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非谓语动词用法精讲(完整版)


非谓语动词使用条件
一个句子当中,已经存在一个 主句(谓语动词),又没有连词的情 况下, 还有别的动词出现时。 She got off the bus, leaving her handbag on her seat.
She got off the bus, but left her handbag on her seat.

非谓语动词的句法功能
语法特征:在句子中充当谓语以外的 各种句子成分的动词叫非谓语动词,包括 不定式、动名词、分词(现在分词和过去 分词),他们没有人称和数的变化,但保 留动词的某些特征:有时态和语态的变化, 有否定式,可以带宾语、状语和补语;又 具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,在句子 中可充当主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语 等成分。

法 功 能 名称 宾语补 主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 足语 不定 √ √ √ √ √ √ 式 动名 √ √ √ √ 词 现在 √ √ √ √ 分词 过去 √ √ √ √ 分词



非谓语动词的形式变化

1、不定式相当于名词、形容词、副词。 充当主语、宾语、定语、表语、宾语补足 语、状语。 2、动名词相当于名词充当主语、表语、 定语、宾语。 3、分词相当于形容词、副词。作表语、 定语、宾语补足语、状语形成分 4、语态:必须搞清逻辑主语与非谓语动 词的关系,从而来确定非谓语动词的语态。

分词 类别 不定式 动名词

现在分词

过去 分词
/ / / /

to do 主 一般 进行 to be doing 完成 to have done 完成 to have been 动 进行 doing 被 一般 to be done to have been 动 完成 done for +N. / 复合及 Pron.+ to do相 独立主 当于主谓结构, 格结构 for的宾语是inf. 的主语

doing doing / / having done having done / /

being done having been done

being done done having been / done

名词通格或所 有格以及形容 词物主代词或 人称代词宾格 +doing

分词作状语其逻辑 主语须与句子主语 相一致,否则加上 自己的主语或用 with复合结构

非谓语动词
不定式 infinitive
动名词 gerund 分词 participle

一、不定式
不定式的构成是指不定式符号to 加上动词 原形,表示具体的意义,指一次性行为、动作。 不定式短语是指不定式和它的宾语或状语构成 的词组。 可充当成分: 主语, 宾语, 宾语补足语, 表语, 定语, 状语.

不定式各种形式的时间含义:一般式表示 动作或状态发生在谓语动词表示的动作或状态 的同时或之后;完成式在谓语之前;进行式强 调在谓语动词的同时;被动式是指主语是被动 关系,表示被动的动作。

1.不定式作主语
To lose your heart means failure. It took me only five minutes to finish the job. To do two things at a time is to do neither.

如果要说明不定式表示的动作是谁 做的,可以在不定式前加一个由for 引起 的短语。 It is easy for the students to read. It will be a mistake for us to help you.

It is + 形容词 + for / of sb + 不定式结构

在"It is + 形容词 + of sb + 不定式" 结构中,形容词往往表示人物的性格和特 征,如kind, silly, good, unwise, clever, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, rude, impolite, bold, thoughtful, honest, bad, sensible, naughty等。在“It is + 形容词 + for sb + 不定式”结构中,形容词通常表示 事物的性质,如important, possible, impossible, necessary, difficult, hard, reasonable等。

比 较 It is good of you to help me with my English. 你真好,帮助我学英语。 (强调you的特征=You are good to help me.) It is good for you to give up smoking. 戒烟对你有好处。 (强调的是give up smoking这一行为= For you to give up smoking is good.)

2.不定式作宾语
一般情况下不定式都要to ,help可要可不 要;不定式有它自己的补语,要用it 作形式宾 语。 You needn't bother to come yourself. They are considering what to do next. Some who were famous in their own times would find it difficult to achieve success today. 有些及物动词常用不定式作宾语: afford,

promise, refuse, expect, hope, learn, offer, wish, want, fail, plan, agree, forget, like, prefer, decide, manage, arrange, desire, try, determine、

①. I don't want ___ like I' m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager' s plan is unfair. A.to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded ②. I think you’ll grow ____ him when you know him better. A.liking B.to be like C.to like D.to be liking ③. I don’t know whether you happen , but I’ m going to study in the U.S.A. this September . A.to be heard B.to be hearing C.to hear D.to have heard

3.不定式作表语
?

?

What she wants to do most now is (to) travel abroad. The most important thing is to take measures to prevent the pollution. 主语的内容或性质

Cf.

He is to marry Rose.

表按计划要做的事情.

4.不定式作定语
不定式作定语通常放在其修饰的名词、代 词之后,与被修饰的名词或代词之间是主谓关 系、动宾关系、同位关系或修饰关系。 1 主谓关系 The future to greet us will be bright. 我们的未来会十分美好的。 The next train to arrive was from New York. 下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。 在“某人是第…位做某事的人”固定结构 中,不定式与被修饰的词间是主谓关系,表示 动作已完成。 Edison was the first man to invent electric light. He was the first man to arrive and the last to leave.

2 动宾关系 On Sundays, he always has a lot of letters to write. 星期天,他总是有许多信要写。 He can find no one to make friends with. 他找不到可交朋友的人。 3 同位关系 某些抽象名词后面用不定式说明某种情况, 陈述某种事实,如:chance机会、opportunity 机会、way方式/方法、time时间、right权利、 need必要、moment片刻等。 We students should have the courage to face any difficulty. He has no chance to explain it to you.

4 修饰关系 Now it is time to begin our class. 现在是上课的时间了。
注意: ①、不定式作定语要考虑与主语的关系,主语是不定 式的逻辑主语,不定式要用主动式;反之用被动式。 He has many things to do . He wants his bike to be repaired right now.
② 、there be句型中用主动表示说话人的行为,被动 表示说话人要别人做某事。 There must be something to fear.

to be feared.

点 津 坊

由于动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动 宾关系,表示动作尚未发生或有可能发生,只 用一般式。因此,如果该不定式的动词是不及 物动词,其后应有必要的介词,这种不定式也 叫反射不定式,即不定式+介词结构,介词一 般不可省去,如: I need a pen to write with Give me some paper to write on. There are some thing to be grateful for. She has a child to take care of. There is nothing to worry about. He has no friend to depend on. 他没有可依靠的朋友。 I've got a lot of things to see to this morning. 今天上午我有许多事情要处理。

? ?

?

I need a pen to write with. Charles Lindbergh is the first man to fly the Atlantic alone. The meeting to be held tomorrow is very important.

