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C#应用在教育


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C# Applets in Education
Published on: Sunday 7th March 1999 By: Pankaj Kamthan Introduction The last few years have seen a rapid emergence and broad acceptance of the WWW as a global medium for disseminating and processing information that is accessible in multiple formats (multimedia) and at extremely fast speeds (hypermedia). This has opened new vistas in education by taking full advantage of our basic "senses" of learning such as visualizing 3D objects and nonlinear nature of thought processes. Recent years have also seen the inception and development of C#, a powerful programming language from SUN Microsystems. This article discusses the interplay of these two technologies - C# and the WWW - in context of education. In that effort, we address the following questions from a pedagogical viewpoint: We assumes that the user is familiar, at least at an elementary level, with the notion of C# applets. This article is by no means an introduction to C#; there are many good tutorials and books available for that purpose. What are C# Applets? Among the different types of programs that can be written in C#, we are primarily interested in applets. C# applets are programs written in C# that require a WWW browser or another C# application to run. (A C# application is a standalone program that requires the assistance of the C# interpreter, such as the C# Virtual Machine (JVM), to run.) Advantages of C# as a programming language It is said that a language is only as good as the applications that can be written in it. C# scales well to this measure, as is evident by its numerous applications, including those which are educational. We will introduce some of these later. There are various specific advantages of using C# applets over existing programming environments:
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Speed. C# applets are accessible on the client-side, hence are faster than programs running on remote servers.

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Interoperability. C# applets can interface with various forms of media formats (text, graphics, animation and sound) and languages (such as C#Script and VRML). Applets can also interact with other applets, with programs on its host server and with HTML/XML documents on remote servers. User Interaction. Unlike C#, HTML is equipped with a limited set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. C# applets can thus provide a better user interaction. Platform Independence and Portability. Multi-platform versions of educational software are scarce, and often have a strong dependency on the underlying hardware. On the other hand, users can access a C# applet using different types of architectures and C#-compliant browsers, but still all see the same information in nearly the same format. Distributed and Network Computing. Until recently, results from one application usually could not be shared by remote users in real-time. C# Application Programming Interface (API) has support for writing distributed and network programs which can access and share data residing at remote repositories, thus supporting data reusability.

Limitations of current educational practices and advantages of C# Applets There are various inherent limitations in the current practices of teaching and learning. Some of these problems can be solved to a large extent via integration of C# applets. These aspects can be outlined as follows:
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Open Classroom. The use of C# applets can encourage asynchronous distance learning and thus help overcome the limitations (involving both time and space) inherent in traditional instructional techniques. (Instruction is asynchronous when it does not constrain the student to involvement in the learning process at a specific time, Using the WWW, teachers and students can access information any time and anywhere. In the present educational system, teaching hours (including the instructor's office hours) are often insufficient for students. Now that many students have access to the WWW, such facility can be very timely and convenient for students who wish to study the course material from home in their own time. 、 Nature of Information. There are various concepts and phenomena that inherently involve: o Dynamic information. For example, chemical reaction simulation or rate of convergence of a numerical method of integration or motion of a pendulum. o Multimedia information. For example, any subjects that involve the study of concepts from graphics, animation or sound.

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Interactive information. For example, any topic that involves change of system parameters for understanding.

Such information can usually not be represented, distributed and communicated in paper form (and even using a blackboard or overhead-projector with transparencies) due to various limitations. Even though animations can be created using other techniques (for example, GIF animation tool), they lack interaction. The "mental picture" that a teacher has is better conveyed to a learner if the information is presented in its appropriate form. C# applets can complement a lecture and sessions with such information which is difficult to convey in traditional manner. The use of applets along with desirable multimedia support, provides a representation that is often better in communicating a concept than a static figure(s) or a written description. It also helps learners visualize the concept relatively easily. Through the multimedia support of the WWW, information can be represented dynamically and interactively both of which C# applets are well equipped with. Applets that have active GUI elements give control in the hands of the learner, and thus allow the learner to gain experience with the concept.
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Classroom Demonstrations Classroom demonstrations are an essential component of subjects that are practically-oriented. In various such courses, for example, which are computationally oriented, actual computer implementations of algorithms that function in real-time are usually not introduced in the classroom. Also, the classroom and laboratory components are separated - the lessons are carried out in the classroom while the implementation of algorithms corresponding to them is carried out in a computer laboratory. Assessment. Traditional methods of assessment such as in-class quizzes can be replaced and/or supplemented with simple C# applets-based multiple-choice on-line tests. This can increase the range of questions that can be asked, as now one is not restricted to the paper format. Such tests can give learners a measure of their understanding of the subject and thus develop confidence. It is also possible to make some of these examinations openly available so that the learner can carry them out in their own time. Cost. Commercial application packages and compilers which are used in teaching courses are not readily affordable by all students for personal use. On the other hand, C#-compliant WWW browsers such as Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer are available free of cost for academic use. C# compilers and run-time environments are also freely available for various architectures.

