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A Study on Scientific Use of Table Salt in China


A Study on Scientific Use of Table Salt in China
Abstract
There are many different usages of table salt in our daily life, for example, for palatable in food; for antisepsis and corrosion protection; for cleaning, damp proof and fixing color and in the cosmetic area. We contrast the diet habits between the Northern Chinese and the Southern Chinese and try to find some possible relationship between table salt intake and some diseases, such as high blood pressure, edema and stomach cancer. Salt is not only an important kind of condiment, but also a required substance, whose sodium and chloride elements can adjust human physiological function. If one takes too much salt, he/she will probably be lack of Calcium, have a cold, stomach trouble or diabetes. Also, taking too much salt will enhance the reactivity of bronchial smooth muscle and induce bronchial asthma, do harm to the kidney or cause cardiovascular disease. Enhance, a certain amount of salt should be took daily and maintained in the human body. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests resident’s average daily NaCl intake amount should be 6-8 g, while the Chinese Residents Dietary Guidelines recommends that each person’s daily NaCl intake amount should be no more than 6 g. In this paper, we introduce 6 different kinds of nutrient salts; we must understand ourselves’ healthy states before choosing them. Good habit develops bit by bit; using salt restriction scoops can progressively instruct residents to cultivate healthy and civilized diet habit.

Keyword
Salt usages, table salt, harms, health, NaCl intake amount standards

Introduction
Salt is a chemical compound formed by replacing all or part of the hydrogen ions of an acid with metal ions or electropositive radicals, which appears a crystalline solid, white, pale pink or light gray in color, normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water, usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight; this kind of salt was formerly called bay salt, and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Rock salt deposits are formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes, and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Injected water dissolves the salt, and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in many manufacturing processes. Different kinds of salts can be used in different aspects, for example in chemical industry, agriculture and medicine. In the chemical industry field, we use salt in coloring matter, metallurgy, petroleum, light industry and so on; a few

common examples include: the production of pulp and paper, setting dyes in textiles and fabrics, and the making of soaps and detergents. In the agriculture field, salt is added in the domestic animals’ feed to keep them healthy. Fertilizing some kind of salt in the planting wheat, cotton and beans can make them stronger and fecundity. In the medical field, doctors use certain amount of salt solution to make patients’ circulatory system in balance. It is essential for human’s life in small quantities, but is harmful in excess. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt and rock salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt. The most widely used salt in our daily life is called table salt or common salt, which is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl). This paper focuses on the table salt. Table salt is refined salt, which contains about 97% to 99% sodium chloride. It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing such as sodium silicoaluminates or magnesium carbonate. Table salt has a particle density of 2.165 g/cm3, and a bulk density of about 1.154 g/cm3. Most table salt sold for consumption contains a variety of additives, which address a variety of health concerns, especially in the developing world. The amounts of additives vary widely from country to country. The use of table salt in our daily life 1. Use in food for palatable The taste of salt (saltiness) is one of the basic human tastes. And table salt is preferred in baking for their fine-grained texture and accuracy of measure. In Western cuisines, salt is used in cooking, and also made available to diners in salt shakers on the table; while in China and many East Asian cultures, salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. In these places, condiments such as soy sauce, fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have high sodium content and fill a similar role to table salt in western cultures. 2. Use for antisepsis and corrosion protection Chinese people use table salt in daily dinner making and also in curing food. They cure vegetables and meat, for example, Chinese cabbages, fishes, chickens and ducks to extend their shelf life and get a different taste. Removal of water and addition of salt to meat creates a solute-rich environment where osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth. In addition, salt causes the soluble meat proteins to come to the surface of the meat particles within sausages. These proteins coagulate when the sausage is heated, helping to hold the sausage together. Finally, salt slows the oxidation process, effectively preventing the meat from going rancid. We make table salt dissolved in pure water and get the normal saline which can be used in the simple operations in non-hospital situation. Having a cup of salt water in the morning may prevent the ule-bleeding and make the teeth stronger. Put flower bines in salt water, the flower may blossom longer. 3. Use for cleaning, damp proof and fixing color

