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GRE Argument题库及翻译

1.The following appeared in a memorandum written by the vice president of Nature's Way, a chain of stores selling health food and other health-related products. "Previous experience has shown that our stores are most profitable in areas where residents are highly concerned with leading healthy lives. We should therefore build our next new store in Plainsville, which has many such residents. Plainsville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise clothing are at all-time highs. The local health club, which nearly closed five years ago due to lack of business, has more members than ever, and the weight training and aerobics classes are always full. We can even anticipate a new generation of customers: Plainsville's schoolchildren are required to participate in a 'fitness for life' program, which emphasizes the benefits of regular exercise at an early age."

以前的经验显示,我们的商店在那些居民对健康生活高度关注的地区是盈利最多的。因此我们应该把下一 家连锁店开设在 Plainsville,那里有很多这样的居民。Plainsville 的商家报告说运动鞋和运动衣的销售处于 历史高点。当地一家五年前因缺乏客源而濒临倒闭的康体俱乐部现在的会员比以往任何时候都多,减肥训 练和体操班总是满员。我们还可以预见到新生代的顾客群:Plainsville 的在校学生被要求参加一个叫做"终 生健康"的项目,它强调从小开始经常锻炼的好处。

2.The following appeared in a letter sent by a committee of homeowners from the Deerhaven Acres to all homeowners in Deerhaven Acres. "Seven years ago, homeowners in nearby Brookville community adopted a set of restrictions on how the community's yards should be landscaped and what colors the exteriors of homes should be painted. Since then, average property values have tripled in Brookville. In order to raise property values in Deerhaven Acres, we should adopt our own set of restrictions on landscaping and housepainting." 七年前,附近的 Brookville 社区的业主实施了一系列关于该社区的庭院应如何布置以及房屋应涂何种颜色 的规定。从那以后,Brookville 的地产平均价格翻了三番。为使 Deerhaven Acres 的地产升值,我们也应该对于景观和房屋涂色实施自己的规定。 3.The following appeared in a newspaper article about law firms in the city of Megalopolis. "In Megalopolis, the number of law school graduates who went to work for large, corporate firms declined by 15 percent over the last three years, whereas an increasing number of graduates took jobs at small, general practice firms. Even though large firms usually offer much higher salaries, law school graduates are choosing to work for the smaller firms most likely because they experience greater job satisfaction at smaller firms. In a survey of first-year students at a leading law school, most agreed with the statement that earning a high salary was less important to them than job satisfaction. This finding suggests that the large,

corporate firms of Megalopolis will need to offer graduates more benefits and incentives and reduce the number of hours they must work." 在 Megalopolis,过去三年间在大型合伙事务所就职的法学院毕业生数量下降了 15%,而在小型,一般性 事务所就职的毕业生数量则在增加。尽管大型事务所通常提供高的多的薪水,法学院毕业生选择在小型事 务所工作主要是因为他们感受到更高的工作满足感。一项对于顶尖法学院一年级学生的调查显示,多数人 同意挣更多的钱没有工作满足感更重要的说法。 这一现象启示我们, Megalopolis 的大型合伙事务所应该给 毕业生提供更多的福利和激励,并减少他们的工作时间。

4.The following was posted on an Internet real estate discussion site. "Of the two leading real estate firms in our town-Adams Realty and Fitch Realty-Adams is clearly superior. Adams has 40 real estate agents. In contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time. Moreover, Adams' revenue last year was twice as high as that of Fitch, and included home sales that averaged $168,000, compared to Fitch's $144,000. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well: ten years ago, I listed my home with Fitch and it took more than four months to sell; last year, when I sold another home, I listed it with Adams, and it took only one month. Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams." 在本市的两家最大的房地产经纪公司--Adams Realty 和 Fitch Realty--之中,Adams 显然更优秀一些。Adams 有 40 名房地产经纪人,而 Fitch 只有 25 个,且很多是兼 职工作。而且,Adams 去年的收入是 Fitch 的两倍,其平均房价为$168000,而 Fitch 仅为$144000。在 Adams 销售的房屋卖得也更快:十年前,我把我的房产交给 Fitch,它用了四个多月才卖出去;去年,我 在 Adams 卖了另一处房产, 仅用一个月就售出了。 因此, 要想让你的房产卖的更快更好, 你应该选择 Adams。 5.The following appeared in the business section of a newspaper. "Given that the number of people in our country with some form of arthritis is expected to rise from 40 million to 60 million over the next twenty years, pharmaceutical companies that produce drugs for the treatment of arthritis should be very profitable. Many analysts believe that in ten years Becton Pharmaceuticals, which makes Xenon, thebest-selling drug treatment for arthritis, will be the most profitable pharmaceutical company. But the patent on Xenon expires in three years, and other companies will then be able to produce a cheaper version of the drug. Thus, it is more likely that in ten years the most profitable pharmaceutical company will be Perkins Pharmaceuticals, maker of a new drug called Xylan, which clinical studies show is preferred over Xenon by seven out of ten patients suffering from the most extreme cases of arthritis." 鉴于我国在未来 20 年中患某种形式关节炎的人数预计将从 4 千万上升至 6 千万,生产治疗关节炎药物的 制药公司将获得巨大利润。很多分析家相信,生产最畅销关节炎药物 Xenon 的 Becton

Pharmaceuticals 将会在十年后成为利润最高的制药公司。但 Xenon 的专利在三年内就要到期了,到时其 他公司将能够生产该药的廉价版。因此,十年后利润最高的公司更有可能是 Perkins Pharmaceuticals,该公司生产一种叫做 Xylan 的新药,临床调查表明在患最严重关节炎的患者中 10 个有 7 个倾向于 Xylan 而不是 Xenon。 6.The following was written as a part of an application for a small business loan by a group of developers in the city of Monroe. "A jazz music club in Monroe would be a tremendously profitable enterprise. Currently, the nearest jazz club is 65 miles away; thus, our proposed club, the C Note, would have the local market all to itself. Plus, jazz is extremely popular in Monroe: over 100,000 people attended Monroe's jazz festival last summer, several well-known jazz musicians live in Monroe, and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is 'Jazz Nightly,' which airs every weeknight. Finally, a nationwide study indicates that the typical jazz fan spends close to $1,000 per year on jazz entertainment. It is clear that the C Note cannot help but make money." 在 Monroe 建立爵士乐俱乐部将会是非常盈利的产业。当前,最近的爵士俱乐部也在 65 英里以外;因此, 我们筹建的俱乐部 C Note 将会占有全部的本地市场。而且,爵士乐在 Monroe 非常流行:去年夏天 10 万多人参加了 Monroe 的爵士音乐节,若干知名爵士音乐家居住在 Monroe,Monroe 获评价最高的广播节目是平时每天播出的 Jazz Nightly。最后,一项全国性研究表明典型的爵士爱好者每年花费近 1000 元用于爵士娱乐。显然 C Note 将 会赚钱。