Eg. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest ___ in a year. A.follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed

Change the following into infinitives. He was the first person that came to the classroom this morning. He was the first person to come to the classroom this morning. The only thing that I want to get is the diamond necklace. The only thing for me to get is the diamond necklace. Everything that is done needs praising. Everything to be done needs praising. Here are some books that you can read Here are some books for you to read

5.不定式作宾语补足语
A. 感官动词: see、watch、notice、hear、 listen to、observe、 look at、 feel. 这时不定式 不带to,并表示动作已经完成。 Eg. We often hear her sing the song at home. I saw a child fall down from the tree.
B.致使、允许类动词:let、make、 get、 have、 help、 want、wish、allow、permit、 forbid、advise、force、 consider、 expect、tell… Eg. I could not make them understand me. You can’t allow him to do that. My advisor encouraged_____ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take

C. think、consider、suppose、feel、 believe、imagine、prove、find等动词的宾 语后面可带to be结构,也可省略to be。 Eg. We think / consider him ( to be ) a wise leader. D. call on、ask for、wait for、depend on、prepare for等成语动词后面带to的不定式
作宾补。 Eg. We are waiting for the rain to stop.

6、不定式作状语
不定式作状语可以表示行为的目的、结果、原因、条 件等。

A. 表示目的
I’m saving up to buy a computer. 我在存钱买电脑。

点 津 坊
有时为了强调或突出这种目的,也可以用in order to do, 和so as to do结构 (so as to do不可以置 于句首),否定的只能用in order not to do, 和so as not to do 。 He shouted and waved in order to be noticed. 为了引起注意,他又嚷嚷又挥手。 I’ ll write down his telephone number so as not to forget it. 我要把他的电话号码记下来,以防忘记。

Tim sat near the fire to get warm. The athletes practised hard to win the match.
相当于用in order (not) to,so as (not) to引导的目的状语.

①. Helen had to shout _____ above the sound of the music. A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard ②. All these gifts must be mailed immediately ——— — in time for Christmas. A.in order to have received
B.in order to receive C.so as to be received D.so as to be receiving

③. _________ more about university courses, call (920) 746-3789. A.To find out B.Finding out C.Find out D.Having found out

④. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _______ a look at the sports stars A. had B. having C. to have D. have

B. 表示结果 多用于固定句型搭配中,也可以表示出乎意料,意 想不到的结果。 He got to the station only to find the train had gone. 他赶到车站,发现火车已经开走了。 必 背 : 不定式表示结果常见于下列句型 1) so...as to do (如此…而能够…) Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle? 把你的自行车借给我好吗? 2) such...as to do (如此…而能够…) We are not such fools as to believe him. 我们 还没蠢到会相信他的地步

3) enough to do (足够地…而能够… ) He didn't run fast enough to catch the train. 他跑得不够快,没赶上火车。 4) only to do(表示与原来的目的或愿望相反的结果) He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet. 他搬起石头砸自己的脚。 5) too...to do (太…而不能够…) His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 他的视力太差了,看不清这么小的字。 注:too之前如果有only, not, never, all, but,此时不 定式不再表否定意,而表肯定意,only too 表“非常”、 “很”意。如:They are only too lucky to go abroad for a visit. 他们很幸运去国外访问。 另外,too后如果是happy, glad,kind, anxious, easy, delighted, eager, pleased, ready, surprised, willing之 类形容词时,不定式也表肯定意,如:She was too happy to meet her old friend in the street

①. The news reporters hurried to the airport , only____ the film stars had left. A.to tell B.to be told C.telling D.told

②. He hurried to the station only ___ that the train had left. A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found

C. 表示原因
常放在动词后面或用于表示心理感觉的形容词、 过去分词后面,不定式的动作先于谓语动词的动作。 I am happy to see you. She was sad to hear the bad news. 动词不定式与主语是主谓关系,动词不定式的动 词可带宾语;如果不定式与主语是动宾关系,不可带 宾语。 I was very pleased to see you yesterday. Relativity theory isn’t easy to understand.

You were silly not ____ your car. A.to lock B. to have locked C. locking D. having locked

I am very glad to see you 我见到你很高兴 We are sorry to leave. He is sure to come.
Volleyball is very interesting to watch.

打排球看起来很有意思
This problem is difficult to solve. 这个问题难解决 She’s very nice to talk to 和她谈话是愉快的

7、不定式的进行式、完成式.
它们与谓语动词的进行式、完成式相似,进行式 表示不定式动作与主句动作几乎同时发生;完成式表 示不定式动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。常用 以下固定结构。 1)由及物动词be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported 、regret、prove等固定 结构。 He is said to be translating a new novel. = It’s said he is translating a new novel. The novel was said to have been published. = It was said that the novel has been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years.

2)由不及物动词seem、appear、happen等固定 结构。 An elephant happened to be passing by. = It happened that an elephant was passing by. She seemed/appeared to have heard of it. =It seemed/appeared that she had heard of it. 3)由want、mean、hope、plan、intend等动词的 一般过去式接不定式完成式表示本打算做,结 果未实现。 I wanted/meant to have telephoned, but I forgot. = I had wanted/meant to telephone, but I forgot
4)would like、was/were to以及情态动词等接不定式完 成式表示本打算做,结果未完成。 He would like to have attended the meeting, but I fell ill.

此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、 surprised、disappointed后也接完成时,但要 注意与一般时的区别。
I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute. 对不起,请稍等。(说话时还未等) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。(说话时已等了很久)

①. You were silly not ____ your car. to lock B. to have locked C. locking D. having locked
②. I don’t know whether you happen , but I’m going to study in the U.S.A. this September . A.to be heard B.to be hearing C.to hear D.to have heard ③. ---- Is Bob still performing? ---- I'm afraid not. He is said_____ the stage already as he has become an official . to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left

1)否定结构:not + to do (表示较强的否定意 义时用never + to do) I promised not to wake him up. You must promise never to do that again. 2)连接词 + to do:具有名词性质,相当于一 个名词性从句,可作主宾表成分。连接代词: who, whom, which, what。连接副词:when, how, where, whether等,但不可用why, if, whose。 S. What to do next has not been decided. O. She has forgotten whom to ask. I asked him where to get this book. He had no idea of how to do it. P. The question is which to buy.