We can use salt water to get a cleaner and easier effect when washing glass, bamboo and china stuff. Mixture of salt and vinegar is good at cleaning the tea residual, rust as well as alcohol or sweat stains. Using the mixture of 1 share of salt with 4 shares of alcohols, we can clean the oil stain on clothes and furs. Boil two different colors’ cotton socks in salt water for 1 hour; they may become the same color. 4. Use in cosmetic area We may use the coarseness and cleanness effect of salt in our daily life. We may take the mixture of 1 share of salt and 2 shares of olive oil as facemask, which can make our face smoother. Using the mixture of salt, honey and egg white to wash our faces, necks, hands and feet can take out the dead skin, light the rugae and make the skin moisten. 5. Other uses Salt has the meaning of eternity in some places because its antisepsis effect of meat. The Uygur (a minor nationality living in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China) regard the salt as a kind of living thing; they believe the salt have the power beyond nature and may impact the humans’ fate. As the economy developed, people enjoy higher live standard, better food, but have less exercise. For these reasons, people have more problems in their health, and they do pay more attention to their health. From the reports of newspapers and studies, high blood pressure, edema and stomach cancer are all have something to do with the misuse of table salt. So we should know more about it, and use the table salt more scientifically.

Differences of the edible salt usages between north and south of China
First let’s look at the salt intake of residents in China. For example, according to the survey conducted by Ministry of Health, the average salt intake of Guangdong people is 6-7 g, and that of Shanghai, Beijing and the three provinces in Northeast China is 7-8 g, 14 to 15 grams, and 17-18 grams respectively. That is, according to the statistics, people from the three provinces in Northeast China have the highest risk of suffering from high blood pressure as well as Cardiovascular and cerebra vascular diseases. The Northern and Southern Chinese have different cooking methods. The Northern Chinese fry or boil food with much oil and many condiments, and the food tasted much heavier. In contrast, the Southern Chinese favor keeping the natural flavor of the food, and they cook with less oil and salt than the Northern Chinese. Besides, some Southern Chinese favor sugar. The temperature of Southern China is higher than that of the Northern China, so the Southern Chinese sweat more than the Northern Chinese. The Southern Chinese eat Kimchi, in which one kilogram water contains 50-60 grams salt; while the Northern Chinese eat pickle, in which one kilogram radish is corresponded with two

to three kilograms salt. Take cooking fish for example, the Northern Chinese like to fry or braise, and the Southern Chinese prefer to steam and only put salt and soy sauce simply. Compared with the Northern Chinese, who do not seem to consider eating an important thing, the Southern Chinese pay more attention in some aspects of their food, and most Southern Chinese cook meal better and more carefully. In addition, the "salty north" phenomenon has a close relation to the fact that the north is located in the warm temperate zone, where winter is cold and difficult to store dry vegetables. In the past, the northern people stored the vegetable with much salt to enjoy them slowly in the winter. After a long time, the northern people formed the habit of eating salty food. "South Sweet" phenomenon is derived from the abundance of rainfall and sunlight, which fit the growth of sugar cane. All the facts mentioned above accelerate the formation of the habit of eating sweet food. With the development of productive forces and progress of science and technology, traffic extend in all directions, the diet culture also had further development accordingly: the regional cultural differences caused by eating reduced gradually, and diet structure tends to be scientific and reasonable without losing the local characteristics of food culture. We know from our survey that most Northern Chinese do not adapt to the Southern Chinese food, and vice versa. Jiangnan food, which is considered to be delicate, is characterized by green vegetables or radish; and the food of the largest northeast is more characteristic, that is, meat and vegetables are also stewing; it is not exaggerating to say that as long as it is food, they can be brought stew there. In Zhejiang it can be normal not to smell sweet flesh for a few days, but in no day can not you see vegetables – on the dining table most you can find is vegetables. And in the northeast, it is the same case: vegetables, with a Chinese cabbage, cucumber, tomato, potato, mated, fungi primarily. In recent years south XiCai seasons is introduced, but in the campus cafeteria and general little restaurants, it is not easy to take home the food, especially bamboo shoots, lotus root and gourd and the like. At home, the food of vegetable is eaten with soup, Wax gourd chop soup, tomato egg soup, and will also take a losing laver soup, even on fast food restaurants; wife of shop-owner will also supply free soup. In a word, our diets basically cannot leave of soup. The taste of northeast dish is heavier; and that of Zhejiang food taste is light. This is probably due to the fact that many rich people in the south care much about their own health. There are still a lot of characteristics of northeast cold dishes. Cabbage, cucumber, beefs, etc, including almost all kinds of food can be used to make cold dishes, and some even is raw. If you are accustomed to it, you will think it's delicious,