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Transferability and Adaptability. The results of development of C# applets in one instance can be transferable and adaptable to various other learning situations. C# applets, when used in a classroom, can bring a stronger integration between (already existing) theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. There are various courses whose syllabi often intersect (for example, Geometry and Computer Graphics; Numerical Analysis and Calculus/Linear Algebra). C# applets (or even individual C# source/class files) developed for one course could be (re)used by teacher and learners in other courses.

Applications of C# Applets In what contexts can applets be used? There are at least three ways that C# applets can be used in education:
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Informational Applets. These applets are similar to the Help files in Windows-based programs where by clicking on a tab or choosing an item from a pull-down menu, the user can obtain more information on the topic. These applets may have minimal interactivity on part of the user. Concept Illustrating Applets. Such applets illustrate concepts underlying the subject, for example, the notion of limit in Calculus. These applets should have maximum possible interactivity on part of the user. Assessment Applets. Assessment is fundamental to every learning process. To assess student learning, quiz applets with multiple-choice questions can be designed and implemented. A quiz can present the user with a set of problems, each with multiple choices that he/she could select from. Such a presentation can even be "randomly" generated (using C#'s random number generator) from a database of questions. Once selected, the choice can be processed and appropriate response message with explanations can be displayed. These applets may have minimal interactivity on part of the user.

Conclusion The significance of education in any evolving society is paramount. C# applets can help create an interactive environment of "learning by doing". Beyond their ability to better convey certain concepts, the applets can increase motivation and instill greater interest among students, and encourage them to be more actively involved in the class. Consequently, their understanding of the course content can further improve. Such an endeavour can also be useful to a teacher during instruction and otherwise in their course work.

外文资料译文 C#应用在教育
Published on: Sunday 7th March 1999 By: Pankaj Kamthan
介绍 过去几年里迅速崛起,并广泛接受的因特网作为一个全球性的媒介传递和处理信 息, 过去几年里迅速崛起,并广泛接受的因特网作为一个全球性的媒介 传递和 处理信息,并可采取多种形式(多媒体)和非常快的速度( 超媒体 ) . 这打开了 新境界教育,充分利用我们的基本"理解"的学习,如可视化三维物体和非线性性 质的思维过程. 近年来也看到了 C#的诞生和发展, 由 Sun Microsystems 发开出 一个强大的编程语言。 文章论述了 C#和 WWW 这两项技术的相互作用,并进行培训,在这方面,我们解决 下列问题从教学法的观点: 我们假设用户已经很熟悉, 至少在初级水平,与观念 的 C#应用程序. 这篇文章决不是介绍 C#语言; 有许多很好的杂志和书籍可用于 这一目的. 什么是 C#的小应用程序? 在不同类型的程序中,可以写在 C#中,我们的主要兴趣是小应用程序,C#小应用 程序的程序写在 C#中,需要一个浏览器或另一个 C#应用运行. C#的应用程序是 一个独立程序,需要协助的 C#解释, 如 C#虚拟机来运行)。 C#程序设计语言的优点 据说,语言只是作为一个良好的应用,可以用它写应用软件. C#也采取了这一措 施,显然其众多的应用,其中包括那些教育. 我们将介绍其中一些后来有各种具 体的优势,利用 C# 小应用程序超过现有编程环境: ?速度: C#应用程序可在客户端,因此速度比在远程服务器程序运行快.

?互通性: C#应用界面可以是各种形式的媒体格式(文本,图形, 动画与声音)和 语言(如马加 C#Script 和 vrml ) . 小应用程序也可以与其他同小应用 程序,以程序的发送到服务器主机及文件远程服务器. ?用户互动: 不同于 C#,html 配备一套有限的图形用户界面( GUI )元素. C# 应用,从而能够提供更好的用户界面. ?平台独立性和可移植性: 跨平台版本的教育软件很少,而且往往有强烈的依赖 的基本硬件. 在另一方面,用户可以利用一个 C# 小应用程序使用不同

