主句是疑问句则用问号。 【4】 宾语从句的引导词 宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语,连接宾语从句的连词有 that,whether 与 if。另外有连 接代词 what,which,who,whom 及连接副词 when,where,how,why。具体如下: A. 宾语从句的句子是陈述句用 that 引导,that 可以省略。如: He knew (that) he should study hard. B. 宾语从句的句子是一般疑问句用 if 或 whether 引导。如: He asked me if/whether he could come in. 【if &whether】 if 和 whether 引导宾语从句时,常常可以互换, 但 whether 常和 or not 连用, 而 if 则习惯上不 与 or not 连用;另外,介词后宾语从句不能用 if,这时只能 whether。如: I wonder whether it is true or not. Everything depends on whether we have enough experience.


C. 作为宾语从句的句子若是特殊疑问句,用特殊疑问词引导。如: Can you tell me which class you are in? 【关于 】

1. 由连词 that 引导: that 常可省略。 Eg: I told him (that) I would come back soon. 注:并列第二个以上的宾语从句,或有插入语时不能省略 that.) Eg: He said (that) he had finished reading this novel and that he would borrow another one. 2.当 that 引导的从句作复合宾语的第一个成分时,需用先行词 it 作形式宾语,把从句放到句 末,that 不能省略. Eg: We consider it possible that he is ill. I heard it said that he had gone to Australia. 3.当 that 作介词宾语时,that 不可省掉。 Eg: The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. 【5】 作宾语的情形 A. 作动词的宾语: Eg: He doesn’t know where the post office is. a. 表示建议? 命令? 要求的动词,宾语从句要用虚拟语气(宾语从句的谓语用 should + 动词 原形, should 可省略), 这类词有 insist, order, command, suggest, advise, recommended, request, require,demand,ask,urge(一坚持二命令三建议四要求,外加一主张)等 Eg: I suggested that you (should) start right now. b. 如果宾语从句后有宾语补足语,要用形式宾语 it,而将从句放到补足语后面? I thought it strange that he didn’t pass the exam. c. 否定转移。在 think,believe,suppose,expect 等动词后的宾语从句中,如果从句谓语是否 定含义,则不用否定形式,而将主句谓语动词 think 等变为否定形式? Eg: I don’t think you are right. 我想你是不对的? He doesn’t know where the post office is. 他不知道邮局在哪里? d. 在 think,believe,imagine,suppose,guess,hope 等动词以及 I’m afraid 等后,可用 so 代 替一个肯定的宾语从句,还可用 not 代替一个否定的宾语从句: Do you believe it will clear up? 你认为天会放晴吗? I believe so. (I don’t believe so. /I believe not.) 我认为会? (我认为不会? ) Hope(否定)常用:I hope not.

B. 作介词的宾语 Eg: Did she say anything about how we should do the work? a. That 引导的宾语从句只有在 except,in,but,besides 等少数介词后偶尔可能用到,形成固 定搭配,in that 在于(因为) ,but that 要不是(只是),except that 除了……。 Eg: The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more. 所得税过高是有害的,因为它可能使人不愿多赚钱。 His paper is perfect except that there were some misprints. 除了一些印刷错误之外,这篇论文很好。 b. 有时在介词和其宾语从句的中间加形式宾语 it? Eg:I’ll see to it that everything is ready. 我将负责把一切准备好? C. 作形容词的宾语 Eg: I’m afraid that I have made a mistake. [注意] that 引导的从句在下列形容词后面作宾语,that 可以省略。anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content, proud 等。 Eg: I'm sure (that) he'll help you. I'm glad (that) he has passed the exam. 【6】宾语从句中的注意事项 A. if 和 whether 引导宾语从句的区别,即用 whether 不用 if 的情况有: 作介词宾语,用于 whether + to do, whether or not 和用作 discuss 的宾语等? Eg: It depends on whether it is fine. 要看天气是否晴朗? I’m not sure whether to leave this afternoon. He can not decide whether or not to take the exam. We are discussing whether we will hold a meeting this weekend. 关于【doubt】的宾语从句 1. doubt 用于肯定句中,宾语从句可以用 if 或 whether 引导? Eg: I doubt if (whether) you will come for a visit tomorrow. 2. doubt 用于否定句或疑问句中,宾语从句用 that 引导? Eg: He doesn’t doubt that his mother will give him a ride home for sure.