and you may suggest the villagers try it. No matter how to say, the delicious food can not be done with only one element. For example, we use chicken to braise a mushroom, and sour pickled cabbage to braise powder as well. All in all, the history of Chinese cuisine is pretty long. As long as you can invest your time, you will surely find out that different materials and substances can be put together to cook delicious food and you can definitely find out one meal that is tailored to your taste.

Salt and good health
Salt is not only essential to our life, but also to our health. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that Americans consume a minimum of 500 mg/day of sodium to maintain good health. Individual needs, however, vary enormously based a person's genetic make-up and his lifestyle. While individual requirements range widely, most Americans have no trouble reaching their minimum requirements. Most citizens consume "excess" sodium above and beyond that required for proper bodily function. The kidneys efficiently process this "excess" sodium in healthy people. Experimental studies show that most humans tolerate a wide range of sodium intakes, which from about 250 mg/day to over 30,000 mg/day. The actual range is much narrower. Americans consume about 3,500 mg/day of sodium; men more, women less. The very large percentage of the population consumes 1,1505,750 mg/day which is termed the "hygienic safety range" of sodium intake by renowned Swedish hypertension expert Dr. Bj?rn Folkow. Every substance, including water, can be toxic in certain concentrations and amounts; this is not a significant indicator for dietary salt. Most of our salt comes from foods, and some is from water. Doctors often recommend supplementing water and salt that we lose in exercise and working outside. Wilderness hikers know the importance of salt tablets to combat hyperthermia. Oral rehydration involves replacing both water and salt. Expectant mothers are advised to get enough salt. Increased salt intakes have been used successfully to combat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Dramatic deficiencies (e.g. "salt starvation" in India) or "excessive" sodium intakes have been associated with other conditions and diseases, such as hypertension and stomach cancer. Testing the salinity of perspiration is a good test for cystic fibrosis; scientists suspect that cystic fibrosis is caused by a deformed protein that prevents chloride outside cells from attracting needed moisture. Sodium and chloride are essential in the process of digestion, since they are both present in the gastric juices, saliva, pancreatic juice and bile. The sodium and the chloride act then at different levels, along the digestive track, since sodium contributes to the absorption of glucide, while chloride, in the form of hydrochloric acid, is essential for the digestion of solids. In the US, the consumption of sodium is on an average of about 3 g a day, corresponding to the ingestion of 7-8 g of salt. The kidneys regulate the sodium balance. They are able to quickly adjust the sodium balance, when the quantity of salt varies between 1 and 16 g a day. Under

these conditions, there are no variations in the extra-cellular volume or in body weight. With quantities of salt higher than 16 g a day, kidney adjustment requires 3-5 days, during which time an increase in the extra-cellular volume and in body weight is evident. After this period of time, the two values stabilize themselves to the new acquired levels. Sodium chloride is present for 2/3 in the extra-cellular liquids and for 1/3 it is primarily fixed within the bones. Every imbalance in the extra-cellular hydration is connected to anomalies in the presence of sodium (that is, of salt). Salt should be part of every family's food storage program. Salt has been a valuable weapon in our public health campaign against iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Iodized salt has virtually eliminated IDD in North America and many other areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has considered elimination of IDD to be a top priority globally, and adding fluoride to salt is common in France, Switzerland and Latin America. Years ago we thought that different societies had wide variations in salt intake. Current research shows that where salt is readily available, the vast majority of the world's population chooses to consume about 6-10 g of salt a day. Taking naturally occurring sodium in foods into consideration, people worldwide consume about 3,500 mg of sodium, Americans included. Some remote primitive peoples like the Yanamamo Indians of the Brazilian jungle who lack ready access to dietary sodium do have almost unbelievably small levels of sodium intake–far below that judged by the National Academy of Sciences to be safe for Americans. But for the rest of the world, our average intakes are typical. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that Americans consume a minimum of 500 mg/day of sodium. The European Union Population Reference Intake for males aged 18 years (an "acceptable range of intakes") is 575-3500 mg. Nutrition is important to good health. Salt is part of a healthy diet, a fact increasingly recognized by the public.