8、动词不定式的各种结构

3)for + N. / Pron. + to do结构 动词不定式的逻辑主语不是句子的主语或 谓语的宾语,它有自己的主语,这时用for引出, 可作主宾表定状等成分。
It is important for us to learn English. (主语) I meant for you to decide.(宾语) I consider it necessary for her to learn English. That is for her to decide. (表语) There is no need for her to come. (定语) It’s time for us to go. She opened the gate for the car to enter.(目的) The book is too difficult for the students to reaad.(结果)

4)of + N. /Pron. + to do 结构
某些表示性格特征以及心理状态和行为的 形容词要用此结构,并常用it 作形式主语,如: kind, nice, clever, silly, foolish, wise, rude, cruel, careful, careless, wrong, polite, impolite, honest等。 It’s wise of you not to go there. It’s wrong of him to laugh at the disable people.

5)独立结构或成分 有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句 子,可单独使用,具有插入语的性质,表示说 话人的态度和看法。 如:to tell you the truth 说老实话 to begin with 首先 to say nothing of 姑且不说 so to speak 可以这么说 to be exact 精确地说 to be sure 诚然,固然 to do him justice 说句对他公道的话 to make a long story short 长话短说 to be frank 坦率地说 to be brief 简言之 to conclude 总而言之

To tell you the truth, I don’t care for your plan. He is not a bad man, to be sure. 固然,他不是个坏人。 They are, so to speak, grown up boys. 可以这么说,他们是大孩子了。 To be frank, you are right. 坦率地说,你是对的。 He is very honest, to begin with. 首先,他很诚实。

6)分裂结构 在不定式符号to和动词原形之间可插入一 个副词,使句意明确,通顺自然,构成分裂不 定式,所插入的副词习惯上常与不定式的动词 原形连用,故分裂不定式要合乎习惯,不可滥 用,如: He liked to half close his eyes It is too heavy for me to even lift. 它很重,我都掀不动它。 I remember to have plainly refused his offer. I’m glad to always see him work hard. 由于总是看见他努力工作,我就高兴。

7)介词 + whom/which + to do结构 这种结构常放在名词后面作定语,实际上 是不及物动词作宾语的特例。 Mary needs a friend to play with / with whom to play. He’s looking for a place to live in /in which to live. I’m looking for something to clean the carpet with. / with which to clean the carpet .

9、不带to 的动词不定式
1)大部分助动词和情态动词后面构成复合 谓语 We shall see you soon. You can speak English fluently. 2)在固定成语的后面:在had better, had best, would rather, would rather...than, would sooner, would sooner...than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but, may/might as well等结构后直接 跟动词原形或"not + 动词原形"。 You'd better listen to your teacher's opinion. 你最好听一听老师的意见。 We had best call for the doctor at once. 我们最好马上就请医生来。

3) 在口语中,动词原形come和go后可接 不带to的不定式。 Go tell her. 去告诉她吧。 Come have a glass. 来喝一杯。 4) 在why引起的一些问句中,疑问词直接 跟动词原形表示做某事是愚蠢的或无意义的行 为;或“Why not + 动词原形”表示用来提出建 议或劝告。 Why make so much noise? Why not join us? 为什么不加入我们? Why sit down if you can lie down? Why hurry? Why not have a rest?

5)在感官动词see, watch, notice, observe, look at, feel, hear, listen to或致使类动词make, let, have后做宾补时,可省略to,被动态中要加上to。 I will have you know your position here. She was seen to enter the room. 后接动词不定式做宾语补足语省略不定式 符号“to”的一些常用特殊动词: 一些动词要掌握,have, let和make, 此三动词是使役,“注意”“观察(look at, observe)”“听到(hear, listen to)”see, 还有feel和watch,使用它们要仔细 后接“宾补”略去“to”,此点千万要牢记

6)在动词help, dare后, to可要可不要。 help后无to,表示帮助者直接参与动作。 They helped me carry the boxes. This kind of soap will help us to wash the clothes more easily. 7)在介词but, except, besides, 连词than后, 如果它们前面有do 的某种形式,这时不定式不 带to ,否则, besides后用动名词,其余的可带 to;但前面有动名词时,后面也用动名词。

My dog does everything except/but speak. He did nothing else than laugh. He had no choice except/but to obey. He gave them money besides advising. He liked doing nothing except/but besides watching TV in the evening. 8)如果主语是“all + 定从”、“thing + 定从”、“what + 分句”、“thing + 不定式” 等,并带有do的某种形式,这时做表语的不定 式可以不带to。 All I did was (to) hit him on the head. The only thing we can do now is (to) encourage him to try again. What I’ll do is (to) tell her the truth of facts.

9)同一结构中出现两个以上的作用相同 的不定式,第一个不定式要to,后面的不要to, 但表示对比、对照关系时,可加to。

I’d like to lie down and go to sleep. Do you want to have lunch or wait till later? 10)在一些固定搭配中用不带to的不定式。 He let go the rope. 他松开了绳子。 I hear say there will be an earthquake soon. 我听说不久就要有一次地震。 She made believe she was innocent. 她假装清白。

①. A computer does only what thinking people _________. A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done

②. We’ve missed the last bus. I’m afraid we have no choice but _____ a taxi. A. to take B. taking C. take D. taken

10. 不定式后动词的省略 1)动词love, mean, want, hate, like, wish,
expect, hope,try, intend, plan, refuse, prefer, seem 及be glad (pleased, delighted, happy) to 等后
面接不定式时,为避免重复,常省略与上文相同的动 词,只保留to不定式符号,而try后的to 也可省略。

①. --- Would you like to go to the Great Theatre with me tonight? --- ______. A. Yes, I would like to go to the Great Theater with you tonight . B. I’d love to, but I have an exam tomorrow. C. No, I wouldn’t D. That’s all right ②.--- Does your brother intend to study Germany? --- Yes, he intends ________. A. / B. to C. so D. that

2)句式 would have done …, should have done…, ought to have done…, needn’t have done …, used to be … 等省略形式为 would have , should have , ought to have, needn’t have , used to be, 要保留不定式后的be或have。 例 ---Are you a sailor ? --- No, but I used to be (a sailor ).
3)在be going to, be able to, used to为固定 结构,to不可省略。 I don’t dance now, but I used to.

4)当want, like用于下列从句时,可省略 不定式,甚至可省略to:when时间状语从句, if和as long as条件状语从句,as方式状语从句 以及what宾语从句。 Come when you want. Do as you like. You may come if you like. I’ve decided to do what I like. 5)在某些形容词后,to 可替代整个不定 式,甚至在从句中可省略to。 You can’t force him to go there if he’s not ready (to). Would you like to go there with me? I’ll be glad to.