7.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Clearview newspaper. "In the next mayoral election, residents of Clearview should vote for Ann Green, who is a member of the Good Earth Coalition, rather than for Frank Braun, a member of the Clearview town council, because the current members are not protecting our environment. For example, during the past year the number of factories in Clearview has doubled, air pollution levels have increased, and the local hospital has treated 25 percent more patients with respiratory illnesses. If we elect Ann Green, the environmental problems in Clearview will certainly be solved." 在下一次市长选举中,Clearview 的市民应投 Good Earth Coalition 成员 Ann Green 的票,而不是 Clearview 市委成员 Frank Braun,因为当前的市委成员没有保护我们的环境。举例来说,去年 Clearview 的工厂数量翻了一番,空气 污染水平增加了,而且当地医院因呼吸道疾病就诊的数量增加了 25%。如果我们选举 Ann Green,Clearview 的环境问题肯定将被解决。

8.The following appeared in a memorandum issued by the strategic planning department at Omni Inc. "Mesa Foods, a manufacturer of snack foods that currently markets its products within a relatively small region of the country, has strong growth potential. Mesa enjoyed a 20 percent increase in profits last year, and its best-selling product, Diabolique Salsa, has had increased sales over each of the past three years. Since Omni Inc. is interested in reaching 14-to-25 year olds, the age group that consumes the most snack food, we should buy Mesa Foods, and concentrate in particular on marketing Diabolique Salsa throughout the country." Mesa Foods,一家当前仅在本国相对较小区域销售其产品的快餐食品生产商,具有很强的增长潜力。去年 Mesa 的利润上升了 20%,其最畅销产品 Diabolique Salsa 连续三年销量增加。由于 Omni Inc 对 14-25 岁这一消费快餐食品最多的年龄群体感兴趣,我们应 该收购 Mesa Foods,并集中力量在全国推广 Diabolique Salsa。 9.The following appeared in a memorandum from a dean at Omega University. "Fifteen years ago, Omega University implemented a new procedure that encouraged students to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of all their professors. Since that time, Omega professors have begun to assign higher grades in their classes, and overall student grade averages at Omega have risen by thirty percent. Potential employers apparently believe the grades at Omega are inflated; this would explain why Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. To enable its graduates to secure better jobs, Omega University should now terminate student evaluation of professors." 15 年前,Omega 大学实施了一项新措施,鼓励学生对所有教授的教学效果进行评价。从那以后,Omega 的教授开始给予学生更高的分数,Omega 的学生成绩总平均上升了 30%。未来的雇主显然认为 Omega 的分数贬值了;这可以解释为什么 Omega 的毕业生找工作时没有邻近的 Alpha 大学毕业生成功。为使 Omega 毕业生找到好工作,我们应立即停止学生对教授的评价。 10.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a Batavia newspaper. "The department of agriculture in Batavia reports that the number of dairy farms throughout the country is now 25 percent greater than it was 10 years ago. During this same time period, however, the price of milk at the local Excello Food Market has increased from $1.50 to over $3.00 per

gallon. To prevent farmers from continuing to receive excessive profits on an apparently increased supply of milk, the Batavia government should begin to regulate retail milk prices. Such regulation is necessary to ensure both lower prices and an adequate supply of milk for consumers." Batavia 的农业部门报告说全国奶牛农庄的数量比 10 年前增加了 25%。然而就在同一时期,当地 Excello Food Market 牛奶的价格从每加仑$1.5 上涨到了$3.0。 为防止农场主在牛奶供应量明显增加的情况下获取过多的 利润,Batavia 的政府应限制牛奶的零售价。这种限价对于保证更低的牛奶价格和充足的供应是必需的。

11.The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of West Egg. "Two years ago, our consultants predicted that West Egg's landfill, which is used for garbage disposal, would be completely filled within five years. During the past two years, however, town residents have been recycling twice as much aluminum and paper as they did in previous years. Next month the amount of material recycled should further increase, since charges for garbage pickup will double. Furthermore, over ninety percent of the respondents to a recent survey said that they would do more recycling in the future. Because of our residents' strong commitment to recycling, the available space in our landfill should last for considerably longer than predicted." 两年前,我们的顾问预言 West Egg 用于投放垃圾的填埋地将在五年内完全充满。然而在过去两年间,市民对于铝和纸张的循环再生的数 量比以前翻了一番。由于垃圾收集的收费在下个月将会加倍,循环再生的材料数量将进一步增加。而且, 最近一次调查超过 90%的回应者表示他们将会在未来做更多的循环再生工作。 由于居民对循环再生的有力 支持,我们填埋地可利用空间的使用时间将比预期的长得多。

12.The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of Alta Manufacturing. "During the past year, Alta Manufacturing had thirty percent more on-the-job accidents than nearby Panoply Industries, where the work shifts are one hour shorter than ours. Experts believe that a significant contributing factor in many on-the-job accidents is fatigue and sleep deprivation among workers. Therefore, to reduce the number of on-the-job accidents at Alta and thereby increase productivity, we should shorten each of our three work shifts by one hour so that our employees will get adequate amounts of sleep."

在过去,Alta 工厂的工伤事故比邻近的 Panoply 工厂多 30%,Panoply 的每班工作时间比我们的短一个小 时。专家相信导致很多工伤事故的重要因素就是工人的疲劳和睡眠不足。因此,为减少 Alta 的工伤事故数 量并提高生产数量,我们应该把我们的三个班次的工作时间每个都减少一小时,从而我们的雇员将有更充 足的睡眠。

13.The following appeared in a memo from the chief executive of a video game company. "We have recently been offered the opportunity to buy the rights to produce a video game based on the soon-to-be-published children's book "Squirrel Power," by Peter Wood. While the cost of the rights is substantial and will place economic constraints on our company in the short-term, there are two reasons that the purchase of these rights will undoubtedly be a wise investment. First, Wood's last three books have been best sellers and the movie based on his first book was highly profitable. Second, the popular characters and story line in "Squirrel Power" will save us time in developing our video game, thereby reducing our costs." 我们最近获得了购买一个游戏的生产权的机会,该游戏基于即将出版的由 Peter Wood 所写的儿童文学《松鼠力量》 。尽管购买该生产权的代价比较高昂并将会给本公司的财政造成短期的 压力,但我们有两个理由认为购买该生产权无疑是一项明智的投资。首先,Wood 的前三本书非常畅销, 基于他第一本书改编的电影获得了很高的盈利。其次, 《松鼠力量》中受人欢迎的角色和情节将节省我们制 作游戏所用的时间,从而节约我们的成本。

14.The following appeared in a memo from the owner of Green Thumb Gardening Center, a small business serving a suburban town. "There is evidence that consumers are becoming more and more interested in growing their own vegetables. A national survey conducted last month indicated that many consumers were dissatisfied with the quality of fresh vegetables available in supermarkets. And locally, the gardening magazine Great Gardens has sold out at the Village News stand three months in a row. Thus, we at Green Thumb Gardening Center can increase our profits by greatly expanding the variety of vegetable seeds we stock for gardeners this coming spring."