The harms of too less or too much salt intake in human health
Salt is not only an important kind of condiment, but also an indispensable substance, whose sodium and chloride elements can adjust human physiological function. The salt (sodium chloride) comprising 39.4% Sodium and 60.4% Chlorine: Sodium is helpful in maintaining the balances of body fluid osmotic pressure between inside and outside of the cell, regulating balanced distribution of water in the body, keeping the stress of nerve and muscle. Sodium participates in the conformation of the acid, and promotes secretion of digestion to enhance the appetite. Meanwhile, Chlorine guarantees the required acid-base of pepsin, maintains the acid-base balance of the body. It is impossible for a human not to eat salt. If you eat salt too little, it will cause being too low of sodium in the body, loss of appetite, weakness, and dizziness, etc; if the lack of salt is serious, you will feel anorexia, nausea, sickness, accelerated heart rate, thin pulse, muscle spasm, blurred vision, reflex and so on. The expert pointed that, if the intake is too low for a long period, it will cause the imbalance of osmotic pressure of cells, the water will enter the cells, and then it will cause cerebral edema. If the symptom is weak, it will cause disturbance of consciousness. If the

symptom is serious, it will cause coma. Therefore, everyday some amount of salt should be taken. Especially after taking physical activity, and sweating a lot, the perspiration with salt is more, and you need to take salt moderately. But taking too much salt is also harmful to the body. In Britain, one expert said eating too much salt is harmful to health and six gram for one day is enough. For a long time before, people knew excess of salt will do negative effect to health. The main composition of salt is sodium chloride, and chloride, sodium and potassium are main composition of the bodies’ electrolyte. Sodium and potassium, are equal, and are like comrades. Sodium is out of the cell, while potassium is in the cell. The two defend the balance of osmotic pressure, water and acid-base of both inside and outside the cell. If you intake too much salt, the balance of the body would be broken. If the sodium is increasing, it will be harmful to the body, and will cause many diseases. If you intake too much salt, you will probably be lack of Calcium: If there is too much salt in diet, overmuch sodium will compete with Calcium, and excretion of Calcium will increase. It will stimulate the parathyroid to secret much parathyroid hormone, and therefore Adenylate cyclase on Osteoclast cell membrane will be stimulated. The calcium in the bone will be dissolved, and the dynamic balance of the calcium metabolism in the bone is broken. Therefore, it will cause the lack of Calcium, Osteoporosis and fracture. Overmuch salt may cause a cold: Modern medicine discovered that, if the concentration of Sodium chloride is too high in the body, sodium will curb the activity of respiratory tract cells, and will weaken the immunity of the cells. Because of the decrease of saliva in mouth, lysozyme will also decrease in mouth, and the effect that upper respiratory tract resisting disease is weakened. Thus, pathogens are likely to invade respiratory, and it will cause disease of upper respiratory tract. Meanwhile, because of the increase of Sodium chloride concentration, it will decrease interferon which is anti-virus. Overmuch salt may cause stomach trouble: After eating food of high salt, because the osmotic pressure is high, it will harm the gastric mucosa. The animal experiment shows, when feeding the big mouse salt water of high concentration, its gastric mucosa will get diffuse congestion, edema, erosion, bleeding, and necrosis, and is likely to make the gastric mucosa damaged or cause gastritis or gastric ulcer. Overmuch salt may increase diabetes: Through the test, it is discovered that, the content of sodium has a direct relationship with the speed of starches’ digestion and absorption and glucose response. Salt can accelerate the digestion of starch by stimulating the activity of amylase, or accelerate the small intestine’s absorption for the glucose, which is generated by digesting the starch, so that the salt eating person’s blood glucose concentration is higher than person who doesn’t eat salt. Therefore, to restrict the salt intake amount, is a kind of auxiliary method of preventing diabetes. Overmuch salt may induce bronchial asthma: Too much salt will enhance reactivity of bronchial smooth muscle. Therefore, high salt diet will intensify the