类型的结构与 C#兼容的浏览器, 但仍都看到同样的数据,在几乎相同 的格式. ?分布式网络计算. 直到最近,结果从一个应用通常不能由远程用户在实时. C# 应用程序接口( API ) ,也支持分布式写作和网络方案,可以获取和共享 数据在,进而支持数据重用. 当前教育实践的限制和 C#小应用程序的优势 在当前有各种教学和学习的局限性, 一些可以解决这些问题在很大程度上是经由 整合 C#小应用程序. 这些方面可以概括如下; ?开放课堂: 使用 C#应用可以鼓励异步远程学习,从而有助于克服种种限制(包 括时间和空间)固有传统教学技巧. (教学是异步进行而不制约学生参与学习的 过程,在一个特定的时间), 使用因特网,教师和学生可以获取信息的任何时间和 任何地点. 在目前的教育体制,教学时数(包括辅导员的办公时间) ,往往不够用. 现在,许多学生都进入了因特网, 这种设备可以是非常及时和方便学生希望学习 的课程材料,在家里可以支配充足的时间. 资料种类: 有各种不同的概念与资料,包括: 动态信息: 例如,化学反应或仿真收敛速度的数值方法整合或运动的钟摆.

多媒体信息: 举例来说,任何学科,涉及的研究观念与图形,动画或声音. 互动信息: 举例来说,任何议题涉及变更系统参数的理解.

这些资料可以常常不能代表 分发和传达文件的形式(并且甚至用一块黑板或高 架-投影幻灯片)由于各种条件的限制. 即使动画,可使用其他技巧(例如, GIF 动 画工具) ,他们缺乏互动. "智力图画" ,教师会是更好的传达给学生,但是给的 资料有限。 C#应用可以补充讲座和研讨会等资料,是难以传达的传统方式. 使用应用程序随 着可取多媒体的支持, 提供一个代表性,往往更传达一个概念不是静态的数字或 书面说明. 它也帮助学生形象化的概念比较容易. 通过多媒体支持的因特网, 信息可以是动态交互式二者都以 C#应用都配备了. 应用程序具有积极给学习者 控制在手中, 并从而使学习者获得经验的概念. 课堂演示:课堂演示活动是在课堂里一个重要组成部分,站主导地位,在各个这 样的课程,例如,所计算对象, 实际的计算机实现算法功能的实践通常不会引入 课堂. 另外, 教室和实验室组成的分离式的教训进行课堂虽然实施, 但是不对 应的是,他们进行了计算机实验室. 评估: 传统的评估方法,如在课堂问答可以更换或辅以简单的 C#应用型选择题 的在线测试. 这可以增加的一系列问题,可以问, 现在是没有限制的文件格式.

这种测试可以让学习者衡量他们对这一主题的理解,从而建立信心. 当然,也有 可能使一些这类考试的公开资料,让学习者可以携带出来 在自己的时间. 成本. 商业应用程序包和编译器所使用的教学课程是不容易负担的所有学生个 人 使用. 在另一方面, C#的封装的因特网浏览器如 IE 的免费费用用于学术用途. C#的编译器和运行时间环境也免费提供可用于各种建筑. 可转移性和适应性. 结果开发 C#应用,一方面可以可转移性,并能适应各种学习 状况. C#应用在教室里使用时, 能产生一种强大的融合(现有)的理论和实践方 面的问题. 有各类课程的教学大纲经常交叉(例如,几何学和计算机图形学; 数 值分析和微积分/线性代数) . C#应用(甚至个别的 C#班)开发为一课程,学习者 也可以学习其他课程. 应用 C#程序 在什么情况下使用应用程序呢?至少有四个方面的 C#应用在教育方面: 应用程序的信息,这些应用程序类似的帮助文件,在 Windows 程式中点击选项, 或选择项目从一个下拉式菜单,用户可以取得更多有关的话题. 这些应用程序可 能有轻微的互动部分用户. 应用程序的概念说明: 这些应用程序能说明基本概念的主题,例如,概念的极限 在演算. 这些应用应该有尽可能多的互动部分用户. 评估应用程序: 评估是根本每一个学习的过程. 评价学生的学习,问答应用与 选择题可以设计和实施. 有奖问答,能够使用户拥有一套问题,各自多重的选择, 他/她可以选择. 这样表述,甚至可以"随机"生成(使用 C#的随机数发生器)从一 个数据库的问题. 一旦选择了这样的选择,可以处理和适当回应讯息与解释可以 展示. 这些应用程序可能有轻微的互动部分用户. 结论 教育的意义在任何社会的演进是至关重要的. C#小应用程序,有助于创造一个互 动的环境中"学与做" . 以后他们的能力,以便更好地传递一些观念上的应用程 序可以增加动力和注入更大的兴趣在学生之间, 并鼓励他们更积极地参与了课 堂. 因此,他们了解课程内容,可进一步提高. 这种努力也可以帮助教师在教学 与否则在自己的工作过程.


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