有证据表明消费者对于自己种植蔬菜越来越感兴趣。上个月举行的一项国家调查显示很多消费者对于超市 上供应的新鲜蔬菜的质量不满意。在本地,园艺杂志《大花园》在"Village News"报亭连续三个月售磬。因此,我们 Green Thumb Gardening Center 可以通过大量增加今春为园艺爱好者准备的蔬菜种子的种类而增加盈利。 15.The following appeared in a newsletter offering advice to investors. "Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire

to reduce their intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores. Since many of the food products currently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the company's sales are likely to diminish greatly and their profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares and other investors not to purchase stock in this company." 最近一次调查中超过 80%的回应者表达了他们想减少含脂肪和胆固醇的食品的愿望, 现在很多食品商店都 提供丰富的低脂肪食品。由于 Old Dairy Industries 当前生产的很多产品都有很高的脂肪和胆固醇含量, 该公司的销量有可能严重下降, 其盈利无疑 会减少。因而我们建议 Old Dairy 的股票持有者抛出他们所持的股份,其他投资者也不应购买该公司的股份。 16.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a local newspaper from a citizen of the state of Impecunia. "Two years ago our neighboring state, Lucria, began a state lottery to supplement tax revenues for education and public health. Today, Lucria spends more per pupil than we do, and Lucria's public health program treats far more people than our state's program does. If we were to establish a state lottery like the one in Lucria, the profits could be used to improve our educational system and public health program. The new lottery would doubtless be successful, because a survey conducted in our capital city concludes that citizens of Impecunia already spend an average of $50 per person per year on gambling." 两年前我们相邻的州 Lucria 开展了州际彩票活动来增加用于教育和公共医疗的财政收入。现在,Lucria 对 于每个小学生的平均开支比我们多,Lucria 的公共医疗体系接待的人数也比我们的多很多。如果我们也建 立一套和 Lucria 类似的彩票系统,其盈利可以被用来改善我们的教育系统和公共医疗体系。新的彩票无疑 会成功,因为在我们的首府举办的一次调查显示 Impecuni 的居民每人每年用于博彩的平均支出已经达到 $50。 17.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Walnut Grove town newspaper. "Walnut Grove's town council has advocated switching from EZ Disposal (which has had the contract for trash collection services in Walnut Grove for the past ten years) to ABC Waste, because EZ recently raised its monthly fee from $2,000 to $2,500 a month, whereas ABC's fee is still $2,000. But the town council is mistaken; we should continue using EZ. EZ collects trash twice a week, while ABC collects only once. Moreover, EZ-which, like ABC, currently has a fleet of 20 trucks-has ordered additional trucks. Finally, EZ provides exceptional service: 80 percent of

respondents to last year's town survey agreed that they were 'satisfied' with EZ's performance." Walnut Grove 的市委提议选择 ABC Waste,而不是 EZ Disposal(它是过去十年中和 Walnut Grove 签约提供垃圾收集服务的机构) ,因为 EZ 最近把他们每月的收费从$2000 提高到了$2500,而 ABC 仍然是$2000。但市委是错误的,我们应该继续使用 EZ。EZ 每周收集两次垃圾,而 ABC 只收集一次。而 且,EZ 当前的卡车拥有量和 ABC 一样都是 20 辆,但它已定购了更多的车辆。最后,EZ 还提供优越的服 务:去年市镇调查中 80%的回应者同意他们对于 EZ 的表现是"满意"的。 18.The following appeared in an editorial in a Prunty County newspaper. "In an attempt to improve highway safety, Prunty County recently lowered its speed limit from 55 miles per hour to 45 on all major county roads. But the 55 mph limit should be restored, because this safety effort has failed. Most drivers are exceeding the new speed limit and the accident rate throughout Prunty County has decreased only slightly. If we want to improve the safety of our roads, we should instead undertake the same kind of road improvement project that Butler County completed five years ago: increasing lane widths and resurfacing rough roads. Today, major Butler County roads still have a 55 mph speed limit, yet there were 25 percent fewer reported accidents in Butler County this past year than there were five years ago."

为提高高速公路的安全性,Prunty County 最近把镇上所有主要路段的最高限速从 55mph 降到了 45。但我们应该回复到 55mph 的限速,因 为这种保障安全的努力已经失败了。多数司机都超过了新的限速,而且 Prunty County 全镇的事故率仅有微量下降。如果我们要提高公路安全性,我们应该采取 Butler County 在 5 年前完成的同样的道路改善计划:增加车道宽度和重新铺装不平整路面。现在,Butler County 的主要道路仍然使用 55mph 限速,而那里近年间上报的事故发生率比五年前减少了 25%。 19.The following appeared in a letter from the manager of a rock band named Double Rice. "One year ago, tickets for Double Rice's concerts in stadiums around the country took, on average, at least 24 hours to sell out, if they sold out at all. But the band has been enjoying a surge in nationwide popularity among 14 to 25 year olds, and the 30,000 tickets for a recent concert in Megalopolis sold out in 12 minutes. Clearly the ticket sales in Megalopolis are a result both of the band's increased popularity and of the advertising campaign run in Megalopolis by the Ad Lib advertising agency. Thus, in order to ensure that the band's success in Megalopolis is repeated across the country, the band should hire Ad Lib to duplicate the Megalopolis ad campaign on a nationwide scale."