happening of asthma. It is discovered in experiment that when the amount of salt in diet for patients with bronchial asthma increases, the reactivity for histamine increases, or the condition will be worsen. To decrease the intake amount of salt, the asthma symptom will be released. Overmuch salt will harm the function of kidney: High salt diet may cause the increase of filtration rate for renal blood flow and glomerular, and enhance the burden of glomerular so that the harm to the kidney function increases. The patients, who got Nephritis and Cirrhosis of the liver, will increase edema when taking overmuch salt. Overmuch salt will cause cardiovascular disease: It is discovered in medicine research that, if taking too much salt daily, people might get hypertension, it will increase the burden of heart, and will precipitate heart failure. The scientist also found that, for incidence and mortality of stroke, high salt intake amount person is higher than low salt intake amount person, and the amount of salt intake is proportional to blood pressure. I.e., the more salt you eat, the higher blood pressure is; the less salt you eat, the blood pressure is relatively low. To decrease the intake amount of salt in a modest degree, not only you can lower your blood pressure, but also you can avoid of arteriosclerosis dramatically. Except the harms above, eating too much salt may cause wrinkle. The expert explains salt exists in blood and body fluid in the forms of sodium ions and chloride ions. They play a very important role on balancing the osmotic pressure, acid-base and water. If taking overmuch salt, the sodium ions will increase which will cause the loss of water of facial cells, and skin aging. For a long time it will increase the wrinkle.

Discussion
We concluded from the above study that salt (sodium chloride) is a kind of necessary nutrition substance vital to our lives, so a certain amount of salt should be maintained in the human body. Normally, in a human body, the NaCl concentration is 0.66%, about 0.5 kg NaCl contained in a 75 kg human body, and 890 mg sodium chloride was contained in 100 milliliters blood. Generally speaking, the NaCl concentration in our body tissues is 0.9%, 900 mg NaCl contained in 100 milliliters water, which was called physiological saline in medicine. In a healthy human body, approximate 100 g sodium should be maintained, and some Na is egested by sweating and emiction. The salt concentration is maintained by kidney in normal state. Furthermore, the sodium and chlorine were resorbed and controlled by cortin. In addition, the human body has about two million sweat glands which can egest 0.35%-0.7% NaCl through excreting sweat. We should supplement salt every day to maintain the normal concentration in our body. However, the salt concentration in our dishes and soups is higher than that of our body tissues. Medicine principle explains over much sodium chloride will break the balance of osmotic pressure, water and acid-base of both inside and outside the cell and result in calcium lack, cold, wrinkle, bronchial asthma.