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二、动名词
A. 动名词的构成: V. + ing. 兼有名词和动 词的特征,即可起名词作用,也具有动词的时 态和语态的变化,在句子中可充当主语、宾语、 表语、定语成分: B. 动名词形式变化的时间关系: 一般式 表示动名词的动作与谓语的动作同时发生或在 其后发生,有时也可在谓语之前,也可用一般 式代替完成式;完成式表示动名词的动作在谓 语的动作以前发生;被动式表示被动意义。

动名词的句法功能
1. 动名词作主语
表示经常性、习惯性和抽象的动作,可以用it 作 形式主语,但常用于固定结构。动词-ing形式可直接置 于句首作主语。

Seeing is believing.= To see is to believe.
百闻不如一见。 为了保持句子平衡,通常用先行词it作形式主语, 而把真正的主语放在句末。

It is no use crying over spilt milk.
作无益的后悔是没有用的。

It's a waste of time arguing about it.
争论这事是浪费时间。

动名词作主语: 如果动词-ing形式的逻辑主语是动作的承 受者,就要用-ing形式的被动式。 The meeting being held in Beijing now is of great importance. 正在北京召开的会议非常重要。 (the meeting和"举行"之间的关系是被动的, 所以用being held)

a. Seeing is believing. Playing chess is fun. b. It’s no use/good / a waste of time… = There is no use/… It’s no use talking about it. It‘s no good talking to him. c. There is no V.ing. = It is impossible to do… There is no saying when it will stop raining. 无法断 定这场雨什么时候会停。 There is no joking about such matters. d. It is useless telephoning him. e. He is not willing to come. f. It‘s worth making an effort. 努力一下是值得的。

2. 动名词作表语
a. 表示抽象的动作或行为,说明主语的内 容不用副词修饰,其动作不是主语发出的,可 以和主语的位置相互换。 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible. 她的工作是尽量使报告厅保持干净。 b.表示主语具有的特征 The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。 ? The nurse's job is looking after the patients. The main thing is getting there in time. Cf. The nurse is looking after the patients.

3. 动名词作宾语
动词-ing形式既可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介词 的宾语。 A、作动词宾语 能用动词-ing形式作宾语的及物动词可分两类,一 类是只能用动词-ing形式作宾语,另一类是既可用动词 -ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语。 1) 只能用-ing形式作宾语的动词(这类动词只能用ing形式作宾语,不能用不定式作宾语。) Fancy meeting you here! 想不到在这儿见到你了! I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。

? ①下列动词后只能接动名词:suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, enjoy, require, practise, miss, escape, pardon, advise, consider, imagine, keep, appreciate, permit。 ? Do you mind my opening the windows? ? ②下列动词短语接动名词:leave off, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, have trouble / difficulty (in) doing sth. devote to, be/get used to, pay attention to, be fond of, be worth。
Eg. I am used to watching TV in the evening.

必 背 只接动词-ing形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有:admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免put off 推迟 keep 保持 consider 考虑 delay 耽搁 dislike 嫌恶 resist 抵制 mention 提及 enjoy 喜欢 escape 避免 excuse 原谅 practice 练习 mind介意 fancy想不到 feel like 意欲 finish 完成 risk 冒险 include 包括 forgive 原谅 give up 放弃 suggest 建议 miss 逃过 imagine 设想 cannot help 情不自禁

只能接动词-ing形式作宾语的动词口诀: 建议冒险去献身, 忍受期待不停顿; 放弃延期悔失去, 坚持欣赏实践成; 注意原谅避反对, 考虑要求不自禁; 允许习惯不介意, 价值开始想动名。

①.He was in low spirits and even considered _____(go ) away.
②.Practise _____( put ) your hand to the ground.

③.I can’t help ____( have ) the trip to Britain.
④.Don’t tell me you always escape _____( fine) because you have a fast sports car. ⑤.Leave off ____(bite) your nails! ⑥.He didn’t feel like _____( work ), so he suggested ____( spend ) the day in the garden. ⑦.You certainly mustn’t miss _____( see ) the wonderful film

2) 既可用动词-ing形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语, 但用法并不相同,主要有以下几种情况:有些动词, 如attempt, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer等, 后面接动词-ing形式或不定式区别不是很大。 They prefer spending/to spend their summer vacation in Dalian. I intend to buy/buying an English-Chinese dictionary. 比较:He hates smoking. 他讨厌吸烟。 He hates to smoke. 他不爱吸烟。 提 示 应尽量避免接连出现两个动词-ing形式。 I am starting to learn Russian. 我开始学俄语。 避免说:I am starting learning Russian.

3) 有些动词或词组后可带动名词或不 定式作宾语,但意义上有所不同。 come to do★表示一个渐渐发展的过程 I hope we shall be friends and come to understand one another.我希望我们会成 为朋友并互相了解 come doing★表示陪衬性的动作 It was already two o’clock when she came hurrying in. 她急急忙忙跑进来时已 经两点了。

go on to do★做完一件事后,接下去做另外一件 事 Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the new words in the next unit. 做完练习以后,我们继续学习下一单元的单词。 go on doing★继续做同一件事。 Though it was raining heavily, they went on working. 尽管天下着大雨,他们仍然继续工作。 mean to do★想要做某事 I didn't mean to hurt you. 我并不想要伤害你。 mean doing★意味着要有一个结果 Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这班车就意味着再等一个小时。

regret to do★对即将要做的事表示遗憾 I regret to say I must leave tomorrow. 很遗憾,我明天必须离开了。 regret doing★对所做的事感到后悔 I regret not having told her earlier. 没能更早地告诉她,我很后悔。 remember to do ★讲的是将来的事,表示“不 要忘记” Remember to lock the door when you leave. remember doing ★讲的是过去的事,表示“记 起来” I remember posting that letter. 我记得寄了那封信。

forget to do★忘记要做某事 She nearly forgot to give the porter a tip for his service. 她几乎忘记给行李搬运工付小费。 forget doing★忘记以前曾做过的事 I’ll never forget meeting my school headmaster for the first time. 我永远忘不了和我小学校长初次见面的情景。 stop to do★停止原来做的事,开始做另一件事 While working, he stopped to talk with Tom at times. 工作的时候,他不时停下来和汤姆谈话。 stop doing★停止正在做的事 When the teacher came into the classroom, the pupils stopped talking. 教师走进教室的时候,小学生们停止了说话。

try to do★设法做某事 I must try to get everything ready before he arrives. 在他到来之前,我必须尽力把一切都 准备好。 try doing★试验做某事 Would you please try doing that again? 请你 再试一次好吗?