一年前,Double Rice 在全国体育场举行的音乐会门票如果能卖完的话,也平均至少需要 24 小时。但乐队最近经历了一次 14-25 岁人群的全国性支持风潮,最近在 Megalopolis 的一次音乐会门票在 12 分钟内就售完了。显然 Megalopolis 的门票热销得益于乐队日益增加的人气度和由 Ad Lib 广告公司在 Megalopolis 所作的广告宣传。因此,为保证乐队在 Megalopolis 的成功能够在全国再现, 乐队应雇佣 Ad Lib 在全国范围内重复他们在 Megalopolis 所作的广告宣传。 20.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Balmer Island Gazette. "The population of Balmer Island increases to 100,000 duing the summer months. To reduce the number of accidents involving mopeds and pedestrians, the town council of Balmer Island should limit the number of mopeds rented by each of the island's six moped and bicycle rental companies from 50 per day to 30 per day during the summer season. By limiting the number of rentals, the town council is sure to attain the 50 percent reduction in moped accidents that was achieved last year in the neighboring island of Torseau, when Torseau's town council enforced similar limits on moped rentals." Balmer Island 的人口在夏季达到了 100000。为减少由助力车和行人引发的事故,Balmer Island 市委应把本岛六个助力车和自行车出租公司的助力车出租数量在夏季从每天 50 辆限制到每天 30 辆。 通过限制出租数量,市委肯定能够实现助力车事故减少 50%的目标,就像去年邻岛 Torseau 市委实施了类 似的对于助力车出租的限制后所达到的那样。

21.The following appeared in a memo from the new vice president of Sartorian, a company that manufactures men's clothing. "Five years ago, at a time when we had difficulties in obtaining reliable supplies of high-quality wool fabric, we discontinued production of our deluxe alpaca overcoats. Now that we have a new fabric supplier, we should resume production. This coat should sell very well: since we have not offered an alpaca overcoat for five years and since our major competitor no longer makes an alpaca overcoat, there will be pent-up customer demand. Also, since the price of most types of clothing has risen in each of the past five years, customers should be willing to pay significantly higher prices for alpaca overcoats than they did five years ago, and our company profits will increase."

五年前,当我们在获取可靠的高质量羊毛毛料的渠道方面存在困难的时候,我们停止了高档羊毛外衣的生 产。现在有了新的毛料供应商,我们应该重新开始生产。这种外衣应该卖得很好:因为我们已经五年没有

供应羊毛外衣了,而且由于我们的主要竞争对手已不再生产羊毛外衣,消费者将有很迫切的需求。而且, 由于过去五年中多数种类的服装价格每年都在上涨,消费者应该愿意花比五年前高的多的价格购买羊毛外 衣,从而我们公司的利润将会上升。

22.The following appeared in a memo from the president of a company that builds and sells new homes in Steel City. "Over the past five years, the population of Steel City has increased by more than 20 percent, and family incomes in Steel City have risen much faster than the national average. Nationwide, sales of houses priced above $150,000 have increased more than have sales of lower-priced houses. Such data indicate that we should make changes in our business to increase company profits. First, we should build fewer low-priced houses than we did last year and focus instead on building houses designed to sell at above $150,000. Second, we should hire additional workers so that we can build a larger total number of houses than we did last year."

过去五年中,Steel City 的人口增加超过了 20%,家庭收入的上涨比全国平均水平快的多。在全国范围,房价在$150000 以上 的房产销量的增长比低价房产要多。这些数据显示我们的业务应该进行一些变革来增加利润。首先,我们 所建设的低价位房产应该比去年少,而集中力量建设房价在$150000 以上的房产。其次,我们应该雇佣更 多的工人从而保证我们能够比去年建设更多的房屋。

23.A recent sales study indicated that consumption of seafood dishes in Bay City restaurants has increased by 30 percent over the past five years. Yet there are no currently operating city restaurants that specialize in seafood. Moreover, the majority of families in Bay City are two-income families, and a nationwide study has shown that such families eat significantly fewer home-cooked meals than they did a decade ago but at the same time express more concern about eating healthily. Therefore, a new Bay City restaurant specializing in seafood will be quite popular and profitable. 最近的销量调查显示 Bay City 餐馆的海鲜菜肴的消费量比过去五年增加了 30%。 而现在该市还没有专门经 营海鲜菜的餐厅。而且,Bay City 的大多数家庭是双收入家庭,一次国家调查显示这类家庭在家做饭的数量比十年前显著减少,同时他 们更关注健康饮食。因此,在 Bay City 开设一家新的专营海鲜食品的餐馆将会非常受欢迎而且有利可图。 24.The following appeared in a memo from the president of Viva-Tech, a manufacturer of high-tech medical equipment. "In order to reduce costs, we should close some of our existing small

assembly plants and build a large central plant. Grandview would be an ideal location for this new plant. First, of the locations that we have considered, Grandview has the largest adult population, so that we will be able to staff our plant quickly and easily. Second, since the average wage earned by workers in Grandview is less than that in the other locations, we should be able to keep production costs low. Last, as an inducement for us to build there, Grandview's town council has offered to allow us to operate for the first three years without paying city taxes."

为节约成本,我们应该关闭一些现有的小型组装车间而建设一个大型核心厂房。Grandview 可能是这个新 厂房建设的理想位置。首先,在我们所考虑过的地区中,Grandview 拥有最大的成年人口,因此我们可以 很快很轻易地招收到工作人员。其次,由于 Grandview 工人的平均收入比其他地区低,我们能够把生产成 本压低。 最后, 我们在那里建厂的诱因之一就是 Grandview 的市委允许我们运营的头三年可以免付城市税。 25.The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of Hopewell. "Two years ago, the town of Ocean View built a new municipal golf course and resort hotel. During the past two years, tourism in Ocean View has increased, new businesses have opened there, and Ocean View's tax revenues have risen by 30 percent. The best way to improve Hopewell's economy, and generate additional tax revenues, is to build a golf course and resort hotel similar to those in Ocean View." 两年前 Ocean View 建造了一个新的市立高尔夫球场和度假旅馆。过去两年中,Ocean View 的旅客增加了,开设了很多新的商业,而且税收增加了 30%。改善 Hopewell 的经济,产生更多税收 的最好途径就是建立一个和 Ocean View 类似的高尔夫球场和度假旅馆。 26.The following appeared in a memo from the chairperson of the school board in the town of Saluda. "For the past five years, Mr. Charles Schade has been the music director at Steel City High School, and during that time the school band from Steel City High has won three regional band competitions. In addition, the quality of the music rehearsal facilities and musical instruments at Steel City High has improved markedly over the past five years. Because of such successes at Steel City High, the Saluda school board should hire Mr. Schade to plan and direct the general music education programs for the entire Saluda school system." 过去五年中,Charles Schade 担任了 Steel City 高中的音乐教学主任,在那期间学校乐队在三次地区乐队 比赛中获胜。而且,Steel City 高中的音乐排练设备和乐器在过去五年中明显得到改善。由于 Steel