B. it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语从句置于句末。
i. 主语 + find / think / feel / consider / make…etc. + it +宾补(形容词或名词)+ 宾从 ii. 主语 + 表情感色彩的动词 (like, love, dislike, hate, appreciate, enjoy…etc. ) + it + 宾从 iii. 主语 + 动词词组(depend on, see to, etc. ) + it + 宾从

Eg: a. He has made it clear that he will not give in. b. We all find it important that we should make a quicker decision about this matter. c. I will appreciate it if you can come to my birthday party. d. I will see to it that everything is ready in time. e. You can depend on it that I will always come to your aid when you are in trouble. C. i. could / would 是委婉语气, 而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同时态。 Eg: Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ? Could you tell us which gate we have to go to ? Would you like to know when he will come back ?
ii. 如果主句的谓语动词是 ask 时,连词不可能是 that;如果主句的谓语动词是 say 时,连词

用 that。 Eg: She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk . He said (that) he was going to take care of the child . He asks if I like playing the piano. You may ask the man over there how you can get to the bus station .


1. Experts believe ______ people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary. A. why A. what B. where B. whose C. that C. which D. What D. that 2. It’s good to know _____ the dogs will be well cared for while we’re away. 3. Some people care much about their appearance and always ask if they look fine in _____ they are wearing. A. that B. what C. how D. which 4. The message you intend to convey through words may be the exact opposite of _____ others actually understand. A. why necessary. A. which A. why A. what B. that B. what B. how C. where C. how C. that D. what D. which D. why 6. Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. 7. The shocking news made me realize ________ terrible problems we would face. B. that C. which D. What 5. Competitors are allowed to take a five-minute break every hour to eat, drink or do ________ is

8. Do not let any failures discourage you, for you can never tell _______ close you may be to victory. A. how A. whose A. when B. that B. what B. how C. which C. which C. that D. where D. that D. whether 9. It is not always easy for the public to see _______ use a new invention can be of to human life. 10. Scientists study _____the human brains work to make computers. 11. --- Have you finished the book? --- No. I’ve read up to _____ the children discover the secret cave. A. which was a man of action. A. which A. which he pleased C. he was pleased B. that C. what B. that he is pleased D. what he was pleased

B. what

C. that

D. where

12. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _____ he D. whether

13. Jack said ________ to meet the American friends.

14. These photographs will show you _______. A. what our village looks like C. how our village looks like B. what does our village look like D. how does our village look like

15. Excuse me, would you please tell me __________? A. when the sports meeting is taken place B. when is the sports meeting going to be held C. when is the sports meeting to begin D. when the sports meeting is to take place 16. ---Do you know ____________ the ancient Olympics began? ---It was in the year 776BC. A. when was it C. when it was that A. it; what C. this; what A. that A. that A. except that C. in which A. that C. that that A. who A. how, how C. when, how A. whatever 答案: 1--5 CDBDD 21--24 DCDA

B. when it was D. when was it that B. that; that D. it; that B. this B. it C. it’s C. this B. in that D. so that B. what D. what B. which B. what, what D. that, what B. that 6--10 BAABB C. which 11--15 DBCAD D. whichever 16--20 CDDBB what C. that D. what D. it D. one

17. I have made _____ clear _____ I have nothing to do with the accident.

18. She thought ______ a great honor that she had been invited to speak to us. 19. Parents all dislike _____ when children talk with their mouth full of foods. 20. These two cities are similar _____ they both have a high rainfall during this season.

21. She was so angry and spoke so fast that none of us understood _______ he said meant.

22. Don’t you know, my dear friend, ______ it is your money not you that she loves? 23. People have heard _______ the President has said; they are waiting to see _______ he will do.

24. These wild flowers are so special I would do _______ I can to save them.

2012-2014 年高考题型汇编之单选宾语从句
1. Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt ______ he could have expressed it differently. (2012 北京) A. why A. when B. how B. how late? C. would be C . that C. how C. which D. have been D. what D. what D. that C. that C. that D. whether D. whether 2. Scientists study ______ human brains work to make computers. (2012 四川) 3. — Do you think Mom and Dad A. were 4. Experts believe A. why A. which A. w hat B. will be B. where B. where B. whose

— No. Swiss Air is usually on time. (2013 北京) people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary.

5. Police have found ______ appears to be the lost ancient statue. (2013 课标) 6. It’s good to know ______ the dogs will be well cared for while we’re away. (2013 山东) 7. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief ______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. (2013 浙江) A. how 东) A. where 9. I think A. what B. what B. that C. which C. which D. why D. who impresses me about his painting is the colors he uses. (2014 天津) B. that C. which D. whether 8. It is difficult for us to imagine ______ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. (2014 山

10. — Is it true that Mike refused an offer from Yale University yesterday? — Yeah, but I have no idea _______ he did it; that’s one of his favorite universities. (2014 重庆) A. when B. why C. that D. how


2. 表语从句
表语从句在复合句中作句子的表语。引导表语从句的词有连接词 that, whether, as if;连接代 词 who, what, which;连接副词 when, where, why,how 等。 其基本结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that 从句 Eg: Her wish is that she would lose weight soon. The question is whether it is worth doing. It looked as if it was going to snow. The problem was who could do the work. That is what he is worried about. His trouble is where he can find a good job. The problem is how he can get food and clothing. That was why the brothers wanted to make a bet.