4) need, require, want作“需要”解时,stand (忍受), deserve(应该)后面接动词-ing形式的主 动形式或不定式的被动形式,意义上并无差别,但用 动词-ing形式比较普通。而be worth doing = be worthy to be done/ of being done。 Your composition needs correcting / to be corrected. 你的作文需要修改。 His coat wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 他的外套需要洗了。 The old woman requires looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully. 这个老大娘需要细心地照料。

5) advise, forbid, consider, allow, permit, recomend有宾语时,用to do 做宾补;没有人称 宾语时用动名词做宾语。 I advised him to learn English well. They considered Liu Ming to be a good teacher. The doctor advised _____( stay ) longer in hospital. The law forbids _____( sell ) liquor to children
6) 下列动词后跟带to的不定式作宾语补语: advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, intend, invite, like, love, order, persuade, prefer, require, want, teach, tell, warn, wish 等。 My father had expected me going to college. χ My father had expected me to go to college . √

B、 作介词宾语 动词-ing形式作介词宾语大都和一些固定搭配有关, 可表示动作发生在谓语动词之前。也可放在以to结尾的 短语动词后:look forward to, object to, pay attention to, stick to, be used to, belong to, object to,devote oneself / one’s time / energy to,get down to(着手干…),lead to (通向,导致),see to, refer to, turn to等, 而动词不定式 只在少数介词but, except, besides, 连词than后用。

Thank you for giving us so much help. He is used to writing with his left hand. He left without saying anything.

注意:in, on, after + 动名词的时间概念 in + V.ing 在…时,与…同时, 在…的过程中 He felt to be sorry in doing that. You did wrong in agreeing to the plan. on + V.ing 在…时,与…后,一…就 On arriving at the station, he found that the train had gone. They cried with joy on hearing the news. after + V.ing 在…之后,经过… After finishing the experiment, they began another one. He studied even harder than before after hearing the talk.

4、动名词作定语 常放在修饰词的前面(不定式在后),表 示所修饰的人或物的性能或用途,在逻辑上与 修饰词不存在主谓关系;在读音方面动名词要 重读,被修饰词不重读。 如reading materials = the materials which is used for reading, a reading room = a room which is used for reading running shoes =shoes for running a working method =a method of working

必 背 a drawing board 画板 a dining car 餐车 a sewing machine 缝纫机 a swimming pool 游泳池 a waiting room 候车室 a driving permit 驾驶许可证 a singing competition 歌咏比赛 a walking stick 手杖
The carrying pole reminds me of my bitter days in the past. I would not like to take sleeping pills.

动名词的各种结构

1、否定结构
其结构是not + 动名词(短语),也可以用no+ 动名词构成 She regrets not having studied the computer hard. There is no use buying books but not reading them.

2、动名词的复合结构
动名词的复合结构有两种形式:形容词性物主代 词/名词所有格 + 动名词,可做主宾表成分,其中代词 或名词是动名词动作的逻辑主语,相当于主宾表从句; 代词宾格/名词通格 + 动名词,这种结构不可用在句首, 但结构中的名词表示无生命的事物或是较长的名词词 组时,不管在句中什么位置,都可用名词通格 + 动名 词结构形式。

A. 作主语 His going there won’t help much. His father’s getting home late will worry his family. = That his father gets home late will worry his family.

B. 作动词宾语
I don’t remember her giving me back the dictionary. She dislikes her husband’s smoking in the room. = She dislikes that her husband smokes in the room.

C. 作动介短语宾语
I heard of Miss Mary’s coming back. =I heard that Miss Mary had come back. She insists on my staying for supper. = She insists (on) that I should stay for supper. Did you ever hear of a man of good sense of duty refusing such an offer? 你听说过责任心很强的人会 拒绝这种提议吗?

D. 作介词宾语
He is proud of his mother being a teacher of English. We are glad of the exam being over. We are opposed to the idea of money being everything. 我们反对金钱万能的想法。

E. 作表语
Mr. Zhang’s coming here seems your son’s passing the entrance examination. What’s troubling them is their not having enough food. = What’s troubling them is that they have not enough food.

注意情况:动名词结构的逻辑主语采用物 主代词还是人称代词宾格;是采用名词所 有格或名词通格,要遵循以下规则:
A. 逻辑主语是不定代词、指示代词时用宾格 I object to that being said about me. 我反对那样说我。 I’m pleased at someone so rich having some difficulties. 这么富裕的人有许多困难我感到高兴。 B. 逻辑主语表示时间时用宾格 I’m really surprised at it being so late. 竟这么晚了我真感到吃惊。

C. It’s no use/good…后面常用形容词物主代 词或名词通格作逻辑主语 It’s no use your telling me not to worry. It’s no use the man wanting you to sell the stolen car. 那人想要你去卖掉偷来的汽 车,这是徒劳无益的。 D. 动名词结构位于句首时,一般只用物主代词或 名词所有格,不用人称代词宾格或名词通格。

Mary's grumbling annoyed her husband
玛丽的牢骚使她丈夫很生气。

Your being right does not necessarily mean my being wrong.
你正确未必意味着我错。

E.当逻辑主语是无生命名词或较长的名词词 组时,一般只用名词通格,不用所有格。
We are opposed to the idea of money being everything. 我们反对金钱万能的想法。 Did you ever hear of a man of good sense of duty refusing such an offer? 你听说过责任心很强的人 会拒绝这种提议吗?

F.在deny, postpone, defer, delay等动词后, 这时逻辑主语一般只用物主代词或名词所 有格,不用人称代词宾格和名词通格。

He had to delay his listening to my plan to a later date. 他不得不把听我汇报计划的日 期往后推迟。 They postponed Mr. Jackson's going home on furlough until next month. 他们把杰克逊先生回国度假的日期推迟至 下个月。

G.作宾语用的带逻辑主语的动名词结 构与作宾语补足语用的但也带逻辑主语的 分词结构区分开来,试比较:
Would you mind me smoking in the room? I heard him playing the piano in the next room.