City 高中所获得的这些成功,Saluda 学校委员会应该雇佣 Mr.Schade 来为整个 Saluda 学校系统规划和指 导总体音乐教育计划。

27.The following appeared as part of a memo from the president of Automate, a company that manufactures automobiles. "It has come to my attention that Sparks, Inc., the manufacturing company that just moved into our state, is advertising job openings at salaries that are twice as high as those paid to our experienced assembly-line workers. Some of our employees have already left to work for Sparks. In order to keep our best staff, we must pay them salaries equal to those Sparks pays its employees. Otherwise we will continue to lose employees in the future, because Sparks must staff the additional new plants that it plans to build in the state." 我注意到刚刚搬到本州的制造公司 Sparks, Inc.正在登广告提供比我们公司生产线的熟练工人薪水高一倍的工作岗位。 我们的有些员工已经离开公司到 Sparks 就职。为留住我们最好的员工,我们必须付给他们与 Sparks 付给其员工相同的薪水。否则我们在 未来将继续流失员工,因为 Sparks 必须为他们在本州新建的工厂招募工人。 28.The following is a memo from the superintendent of the Mylar school district. "A recent six-month study, in which breakfast was made available at school for 100 schoolchildren ages five to twelve, found that children on the breakfast plan were less likely than other children to be absent from or late for school. Clearly, eating breakfast before school plays a role in reducing student absenteeism and tardiness. It is also well known that children who regularly eat a healthful breakfast tend to perform better in school. Therefore, in order to reduce absenteeism and tardiness and to improve academic performance in all of Mylar's elementary and secondary schools, we should provide breakfasts for all students before each school day." 在一项最近的为期 6 个月的研究中,我们为 100 名 5 至 12 岁的小学生在学校提供早餐;研究发现参加早 餐计划的儿童比其他儿童更不容易缺席或迟到。显然,上学前吃早餐对于减少学生的缺席和迟到作用很大。 而且众所周知经常吃健康早餐的儿童一般在学校的表现也更好。因此,为减少缺席和迟到以及提高 Mylar 所有小学和初中的学习成绩,我们应该在每天上课前为所有学生提供早餐。

29.When Ida McAllister ran for mayor of Lake City four years ago, she failed to win even 30 percent of the vote. But since then, McAllister has made public her commitment to environmental causes. She would be wise, therefore, to announce her intention to close all Lake City parks to

automobile traffic, thus following the example of the former mayor of Plainsville, Alecia Yu . On the recommendation of a small group of concerned citizens, Mayor Yu prohibited automobile traffic in all Plainsville parks, and therefore was credited with solving the pollution problem and improving the quality of life in Plainsville. This action would have great appeal to the citizens of Lake City, most of whom participate in the community's recycling program, and would guarantee McAllister's success in her current quest to be Lake City's new mayor. 当 Ida McAllister 在四年前竞选 Lake City 市的市长的时候,她失败了,甚至未能赢得 30%的选票。但从那以后,McAllister 公开了她对环境事 业的支持。因而,如果她宣布她将会让 Lake City 所有公园禁止汽车通行的话将会是十分明智的,这里有 Plainsville 前市长 Alecia Yu 的先例。在一小群关注该问题的市民的建议下,Yu 市长在 Plainsville 的所有公园都禁止汽车通行,因 而被称赞为解决了 Plainsville 的污染问题和提高了生活质量。这一行动对于 Lake City 的市民将会有极大吸引力,这些市民大部分参加了社区循环再生项目,也会保证 McAllister 在这次市 长竞选中获得成功。

30.According to information recently reported in the Eliottown Gazette, the number of people who travel to Eliottown has increased significantly over the past several years. So far this year over 100,000 people have arrived on flights to Eliottown's airport, compared with only 80,000 last year and 40,000 the year before. Eliottown's train station has received more than 50,000 passengers this year, compared with less than 40,000 last year and 20,000 the year before. Clearly tourism in Eliottown has been increasing, thanks to the new Central Park and Museum of Modern Art that opened last year. Therefore, the funding for the park and museum should be increased significantly. 根据 Eliottown Gazette 最近报道的信息,到 Eliottown 旅游的人数在过去几年中显著增加。今年到现在为止,乘飞机抵达 Eliottown 机场的人数已经超过了 100000 人,而去年和前年则分别只有 80000 和 40000 人。Eliottown 的 火车站今年接待了超过 50000 名乘客,而去年和前年则分别为不到 40000 和 20000。显然 Eliottown 的游 客数量增加了,这要感谢去年开放的新的 Central Park 和 Museum of Modern Art。因此,拨给这个公园和博物馆的基金应该大幅增加。

31.The following appeared in the editorial section of a newsmagazine. "Some states are creating new laws that restrict the use of of handheld cell phones by drivers of automobiles. Such legislation, however, is sheer folly. Although some people with cell phones undoubtedly cause problems on the road, including serious accidents, the majority do not. Besides,

problems are also caused by drivers who are distracted by any number of other activities, from listening to the radio to disciplining children. Since there is no need to pass legislation restricting these and other such activities, it follows that there is no need to restrict people's freedom to use a device that they find convenient-or helpful in emergencies."

一些州正在制定新法律来禁止汽车驾驶员使用移动电话。然而这种立法是很愚蠢的。尽管有些拥有移动电 话的人无疑将会在路上引发一些问题,包括严重事故,但大多数人并不会。而且,事故也同样由于因其他 行为而分心的驾驶员引发,比如听收音机和管教儿童。由于没有必要通过立法来限制这些行为,因而也没 有必要限制人们使用他们认为方便或在紧急时有帮助的设备。

32.Until recently, people in Hiparia did most of their shopping by driving to shopping malls. They are beginning, however, to do more of their shopping by ordering merchandise from mail-order catalogs and the Internet. These purchases are delivered to them by mail or by a delivery service. For many purchases, Hiparians no longer need to drive to and from shopping malls; there will therefore be a resulting reduction in the consumption of vehicle fuel in Hiparia.

直到最近,Hiparia 的居民都开车到商场购物。然而,他们现在开始更多地通过邮寄订货目录和互联网定购 商品。这些商品通过邮寄或快递服务递送到他们手中。对很多商品来说,Hiparia 居民不再需要开车往来于 商场;因而将会导致 Hiparia 汽车燃油消费量的下降。 33.The following report appeared in an archaeology journal. "The discovery of distinctively shaped ceramic pots at various prehistoric sites scattered over a wide area has led archaeologists to ask how the pots were spread. Some believe the pot makers migrated to the various sites and carried the pots along with them; others believe the pots were spread by trade and their makers remained in one place. Now, analysis of the bones of prehistoric human skeletons can settle the debate: high levels of a certain metallic element contained in various foods are strongly associated with people who migrated to a new place after childhood. Many of the bones found near the pots at a few sites showed high levels of the metallic element. Therefore, it must be that the pots were spread by migration, not trade."