Different organizations have reported their daily salt ingestion amount standards. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggested resident’s average daily NaCl ingestion amount should be 6-8 g. The Chinese Residents Dietary Guidelines recommended each person’s daily NaCl ingestion amount should be no more than 6 g. As for the mild hypertension patients, American Nutrition and Human Needs Committee recommended their daily salt ingestion should be 4 g, which also fits Chinese cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. The human body got NaCl from three sources: the natural NaCl content amount in food; the additive NaCl in food processing; the NaCl input amount when cooking. So we should notice the NaCl content when buy processed food and control the salt input in cooking. Besides, an important point of scientific salt intake is to avoid high temperature quick-fry and put the salt after the dishes is medium-well, because in high temperature iodate will decompound to simple iodine substance, which can volatilize in room temperature. From our points of view, people with different ages, different weights, different healthy states and different salt sensitivity etc. should take different amount of salt. Firstly, the baby younger than two months should not ingest salt. Secondly, the healthy teenagers and adults can ingest salt according to the above standards. Thirdly as for some patients, kidney patients and cardiac failure patients can not take too much salt, because they have little emiction. In order to reach balance between two sides of the membrane, the excessive salt accumulated in their body tissues must be diluted by large water ingestion amount, which can result in oedema. Hypertension patients can not take too much salt for the same reason, only different in that the salt diluted process is conducted in the patients’ blood circulations, which can increase their blood pressure. There are 10% Chinese are hypertension patients, of which more than 90% can not control their blood pressure well. Some of those can not control their blood pressure also take medicine like the other 10% hypertension patients, so too much salt ingestion might be the reason for their durative hypertension. As a complication of hypertension, stroke is one of the diseases seriously endangering Chinese’s health. Chinese people can not wait to reduce their salt ingestion amount. Potassium can reduce blood pressure, protect vessel wall and further prevent stroke and heart disease in some degree, but kidney patients can not take potassium salt instead of sodium salt. We know from our survey that colder climate decided the Northern Chinese take more salt than the Southern Chinese in diets. For example, the taste of northeast dish is heavier; and that of Zhejiang food taste is light. Ministry of Health surveyed the average salt intake of Guangdong people is 6-7 g, and that of Shanghai, Beijing and Northeast China is 7-8 g, 14 to 15 grams, and 17-18 grams respectively. On the other hand, our survey implies the Southern Chinese sweat more due to hot climate and most of them take sugar, so their body’s sodium chloride concentrations should be less than the Northern Chinese. One Chinese doctor shows us that a complication of diabetes, “legs oedema”, occurs more often in northern China than that in southern China. The above analysis implies that too much salt intake stands a good chance to result in high occurring ratio of “legs oedema”. Medicine principle also argued that

too much salt intake might lower the cure rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. But further study is needed to illustrate whether too much salt or other factors, such as too much oil or contamination induce the diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this article, we only introduce six kinds of nutrient salts, which are appropriate to people in different health states respectively. These nutrient salts are produced by adding potassium iodide, calcium iodide, zinc iodide, Ferric iodide, selenic iodide and riboflavin additives when refining crude salt. In fact, there are about 15 thousands kinds of salt’s derivatives. In recent years, in terms of the demands of nutrient hygiene, some nutrient salts occurred, from which “qualified salt” and “disqualification” were derived. These wordings only reflected different policy managements, and the main composition of all these “salts” is NaCl.

Fig.1. Six kinds of iodized refined nutrient salts in China

1. Calcium is one of the elements with the highest concentration in human body. The Chinese’s daily calcium ingestion amount is far less than the WHO’s standard (800 mg), and 50% Chinese female’s daily calcium ingestion is less than 400 mg. Calcium iodized refined salt can promote children’s bone or teeth growths, strengthen adults’ bone and teeth. 2. Zinc, publicly called the “flower of life”, participates in compounding more than 80 kinds of organized enzymes. Zinc element is most important for junior citizens. In present, 40% Chinese children lack zinc. Zinc iodized refined salt can promote teenagers’ or children’s intelligence, growth and appetite and prevent adult’s infertility, senior citizen’s cataract. 3. Ferrum is a necessary trace element in human body. In china, there are 80% anemia patients, especially the women lack ferrum. Ferrum lack has bad effects on growth, immunity, appetite and nervous function. Ferrum lack distracts children’s concentration and results in memory Loss or inappetence. Ferric iodized refined salt can prevent these symptoms. 4. According to scientific research, selenium is the most hopeful anticancer substance and was publicly called the “necessary trace element vital to human life”. In China, More than 70% areas lack selenium seriously, and the adult’s average daily selenium ingestion amount is less than 10 mg, which is far less than the 50-250 mg standard of the WHO. 5. Riboflavin, also called vitamin B2, at the top of lacked vitamins, was seriously lacked in China. Riboflavin lack in human body can result in mouth ulcers, dermatitis, angular cheilitis. Riboflavin iodized refined salt can not only reduce eye fatigue,