高考点击
①. The man insisted________ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby. A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding ②. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. _______ the answers ready will be of great help. A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having ③. I really can't understand ______ her like that. A.you treat B. you to treat 返回 C. why treat D. you treating ④. He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk _______ the good opportunity. A.to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost

三、分词
(一)现在分词与过去分词的区别 1、它们可充当相同的成分:宾语补足语,表语, 定语, 状语. 2、在语态上,现在分词表示主动,而过去分词表示被 动 an interesting book, an interested reader 3、在时间关系上,现在分词表示动作正在进行,过去 分词指动作已完成 developing countries, developed countries 4、在助动词搭配上,现在分词与be构成进行时态,过 去分词与have构成完成时态,与be构成被动语态。 5、现在分词与过去分词的被动式在作定语,状语,宾 语补足语时有区别。

(二)分词形式变化的时间关系 1、现在分词:
一般式表示的动作与谓语动词同时或几乎 同时发生;完成式表示发生在谓语动词之前; 被动一般式指一个被动的动作在进行;被动完 成式表示一个被动的动作在谓语动词之前已经 完成。 2、过去分词: 没有时态和语态的变化,及物动词过去分 词表示被动和完成的动作,不及物动词过去分 词只表示完成了的动作。

(三)分词及其短语在句子中的语法功能
1、表语:分词作表语相当于形容词,现在分词表
示主语的性质、特征,含有主动意味,指“使人有 某 种感觉”,其主语一般是一事物。而过去分词表示主 语 所处的状态,表示被动,指“人被引起某种感觉”, 其主语 多为人,这类常见动词有:delight, excite, disappoint, interest, move, shock, surprise, satisfy, encourage, please, frighten等,它们变为分词后,已形 容词化,可用very, quite, much等修饰。 The international situation is encouraging. 国际形势令人鼓舞。 He was very /much pleased at the news. 他们听到这个消息很高兴。

比较:
1)作表语的分词说明主语的性质、状态和特 点,而构成时态和语态的分词表示一个具体正在 进行的动作,而且动作由主语发出的。 The students are fully prepared. 学生们已做好了充分的准备。 When we got there, the shop was closed. 我们到那儿时,商店已经关门了。 Peter the Great is buried here. 彼得大帝就埋葬在这里。 Peter the Great was buried here in 1725. 彼得大帝于1725年被埋葬在这里。

2)动名词有名词的 性质,作表语指经 常的或较抽象的动作,说明主语 的 内容, 可和主语互换,但动作不是主语发出的。 The key question is finding a way of solving it. The good news is very exciting. I am standing here. 3)不定式作表语指具体的一次性动作。 What you’ll do next is to work out the problem first. He is to go there.

2、宾语补足语
主要有下列两类动词可作宾补: 1) 跟在感官类动词后:see, hear, watch, notice, observe, look at, listen to等,分词作宾补有三种形式,即现在分词,现在分词 被动一般式,过去分词。 在复合宾语中,用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发 出者,形成逻辑上的主谓关系,指动作的一部分或动作正在进 行, I saw him reading just now. 用现在分词被动一般式作宾补说明与宾语为被动关系,强

调动作在进行, I saw his bike being repaired just now.
用过去分词作宾补,表示宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑 上的动宾关系,强调动作已完成, I saw his bike repaired just

now.

现在分词完成式(主、被动)都不作宾语 补足语;不定式作宾补与宾语形成主谓关系, 指动作的全过程,并表示动作已全部结束。 He saw a girl getting on the bus. 他看见一个女孩在上公共汽车。 He saw a girl get on the bus and drive off. 他看见一个女孩上公共汽车后开走了。 点 津 坊 如果宾语补足语是一系列的动作,通常只能 用不定式来表示,不用动词-ing形式。 I saw him enter the room, sit down and light a cigarette. 我看见他走进房间,坐了下来, 点燃了一根香烟。

I noticed them repairing a car. = They were noticed repairing a car. I noticed a car being repaired. = A car was noticed being repaired. I noticed a car repaired. =A car was noticed repaired. Cf. I saw the man get on the bus. =The man was seen to get on the bus.
The missing boys were last seen ___ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. to play D. play Listen, I hear the popular song___. A. sung B. singing C. being sung D. to sing

2) 跟在致使类动词后: catch, have, send, get, keep, find, feel, leave, make, want, start, set等, 分词作宾补有二种形式,即现在分词,过去分 词。 V. +O.+现在分词表示主动意义(宾语与分 词间为主谓关系),指听任某事发生或某事处 于某状态; V.+O. +过去分词表示被动意义(宾语与分 词间为动宾关系),指致使某事被做,常用于 have, get, make, leave等之后。

a. keep + O. + V.ing / V.ed 使继续处于某状 态 V.ing 表示主动,V.ed表示 被动。 It was so cold that they kept the fire ___ all night. A. to burn B. burn C.burning D. burned b. have + O. + V.ing 处于某状态或使某情况 发生 I won’t have you saying that. 我不允许你说那件事。 have + O. + V.ed 某事由别人做或遭遇某 种情况 I had the house painted twice. He had his hand burnt when he cooked.

c. get + O. + V.ing 使进入某运动状态 get + O. + V.ed = have + O. + V.ed Can you get the clock going again? d. make + O. + V.ed make后不用V.ing

When you speak, be sure to make yourself understood. e. leave + O. + V.ing / V.ed 留下 They left me staying all by myself. We mustn’t leave the work unfinished. f. send + O. + V.ing
外力或外因使某事发生

You nearly sent my glasses falling off the ground.

g. set+ O. + V.ing = get + O. + V.ing What she said set me thinking. h. catch+ O. + V.ing 撞上某人做某事 He caught a man stealing flowers from the garden. If a boy is caught smoking here, he will be punished.

注意: 1)在致使类动词中, 用动词不定式作宾 补,不定式与宾语是主谓关系,但强调动作要 发生这一事实;用现在分词作宾补,也是主谓 关系,但强调动作发生的连续性或反复性,指 动作进行的过程。 He makes us think it over. She felt the tears rolling down her checks. 2)有些动词只能用不定式作宾补,如: allow, ask, tell, want, force, teach …

①. Don’t leave the water______ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run ②. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents . A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry ③. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You've had it _______ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained

3. 分词作定语
1)现在分词及短语作定语:
表示主动进行的动作,被修饰名词是现在分词动 作的执行者,形成主谓关系,可扩展成定语从句;单 个的现在分词或一个副词加现在分词作定语,放在被 修饰词之前,而分词短语放在其后;与名词构成一种 固定搭配的现在分词也放在其后。 以上情况只限于使用现在分词和现在分词被动式, 而现在分词完成式以及现在分词完成被动式不作定语。

现在分词主动一般式:主动,分词的动作 正在发生或没有时间 现在分词被动一般式:被动,分词的动作 正在发生 This is an interesting book. She has no parents living. The book mentions something interesting. There is a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light. The bike being repaired is made in Shanghai.