在广泛区域分散分布的很多史前遗迹发现的形状独特的陶壶导致考古学家提出疑问:这些壶是如何流传 的?有些人相信壶的制造者迁移到别的地区并把壶随之带来;另一些人相信壶是通过贸易流传的,而它们 的制造者仍然留在一个地方。现在,对于史前人类骨骼的分析可以解决这个争论:在多种食物中都含有的 某种金属元素的高含量与那些成年后移居到新地方的人有很高的关联性。在一些遗迹的壶附近发现的很多 骨头都显示出这种金属元素的高含量。因此,这些壶肯定是通过迁移而不是贸易来流传的。

34.Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium, substances essential for building and maintaining bones. Many people therefore believe that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease in which the bones weaken significantly with age and that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors. But a long-term study of a large number of people has found that those who have consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study. Since bone fractures are a symptom of osteoporosis, this study result shows that a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of osteoporosis. 牛奶和奶制品富含维生素 D 和钙,这是骨骼生长和维持所必须的物质。因此很多人相信多吃奶制品的饮食 可以帮助预防骨质疏松症,这是一种骨骼随年龄而显著弱化而且与环境和基因因素相关联的疾病。但是一 项对大量人群的长期研究发现那些在研究期间经常食用奶制品的人骨折发病率比其他参加研究的人要高。 由于骨折是骨质疏松症的症状之一,这一研究结果表明富含奶制品的饮食实际上会增加而不是减少患骨质 疏松症的危险。

35.The following appeared in the summary of a study on headaches suffered by the residents of Mentia. "Salicylates are members of the same chemical family as aspirin, a medicine used to treat headaches. Although many foods are naturally rich in salicylates, for the past several decades food-processing companies have also been adding salicylates to foods as preservatives. This rise in the commercial use of salicylates has been found to correlate with a steady decline in the average number of headaches reported by participants in our twenty-year study. Recently, food-processing companies have found that salicylates can also be used as flavor additives for foods. With this new use for salicylates, we can expect a continued steady decline in the number of headaches suffered by the average citizen of Mentia."

水杨酸酯和用来治疗头痛的药物--阿司匹林是同一类化合物。尽管很多食品天然富含水杨酸酯,过去几十 年中食品加工公司仍然在食品中加入它来作为防腐剂。 这种水杨酸酯在商业上的使用被发现与我们为期 20 年研究的参加者所报告的头痛发病的平均数量下降是相关的。最近,食品加工公司发现水杨酸酯也可以被 用作食品香料。 根据这种水杨酸酯的新用途, 我们可以预期 Mentia 居民患头痛症的数量将会持续稳步下降。 36.The following appeared in an article written by Dr. Karp, an anthropologist. "Twenty years ago Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the island of Tertia and concluded from his observations that children in Tertia were reared by an entire village rather than by their own biological parents.

However, my recent interviews with children living in the group of islands that includes Tertia show that these children spend much more time talking about their biological parents than about other adults in the village. This research proves that Dr. Field's conclusion about Tertian village culture is false, and thus that the observation-centered approach to studying cultures is invalid. Because they are using the interview-centered method, my team of graduate students working in Tertia will establish a much more accurate understanding of child-rearing traditions there and in other island cultures." 20 年前著名人类学家 Field 博士访问了 Tertia 岛,并从他的观察得出结论:Tertia 的儿童是由整个村庄的 人抚养长大的而不是由他们的双亲。然而,我最近对包含 Tertia 的一组岛屿上生活的儿童的采访显示,这 些儿童的谈话中谈到他们双亲的时间要远多于谈到村庄中其他成年人的时间。这个研究证实了 Field 博士 关于 Tertia 村庄文化的结论是错误的, 因而这种以观察为中心的研究文化的方法是无效的。 由于我在 Tertia 工作的研究生们所用的是以采访为中心的方式,他们将对那里以及其他岛屿文化的儿童抚养传统建立精确 的多的了解。

37.Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been unique to the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so the ancient Paleans could only have crossed it by boat, but there is no evidence that the Paleans had boats. And boats capable of carrying groups of people and cargo were not developed until thousands of years after the Palean people disappeared. Moreover, Paleans would have had no need to cross the river-the woods around Palea are full of nuts, berries, and small game. It follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not unique to Palea. 一种具有独特花纹的编织篮子以前只在史前村庄 Palea 的临近地区发现过,因而被认为是 Palea 居民所独 有的。然而最近,考古学家在一个与 Palea 隔着一条叫做 Brim 河的村庄 Lithos 发现了一个这样的 Palea 篮子。Brim 河很深很宽,所以古代 Palea 人只能坐船穿过它,但没有证据表明 Palea 人拥有船只。而且能 够运载大量人和货物的船只直到 Palea 人消失几千年后才出现。而且,Palea 人应该没有必要穿过这条河 流--Palea 周围的林地有丰富的果实和小动物。这表明那种所谓的 Palea 篮子并不是那里所独有的。 38.The following memo appeared in the newsletter of the West Meria Public Health Council. "An innovative treatment has come to our attention that promises to significantly reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces. A study reports that in nearby East Meria, where fish consumption is very high, people visit the doctor only once or twice per year for the treatment of colds. Clearly, eating a substantial amount of fish can prevent colds.

Since colds are the reason most frequently given for absences from school and work, we recommend the daily use of Ichthaid, a nutritional supplement derived from fish oil, as a good way to prevent colds and lower absenteeism." 我们注意到一种保证可以显著减少学校和工作岗位的缺席的革新疗法。一项研究报告说在附近的 East Meria,鱼的消费量很高,那里的人们每年因为治感冒而去看医生的次数只有一或两次。显然,吃较大量的 鱼可以预防感冒。由于感冒是学校和单位缺席的最常见原因,我们建议每天服用 Ichthaid,一种从鱼油中 提炼的营养物质,作为预防感冒和减少缺席率的有效措施。

39.The following appeared in a memorandum from the president of Humana College. "Last year the number of students who enrolled in long-distance degree programs at Omni University increased by 50%. During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because instruction in the long-distance programs takes place via interactive video computer connections. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana College has diminished and costs of maintaining buildings have risen. Thus, to increase enrollment and solve the problem of budget deficits at Humana College, we should initiate and actively promote long-distance degree programs like those at Omni." 去年报名参加 Omni 大学远程教学系统的学生人数上升了 50%。同年,Omni 用于宿舍和教室的开支比前 一年显著下降,很可能是因为远程教学通过互动电脑录像授课。比较而言,在过去三年中,Humana 学院 的报名人数下降了,而且用于房屋维护的费用上升。因此,为增加报名数量并解决 Humana 学院财政赤字 问题,我们也应该开展并积极推广与 Omni 一样的远程教学系统。 40.The following appeared in a memorandum from the president of Humana College. "Last year the number of students who enrolled in long-distance degree programs at Omni University increased by 50%. During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because instruction in the long-distance programs takes place via interactive video computer connections. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana College has diminished and costs of maintaining buildings have risen. Thus, to increase enrollment and solve the problem of budget deficits at Humana College, we should initiate and actively promote long-distance degree programs like those at Omni." 去年报名参加 Omni 大学远程教学系统的学生人数上升了 50%。同年,Omni 用于宿舍和教室的开支比前