prevent cataract, but also help promote oxygen utilization of skin or hair, eliminate dandruff, promote the body's absorption of ferrum. 6. Potassium iodized or low sodium refined salt can help keep balance of potassium and sodium, prevent hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases well. In July of 2008, the Municipal Commission of Population and Family Planning originated a campaign of “publicizing scientific table salt intake and distributing salt restriction scoops” in the northwest area of Liaoning, including Jinzhou, Chaoyang, Fuxin, Tieling and Huludao five cities. About 12 million farmers of 3.7 million families were called on to change their traditional habit of high amount salt ingestion to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In August of 2009, the Public Finance Office of the province appropriated one million yuan to produce large amount of salt restriction scoops. The scoop is a colorful plastic one with capacity of two grams, which is equal to a person’s salt taking amount in a meal. The characters “presented by People’s Government of Liaoning Province” were printed on the handle of the scoop and on its package. Villager Yao Xiufang in Beipiao city, one of the districts received salt restriction scoops in the province, said:” we used spade to scoop salt when cooking before receiving the salt restriction scoop, and the salt put into the dish is too much than standard”. She led the journalist into the kitchen, “through watching TV program, we know one person should take salt no more than 6 g per day, but we don’t know how to measure; after the two grams scoop was dispensed, I know how many scoops of salt should be put into the dish according to the number of family members per meal”. Good habit is developed bit by bit, and it’s unpractical to change northwest Liaoning villagers’ traditional diet habit of high salt ingestion amount once forever. But, using salt restriction scoops can progressively instruct village dwellers to cultivate healthy and civilized diet habit.

Conclusion
We studied the salt usages in industrial and agricultural fields; table salt’s benefits and harms in human health. We contrasted the diet habits and table salt intake amounts between the northern and southern Chinese. Furthermore the occurring rates of “legs oedema” and the cure rates of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were studied both in the northern and southern Chinese. Combined with medicine principles, our data and analyses support the following conclusions: 1. Salt has 15 thousands kinds of derivatives, which can be used in variable industry fields, such as metallurgy, petroleum industry, paper, soap and detergent productions. Salt is also used in cultivation of plants and domestic animals. Table salt can be used in antisepsis, food store,cleaning glass and bamboo, damp proof and fixing color. 2. Sodium and chlorine elements of table salt have their particular roles on maintaining the balances of body fluid osmotic pressure, keeping the stress of nerve and muscle, digestion and acid-base balance. Medicine principle showed over much sodium chloride will break the above balances and result in calcium lack, cold,

wrinkle, bronchial asthma. 3. The Northern Chinese take more table salt than the Southern Chinese and have increase the occurring rate of “legs oedema” and lowered the cure rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This conclusion is coincided with medicine principle, but we are unsure it is only too much salt intake that induces the diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. 4. According to the standards of WHO and CRDG, the healthy adult should ingest table salt no more than 6 g daily, and kidney patients and cardiac failure patients can not ingest table salt more than 4 g. Furthermore, baby younger than two months should not ingest table salt. 5. Aiming to instruct villagers to cultivate healthy and civilized diet habit, Chinese government has launched campaign and publicized scientific table salt usage which is part of a healthy diet.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt 高血压惠者食盐敏感性的个体差异.动态与消息. 史红梅.地理教学中我国地域饮食文化差异研究.2010(5). 史瑾,孙兆青,郑黎强等.北方农村高盐饮食人群高血压病患病率和血压水平调查.山西医 药杂志,2008(3),37(3):195-197. WONCA 研究论文摘要汇编——减少食盐对心血管疾病的预防作用.全科医生知识窗. 王有国.膳食成分与高血压.1993,7(1):70-71. 吴兆苏,姚崇华,赵冬.我国多省市心血管病趋势及决定因素的人群监测(中国MON ICA 方案)II.人群危险因素监测结果.中华心血管病杂志,1997(8),25(4). 周昉.浅谈浙江和东北地区的饮食差异. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION,2006,33. 朱勤.政府赠送限盐勺农民健康有保障.辽宁日报,2010(10).

Appendix: Division of work
Chief of group 25:付星梅 Words collecting, Discussion, Conclusion, References: 付星梅 PPT report, Abstract, Keyword, Introduction: 黄煦 Differences of the edible salt usages between north and south of China, Salt and good health: 刘 汝清 The harms of too less or too much salt intake in human health: 马杰



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