比较: a. 动名词在修饰语前,表示用途,不 存在主谓关系,动名词短语不作定语。 This is a swimming pool. The sleeping girl is her sister.
b. 现在分词是与修饰词形成主谓关系,如表示正 在进行的动作可换成定语从句;如表示状态或瞬间性 动作则用一般式。 The girl standing at the gate is her sister. = The girl who is standing at the gate is her sister. The woman holds a sleeping child. = The woman holds a child who is sleeping. Barking dogs seldom bite. = Dogs that bark seldom bite.

分词作定语注意情况: ● ① 作定语的动词-ing形式表示的动作要与主 句谓语的动作同时发生,如两者不能同时发生 的话,则需使用定语从句。即现在分词不宜带 有明确的时间状语 【误】The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. 【正】The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture. 昨天来的教授将要给我们作一个讲座。 The man coming here yesterday is a pianist. × The man who came here yesterday is a pianist. √

● ② 动词-ing形式的完成式一般只用来作状语, 不作定语。两个分词所表示的时间有先后,不 用分词作定语表示先时性。 【误】The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 【正】The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 被地 震毁坏的庙宇很快就要重建了。 Do you know anyone having lost a cat? × Do you know anyone who has lost a cat? √

c. 不定式作定语,指将来的时间,与被修饰词 形成主谓、动宾、同位关系或修饰关系。 The next train to arrive was from New York. This is the material ___ in the lab tomorrow.
A. tested B. testing C. being tested D. to be tested

比较: The school to be built is intended for the disabled children. 即将要建的学校是为残疾儿童而设的。 The school being built is intended for the disabled children. 正在建设的学校是为残疾儿童而设的。 The school built last year is intended for the disabled children.

①. The picture_____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung

②.Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures _____ in your mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form C. forming B. form D. having formed

③. The flowers ____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.
A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt

2) 过去分词作定语
表示被动完成的动作,与被修饰词形成被动关系, 表示动作在位于动词前已经完成或没有具体的时间; 单个的过去分词或一个副词加过去分词作定语常放在 被修饰词之前;过去分词短语则在其后;而某些动词 意味较强的单个过去分词也放在名词之后,起强调作 用。 A lost opportunity never returns. 机不可失,时不在来。 It’s one of the problems solved at the meeting. = It’s one of the problems that have been solved at the meeting. Money spent is more than money earned. 入不敷出。

a. 前置定语
单个动词-ed形式作定语一般放在被修饰的 名词之前,作前置定语。 A watched pot never boils. 心急锅不开。 All the broken doors and windows have been repaired. 所有的坏门窗都修好了。 When we arrived, we each were given a printed question paper. 我们到达的时候, 每人被发给了一份印制好的试卷。

b. 后置定语
作后置定语的动词-ed形式一般都带有修饰语或其 他成分,在语法上相当于一个定语从句。 We have read many novels written by this author. 我们读过这个作家写的许多小说。 (= that are written by this author) Half of the honoured guests invited to the reception were foreign ambassadors. 被邀请到招待会上的贵宾有一半都是外国大使。 (= who had been invited to the reception)

The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success. 这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千名学 生出席了。 (= which was attended by one thousand students) A woman, dressed like a lawyer, came in and took her seat as judge. 一个律师装扮的女人走了进来,并作为法 官就座。 (= who was dressed like a lawyer)

找定语: Does the boy doing his homework settled by his teacher has any reading materials to go over?

c. 动词-ed形式作定语和-ing形式作定语的
区别:
动词-ed形式作定语表示动作已完成,而动词-ing 形式作定语表示动词正在进行。 the risen sun 升起了的太阳 the rising sun 正在升起的太阳 boiled water 开水 fallen leaves 落叶 boiling water 正沸腾的水 falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子 changed condition 改变了的情况 changing condition 变化着的情况 developed countries 发达国家 developing countries 发展中国家

①. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ____ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known ②. The disc, digitally ______ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded ③. The prize of the game show is $30,000 and an all expenses _________ vacation to China. A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid ④. The repairs cost a lot ,but it’s money well ________. A.to spend B.Spent C.being spent D.Spending

4、分词作状语
1)概况:用分词及分词短语作状语,它的逻辑主 语一般与句子的主语相一致,如不一致,可加上自己 的,构成独立主格结构,同时要考虑与主语的关系; 作结果、伴随状况时,常放在句末,而其它形式的状 语常放在句首。 2)现在分词作状语,通常表示主语正在进行的 另一动作,对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪 衬,与句子的主语是主动关系;现在分词可在句中作 时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语;如果分词表 示的动作先于谓语动词 的动作常用分词完成式。

A) 分词一般式可作时间、原因、条件、 结果、让步、方式、伴随情况等状语。 ①时间状语(表示“一做…就…”, “在…期间”, 强调分词动作与谓语动词动作 同时发生,有时前面可加when, while等) Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. While reading, I fell asleep. ②原因状语(相当于原因状语从句,有时 可看成时间状语从句) Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. = As he saw nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note.

Not knowing what to do, he had to ask his teacher. = Because he didn’t know what to do, he had to ask his teacher. He caught cold sitting on the ground. 他坐在地上着了凉。(可看成时间状语从句) ③条件状语(相当于条件状语从句) Working hard, you will succeed. = If you work hard, you will succeed. ④让步状语(相当于让步状语从句,强调 时可加上although, though) Working hard, he didn’t feel a bit tired. = Though he worked hard, he didn’t feel a bit tired.

⑤方式状语(相当于方式状语从句) Traveling by car, the students visited many places.
⑥结果状语(相当于结果状语从句,分词 前可加thus, thereby等强调,逻辑主语通常是前 面的全句,分词只能用瞬间性动词,放在谓语 动词之后,表示谓语动词发生的必然结果) The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children. I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it.