一年显著下降,很可能是因为远程教学通过互动电脑录像授课。比较而言,在过去三年中,Humana 学院 的报名人数下降了,而且用于房屋维护的费用上升。因此,为增加报名数量并解决 Humana 学院财政赤字 问题,我们也应该开展并积极推广与 Omni 一样的远程教学系统。

41.The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of a food-distribution company with food-storage warehouses in several cities. "Recently we signed a contract with The Fly-Away Pest-Control Company to provide pest-control services at our fast-food warehouse in Palm City, but last month we discovered that over $20,000 worth of food there had been destroyed by pest damage. Meanwhile, the Buzzoff Pest-Control Company, which we have used for many years, continued to service our warehouse in Wintervale, and last month only $10,000 worth of the food stored there had been destroyed by pest damage. Even though the price charged by Fly-Away is considerably lower, our best means of saving money is to return to Buzzoff Company for all our pest-control services." 最近我们和 Fly-Away Pest-Control 公司签订了一项合同来为我们在 Palm City 的快餐食品仓库提供杀虫服务, 但上个月我们发现, 那里有价值超过$20000 的食品被害虫破坏。 同时, 我们使用多年的 Buzzoff Pest-Control 公司继续在 Wintervale 的仓库服务,上个月那里只有价值$10000 的食品被害虫破坏。尽管 Fly-Away 的收费低廉的多,我们节省收费的最好方式就是重新使用 Buzzoff 公司来提供我们所有的杀虫服 务。

42.The following appeared in a proposal from the economic minister of the country of Paraterra. "In order to strengthen its lagging economy, last year the government of the nearby country of Bellegea began an advertising campaign to promote ecologically sound tourism (ecotourism). This year the number of foreign visitors arriving at Bellegea's main airport doubled, and per capita income in Bellegea increased by ten percent. To provide more income for the population of Paraterra and also preserve the natural environment of our tiny country, we too should begin to promote ecotourism. To ensure that our advertising campaign is successful, we should hire the current director of Bellegea's National Tourism Office as a consultant for the campaign." 临近城市 Bellegea 的政府为促进其落后的经济,去年开展了一项对生态旅游的广告推广。今年到达 Bellegea 主要机场的外国游客数量翻了一番,人均收入增加了 10%。为增加 Paraterra 居民的收入并保护 我们有限国土的天然环境, 我们也应该推广生态旅游。 为保证我们广告策略的成功, 我们应该雇佣 Bellegea 现任国家旅游局的主任来担任广告的顾问。

43.The following appeared as part of a business plan developed by the manager of the Rialto Theater. "Despite its downtown location, the Rialto Movie Theater, a local institution for five decades, must make big changes or close its doors forever. It should follow the example of the new Apex Theater in the mall outside of town. When the Apex opened last year, it featured a video arcade, plush carpeting and seats, and a state-of-the-art sound system. Furthermore, in a recent survey, over 85 percent of respondents reported that the high price of newly released movies prevents them from going to the movies more than five times per year. Thus, if the Rialto intends to hold on to its share of a decreasing pool of moviegoers, it must offer the same features as Apex." 尽管已成立 50 余年的当地机构 Rialto 剧院地处闹市,它必须采取重大变革,否则就将面临永久停业。它 应该借鉴城外商业街上新的 Apex 剧院的例子。 Apex 去年开业的时候, 它拥有视听走廊, 豪华地毯和座椅, 以及最先进的音响系统。而且,最近一次调查中,超过 85%的被访者报告说新发行影片的过高票价致使他 们看电影的次数每年至少减少五次。因此,如果 Rialto 想在电影观众减少的情况下保持市场份额,它必须 提供和 Apex 相同的设施和服务。 44.The following is a recommendation from the business manager of Monarch Books. "Monarch Books should open a cafè in its store to attract more customers and better compete with Regal Books, which recently opened a cafè. Monarch, which has been in business at the same location for more than twenty years, has a large customer following because it is known for its wide selection of books on all subjects. Opening the cafè would clearly attract more customers. The cafè would require relatively little space. Space could be made for the cafè by discontinuing the children's book section, which will likely become less popular given that the last national census indicated a significant decline in the percent of the population who are under age ten." Monarch 书店应该在店内开设一个咖啡厅以吸引更多的顾客并更好地和最近开设了咖啡厅的 Regal 书店展 开竞争。Monarch 已经在它的店址上经营了 20 余年,由于其对于各类型图书选择的广泛性而广为人知, 并拥有庞大的消费者群体。开设咖啡厅显然能吸引更多的顾客。咖啡厅所需的空间相对较小。咖啡厅的空 间可以通过撤销儿童书籍的柜台来获得, 由于最近的一次全国调查显示 10 岁以下儿童在总人口中所占的比 例将显著下降,因而儿童书籍很可能将不再好卖。

45.The following appeared as an editorial in a wildlife journal.

"Arctic deer live on islands in Canada's arctic region. They search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of a year. Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed, and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the decline in arctic deer populations is the result of deer being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns across the frozen sea."

北极鹿生活在加拿大极地区域的岛屿上。它们全年都通过冰块在岛屿间移动来寻找食物。它们的栖居地局 限在那些温暖得足以维持它们所需的植物生长,并且在一年的至少某些时候冷到足以让岛屿间的海面结冰 以使它们能够在岛屿间旅行的地方。然而,根据当地猎人的报告,鹿的数量正在下降。由于这一报告正好 与最近导致海洋冰面融化的全球变暖趋势同时发生,我们可以得出结论:北极鹿数量的下降是它们无法按 它们原有的迁移习惯穿越结冰海面的结果。

46.Although black bears are common in the eastern Canadian province of Labrador, grizzly bears-often similar in color, but much larger-were believed to exist only in the western provinces. Despite a nineteenth-century explorer's account of having startled and narrowly escaped from a grizzly bear deep in the woods in Labrador, modern scientists find no physical evidence that grizzly bears have ever lived in Labrador. But recent research into the language and legends of the Innu, a people who have lived in Labrador for thousands of years, reveals that their language has words for two different kinds of bears, and their ancient legends attribute different characteristics to the two kinds of bears. Therefore, there probably were grizzly bears in Labrador, and the explorer's account probably accurately identified the bear. 尽管黑熊在加拿大东部的 Labrador 省份很常见,那种与黑熊颜色类似,但要大的多的灰熊被认为只存在于 西部的省份。尽管存在一名 19 世纪的探险者在 Labrador 丛林深处遭遇一头灰熊并惊险地逃脱的记载,现 代学者并没有发现灰熊曾在 Labrador 生活的证据。 但最近对于已在 Labrador 生活了数千年的 Innu 人的语 言和传说的研究发现,他们的语言中对于两种不同的熊有不同的词汇,他们的古老传说中确认了两种熊的 特征。因此,Labrador 可能曾有过灰熊,探险者的记载有可能精确地记叙了熊的存在。

47.Scientists studying historical weather patterns have discovered that in the mid-sixth century, Earth suddenly became significantly cooler. Although few historical records survive from that time, some accounts found both in Asia and Europe mention a dimming of the sun and extremely cold temperatures. Either a huge volcanic eruption or a large meteorite colliding with Earth could have created a large dust cloud throughout Earth's atmosphere that would have been capable of blocking enough sunlight to lower global temperatures significantly. A large meteorite

collision, however, would probably create a sudden bright flash of light, and no extant historical records of the time mention such a flash. Some surviving Asian historical records of the time, however, mention a loud boom that would be consistent with a volcanic eruption. Therefore, the cooling was probably caused by a volcanic eruption.