1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A. that A. because A. where B. if B. that B. there C. when C. for C. there where B. what we can get D. that we can get C. whether B. when B. when C. as D.不填 C. why C. why D. what D. what D. whether D. because of D. where there 2.The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless. 3. Go and get your coat. It’ s ________you left it 4.The problem is _________to take the place of Ted A. who can we get C. who we can get A. that A. that A. that A. that B. like 9. — I fell sick! — I think it is _______ you are doing too much. A. why B. when C. what D. because 10. The reason why he hasn’t come is ___________. A. because his mother is ill C. that his mother is ill 11. —He was born here. — That is _______ he likes the place so much. A. that A. what that/what 的区别 1._______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you C. How;that you are B. That;how you are D. What;how you are B. what B. where C. why C. that D. how D. why 12.That is ______ Lu Xun once lived. B. because of his mother’s being ill D. for his mother is ill B. if

5. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us. 6. The reason is_________I missed the bus. 7. That is __ ___ we were late last time. 8. She looked _________ she were ten years younger. D. as though

2. The trouble is__________we are short of tools.

A. what A. what B. where

B. that

C. how C. the place

D. why that D. there where

3. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. 4. China is becoming stronger and stronger. A. what it used to be C. what it used to being A. What … that C. What A. that 高考练习 1 —I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week . —Is that_____ you had a few days off?(NMET1999) A. why A. It’s the reason A. when B .what C. when D. where D. It’s how D. what 2 .I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ____I got wet through. (1998 上海) B. That’s why C. There’s why B. which C. where 3. See the flags on top of the building? That was ______ we did this morning. (06 全国) 4. --- Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?(2003 北京春) ---Oh, that’s _____. A. what makes me feel excited C. how I feel about it A. the way B. in the way that B. whatever I feel excited about D. when I feel excited C. in the way D. the way which … what B. which C. what It is no longer_________ .

B. what it was used to being D. what it was used to be B. That … what D. That … what D. such

5. ________he really means is ________he disagrees with us.

6. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work.

5. What surprised me was not what he said but ______ he said it.(2004 湖北)

答案 DBACCACDDCCB that/what 的区别 DBAAAC 高考练习 ABDAA


3. 主语从句
在另外一个句子中做主语的句子叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词 that,whether 和连 接代词 what, who, which, whatever, whoever 以及连接副词 how, when, where, why 等词引导。 引导主语从句的关联词有三类: 【1】从属连词 ? that(不充当句子成分,没有词汇意义) Eg: That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. ? whether “是否”(不能使用 if) Eg:Whether he will come here is not clear. 【2】连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever , whatever, whichever whoever=anyone who whatever=anything that whichever=any…that Eg: Who will give the speech is not known yet. Who the prize will be given to is not decided yet. 【3】连接副词 where, when, how, why. Eg: Where the meeting will be held depends on the weather. When they are leaving is being discussed. 【4】 有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句 置于句末。主句的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下: ① It +be +形容词 (obvious, true , natural, surprising ,good , wonderful ,funny , possible , likely, certain ,probable, etc ) + that 从句 Eg: It is probable that he told her everything . ②It + be +名词词组 (no wonder ,an honour, a good thing ,a pity, no surprise, etc ) + that 从句 Eg: It is no surprise that our team should have won the game . ③ It +be +过去分词(said ,reported ,thought ,expected , decided , announced ,arranged ,suggested ) + that 从句 Eg: It is announced in today’s newspaper that Bush will pay a visit to China next week . ④ It + seems/appears , happens 等不及物动词及短语+ that 从句 Eg: It happened that I was out that day . ⑤It doesn’t matter ( makes no differences, etc) + 连接代词或连接副词引导的主语从句 Eg: It makes no differences where we shall have the meeting .

⑥当主语从句出现在感叹句中时, 用 it 作形式主语. Eg: How strange it is that they are so quiet! 【注意】 单个的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如果是两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语, 谓语动词则用复数形式。

1. ________ makes mistakes must correct them. A. What A. while A. is not known B. That B. that C. Whoever C. if D. Whatever D. for C. has not been known D. have not known 2. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey. 3. When and why he came here ________ yet. B. are not known 4. ________ is no reason for dismissing her. A. Because she was a few minutes late C. The fact that she was a few minutes late A. That…that you had expected C. That…what you had expected A. If...do A. thinks that A. if A. That A. What, what A. What A. If A. That B. That...do B. is thought what B. that B.What B. What, that B. Who B. Whether B. Why B. Owing to a few minutes late[来源:Z&xx&k. D. Being a few minutes late B. What …that you had expected D. What…what you had expected C. If...does C. thought that D. That...does D. is thought that D. how D. Which C. That, that C. That C. That C. How

5. ________ Tom liked to eat was different from ________.