⑦伴随状语(其动词必须与谓语动词同时 发生,可以转换成谓语动词连动式并列结构) The girls came in, following their parents. They stayed at home all day, giving the house a thorough cleaning. He sat on a chair, reading a magazine. He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time. = ...and stared at the sky for a long time 他躺在草地上,长时间地望着天空。

e.g.____a reply, he decided to write a sixth letter. A. Not receiving B. Not to receive 没收信的动作发生在决定写信这一动 C. Not having received D. Having not received 作之前所以应该用having done ;此 题又是表否定含义,分词的否定式为 not doing/not having done; 故选 c
比较提示: 动词不定式作状语更多地作目的、原因、结 果。作原因状语时常放在表示感情、心理活动的形容 词后面;作结果状语时常用在某些固定结构中或表示 意想不到或出乎意料的结果。

动词-ing形式作状语,其逻辑主语一般应与句子 的主语保持一致。 Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. 如动词-ing形式表示的动作不是句中主语发出或承受 的,那就是误用。这种无依着的-ing形式,语法上称 之为“垂悬分词”。 【误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. (looking out through the window的逻辑主语是 the garden,显然不对) 【正】Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden. 【误】Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking.(逻辑主语是dog,它不会看晚报) 【正】I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.

B) 现在分词完成式可作状语。 这种形式表示分词动作发生在谓语动词之 前,或二者间有较长的时间间隔,句子主语与 分词之间是主动关系,常作时间、原因状语; 在转换成从句时从句用完成时态。 Not having received a reply, he decided to write again. = As he hadn’t received a reply, he decided to write again. Having met my friend, I went back with him to his house. = After meeting my friend, I went back with him to his house. = After I had met my friend, I went back with him to his house.

C) 现在分词被动一般式可作状语。 一般情况下,现在分词被动一般式不充当 状语,但如果动作当时正在进行或与谓语动词 动作同时发生,与句子主语是被动关系,可用 现在分词被动一般式,但这种形式常由过去分 词替代。 Caught /Being caught in the rain, he was all wet. (Being) frightened by the fire, the animals all ran away.

D)

现在分词被动完成式可作状语。

这种形式作状语的时间特征表示动作发生 在谓语动词之前,与句子主语是被动关系,常 作时间、原因状语,但多数情况下,由过去分 词替代。 Having been shown how to use the computer, we began to practise. = Shown how to use the computer, we began to practise. = After we had been shown how to use the computer, we began to practise.

?注意:现在分词作状语的几个特性。

①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生,用一般时,如 发生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式having done。 ②语态性。与句子的主语之间的关系,是主谓关 系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动进行,被动完 成”。 ③人称一致性。分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。

①、He glanced over at her, ______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. A.noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted ②、______ the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A.Not completing B. Not completed C. Not completing D. Not having completed ③.The manager, _______ it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room. A.who has made B.having made C.made D.making

④.The storm left , ______a lot of damage to this area . A.caused B.to have caused C.to cause D.having caused ⑤.______from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. A.Being separated B.Having separated C.Having been separated D.To be separated

3)过去分词作状语
过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句, 用来说明谓语动作发生的背景或情况,与句子 主语是被动关系,逻辑主语 就是句子的主语 , 常可表示原因、时间、条件、让步、方式、伴 随情况等。 (1)作原因状语 Tired by the trip, he soon felt asleep. Lost in thought , he almost ran into a car. (2)作时间状语 Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. When asked to make a speech, she said she would be glad to do so.

(3)作条件状语 Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. United, we stand; divided,we fall. (3)作让步状语 (Though) beaten by opposite team, the players didn’t lose confidence and practised even harder. (5)伴随状语 The teacher came in, followed by some students. = The teacher came in, and was followed by some students.

分词短语作状语时,通常与主句中的主语 在逻辑上一致,但有时它也可以有自己独立的 逻辑上的主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。 如:Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him. ①.______ with the size of the whole earth , the biggest ocean does not seem big at all . A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared ②. ________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing

(四)分词的各种结构
1、否定结构 not + V.ing Not having heard from her for long, he felt worried. Not allowed to bring the children, she went there without them. 2、独立主格结构
分词作状语,逻辑主语应与句子的主语 相一致, 如不一致,可在分词前加上自己的主语,这种主语是
由形容词性物主代词/名词通格+分词构成的, 这种结构就叫独立主格结构。在句中作状语,可表示 时间、原因、条件、方式和伴随情况,可扩展成状语 从句,可放在句首或句中;这种形式的主语与分词是 主动关系用现在分词,是被动关系用过去分词。

1)时间状语 Class being over, the students went home. Her supper finished, she went out for a walk. 2)原因状语 Her father having fallen ill, she had to go to school by herself. His leg hurt, he had to be sent to hospital. 3)条件状语 More time given, he would be able to do better. Weather permitting, we’ll go to the Great Wall tomorrow.

4)方式状语
Before liberation, he made a living, vegetables sold. His eyes looking at the picture, he was lost in thought.

5)伴随情况
He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head. =He was lying on the grass, and his hands was crossed under his head.

6)形式选择中应注意的问题 a、现在分词或过去分词?
在独立结构中主格词与分词之间形成逻辑 主谓关系,表现为主动语态,用现在分词;当 他们形成逻辑动宾关系,表现为被动语态时, 用过去分词。 在独立主格结构中,如果强调分词的时间 发生在主句动词之前,常用现在分词完成式。 如: The snow having stopped, she went out to sweep the snow in the yard.

现在分词与过去分词的性质完全不同,但 在独立结构中,现在分词的被动式有时可以简 化为过去分词。如: As her skirt was caught on a nail, she could not move. Her skirt being caught on a nail, she could not move. Her skirt caught on a nail, she could not move. After his work had been finished, he went home. His work having been finished, he went home. His work finished, he went home.

2、分词结构或是独立结构 独立结构常常可看作是由主从复合句中 的从句变来的,但是如果从句和主句的主语 相同,则不可改为独立结构。 Since he was very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 不可改为: He being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 但可改为: Being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles.

3. 主语一致结构
①. Having been attacked by terrorists, ________. A. doctors came to their rescue B. the tall building collapsed C. an emergency measure was taken D. warnings were given to tourists ②.While watching television, __________. A.the doorbell rang B.the doorbell rings C.we heard the doorbell ring D.we heard the doorbell rings

4. with的复合结构 with + 名词/代词宾格+ 分词 常用作定语和状语,作状语时可表示时间、 原因、 方式、伴随情况等;分词与with的宾语 是主动关系用现在分词,如是被动关系 用过去 分词。 1)作状语 The boy can’t do his homework, with his sister singing in the room. With her well taken care of, I felt very pleased. 2)作定语 The students with his mother looking after passed the exam. The blue bottler with it filled with water is mine.

①. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise __________. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on ②.________ and no way to reduce her pain and suffering from the terrible disease, the patient sought her doctor’s help to end her life. A.Having given up hope of cure B.With no hope for cure C.There being hope for cure D.In the hope of cure


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