6. ________ we go swimming every day ________ us a lot of good. 7. It ________ Bob drives badly. 8. It's uncertain ________ the experiment is worth doing.[来源:学科网] C. whether C. How 9.________ the boy didn't take medicine made his mother angry. 10.____ we can't get seems better than ____ we have. D. That, what D. Whether D. Where D. Who 11.____ you don't like him is none of my business. 12..____ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. [来源:学|科|网] 13._________is going to do the job will be decided by the Party committee.

14._______we'll finish translating the book depends on the time. A. When A. How A. If A. What A. Who A. Which A. Anyone B. Why B. What B. Where B. If B. Anyone B. That B . The person C. What C. Why C. That C. Why C. Whoever C. If C. Whoever D. That D. This D. What D. Whether D. Anybody D. How D.Who 15.______he won't go there is clear to all of us. 16.______the house will be built will be discussed at tomorrow's meeting. 17.______ _you come or not is up to you. 18._______makes mistakes must correct them. 19.______ the team will win the match is a matter of public concern.[来源:学。科。网 Z。X。X。] 20. _______ _leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.[来源:学+科+网 Z+X+X+K]

答案:1--5 CBCCC

6--10 DDCAA

11--15 CBDAC

16--20 BDCBC

2012-2014 年高考 题型汇编之单选---主语从句
1. 京) A. That B. What C. Who D. Which essential to their 2. Generally, students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others development. (2013 江苏) A. is 3. A. When 4. A. That 5. A. That B. are B. How B. Which B. It C. was C. What C. Whether C. What D. were D. That D. What D. Which you said at the meeting describes a bright future for the company. (2013 四川) I want to tell you is the deep love and respect I have f or my parents. (2013 天津) struck me most in the movie was the father’s deep love for his son. (2013 重庆) makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer. (2013 年北

6. Some people believe ______ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. (2014 北京 ) A. whatever 7. Exactly B. whenever. C. wherever D. however the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around

156 5. (2014 广西) A. whether 8. All we need A. are B. why C. when D. how

a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees B. was[来源:学,科,网] C. is D.were [来源:Z§ xx§ k.Com]

throughout the growing seasons of the year. (2014 湖南)

9. _______ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. (2014 陕西)[来源] A. Why 10. I think A. what 答案:1--5 BACDC B. When B. that 6--10 ACCCA C. That C. which D. What D. who[来源:学科网] impresses me about his painting is the colors he uses. (2014 天津)


4. 同位语从句 【1】 在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。同位语从句一般跟在名词 fact, hope, idea, news, doubt, opinion, suggestion, decision, truth, promise, problem, possibility 等后面,用以解释、 说明该名词的内容。引导同位语从句的词有连接词 that,连接副词 how,when,where 等。 Eg: We are very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals. The question who should do the work requires consideration. We haven’t yet settled the problem where we are going to spend our summer vacation. The fact has worried many scientists that the earth is becoming warmer and warmer. 【2】同位语从句和定语从句的区别
① 功能:同位语从句是名词性的,对名词进行解释或补充说明;定从是形容词性的,对先

② 成分:引导定从的 that 既替代先行词,同时在从句中充当主、宾、表成分;引导同位从

的 that 在从句中不充当任何成分,只起连接作用。 Eg: The news that he told me is that Tom will go abroad next year. The news that Tom will go abroad was told by him. 判断: 1. The fact that I saw yesterday surprised me a lot. 2. The fact that I am fatter than before made me upset. 3. I will consider the suggestion that the songs should be updated. 4. I will consider the suggestion that you put forward the day before.


1. I have no idea _____ the cell phone isn’t working, so could you fix it for me? A. what B. why C. if D. which 2. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief ______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. A. how A. what A.that; which C.that; that A. when --- No problem. A. when A. when A. that what C. what that A. that B. if B. that B. whether C. whether C. that B. whether that D. that whether C. that if D. when D. what D. what 7. Word came _____ Mr. President would come and inspect our school himself. 8. With your help, there is no doubt ______ our plan is meant for will work out successfully. B. that B. that B. if C. which C. how B.when; that D.what; which C. whether D. how D. whether D. that 3. There is clear evidence _____ the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain. 4. It was this morning ________ I got the news ________ you would come to our city.

5. The notice came around two in the afternoon _____ the meeting would be postponed. 6. ---Is there any possibility ______ you could pick me up at the airport?

9. My father made a promise _____ I got high marks in the final exam, he would buy me a new bike. 10. The time is not far away ______ the information will be made known ______ more workers will be trained for their jobs. A. until; which C. before; that B. when; that D. as; which

答案:1--5 BBDCB 6--10 BCACB




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