研究历史上气候变化的学者发现在六世纪中叶,地球突然变冷了很多。尽管那个时期很少有历史记录被保 存下来,一些在亚洲和欧洲所发现的记录提到了太阳变暗和极度的寒冷。要么是巨大的火山喷发,要么是 撞击地球的大型小行星导致地球大气形成一大片尘埃云层,这阻止了一定的阳光导致全球温度显著下降。 然而,大型小行星的撞击可能产生突然的强闪光,而现存的那时的历史记录中没有提到过这样的闪光。然 而那时遗留下来的一些亚洲历史纪录提到过与一次火山喷发相一致的巨大隆隆声。因此,那时的温度下降 多半是火山喷发导致的。

48.The following appeared in a newspaper article published in the country of Corpora. "Twenty years ago, one half of all citizens in Corpora met the standards for adequate physical fitness as then defined by the national advisory board on physical fitness. Today, the board says that only one quarter of all citizens are adequately fit and suggests that spending too much time using computers may be the reason. But since overall fitness levels are highest in regions of Corpora where levels of computer ownership are also highest, it is clear that using computers has not made citizens less physically fit. Instead, as shown by this year's unusually low expenditures on fitness-related products and services, the recent decline in the economy is most likely the cause, and fitness levels will improve when the economy does." 20 年前,Corpora 的市民有一半都达到了那时由国家健身顾问委员会所定义的充分的健康标准。今天,委 员会指出所有市民只有四分之一的市民足够健康,并指出长时间的使用电脑可能是原因。但是由于在 Corpora 电脑拥有量最高的地区也是总体健康水平最高的地区, 显然使用电脑并没有导致市民体质的下降。 相反,今年用于健身产品和服务的花费低的异乎寻常,这表明最近经济的衰退最可能是原因,当经济复苏 了健康水平也会随之提高。

49.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a newsletter on health issues. "For the past decade, most health experts have advised teenagers to avoid eating greasy foods in order to prevent acne and related skin conditions, but the number of teenagers who sought medical help for these skin problems has actually risen over the same period. In a recent study, teenagers who avoided greasy foods for a month reported approximately as many outbreaks of acne and related skin conditions as did those who ate an

average of two servings of greasy food per day. Such data indicate that eating greasy foods is unlikely to be a cause of acne and related skin conditions. Therefore, health experts should no longer recommend that people avoid such foods." 过去 10 年中, 多数健康专家建议青少年应避免油腻食物来防止痤疮和相关的皮肤问题, 但在此期间因这类 皮肤问题寻求医疗帮助的青少年数量实际上上升了。最近的一次调查中,一个月不吃油腻食物的青少年上 报的痤疮和相关皮肤问题的发生率与那些平均每天吃两份油腻食物的青少年基本相同。这一数据表明吃油 腻食物不太可能是痤疮和相关皮肤问题的诱因。因此,健康专家不应该再建议人们避免这类食物。

50.From a draft textbook manuscript submitted to a publisher. "As Earth was being formed out of the collision of space rocks, the heat from those collisions and from the increasing gravitational energy of the planet made the entire planet molten, even the surface. Any water present would have evaporated and gone off into space. As the planet approached its current size, however, its gravitation became strong enough to hold gases and water vapor around it as an atmosphere. Because comets are largely ice made up of frozen water and gases, a comet striking Earth then would have vaporized. The resulting water vapor would have been retained in the atmosphere, eventually falling as rain on the cooled and solidified surface of Earth. Therefore, the water in Earth's oceans must have originated from comets."

当地球在太空岩石的撞击作用下形成的时候, 撞击产生的热量和行星越来越大的重力能量使整个行星融化, 甚至包括表面。当时存在的任何水分都会蒸发并消失在太空。然而,当行星接近现在的大小的时候,它的 重力强到了足以保持其周围的气体和水蒸气来形成大气层。由于彗星主要是由冻结的水和气体组成的冰, 撞击地球的彗星将会蒸发。产生的水蒸气将被留在大气层,最终以降雨的形式落在地球已冷却而且坚硬的 表面。因此,地球海洋的水分一定是来自彗星。

51.The following appeared in a medical newsletter. "Doctors have long suspected that secondary infections may keep some patients from healing quickly after severe muscle strain. This hypothesis has now been proved by preliminary results of a study of two groups of patients. The first group of patients, all being treated for muscle injuries by Dr. Newland, a doctor who specializes in sports medicine, took antibiotics regularly throughout their treatment. Their recuperation time was, on average, 40 percent quicker than typically expected. Patients in the second group, all being treated by Dr. Alton, a general physician, were given sugar pills, although the patients believed they were taking antibiotics. Their average recuperation time was not significantly

reduced. Therefore, all patients who are diagnosed with muscle strain would be well advised to take antibiotics as part of their treatment."

医生长期以来怀疑严重肌肉扭伤后的二次感染妨碍了一些患者迅速康复。这一假说现在被一项对两组患者 的研究的初步结果所证实。第一组患者全部由专攻运动医学的 Dr. Newland 治疗肌肉损伤,他们在疗程中经常服用抗生素。他们的康复期平均比通常预期的快 40%。第二组 患者由综合医师 Dr. Alton 治疗,他们被给予糖丸,而患者相信他们在服用抗生素。他们的平均康复时间没有明显缩短。因此, 任何被确诊为肌肉损伤的患者应被建议服用抗生素作为辅助治疗。

52.The following appeared in a memo to the human resources manager at Baobob Inc., a large architectural firm. "Several well-known, retired architects were interviewed in Architecture Today about changes in the field. Only one had earned a college degree in architecture. All others had come into the field at an early age by serving apprenticeships that required them to work under the direct supervision of an experienced architect. Several of the colleges that we recruit from report that many promising architecture students leave school early in their undergraduate career. Therefore, because finding talented architecture graduates is becoming more difficult, Baobob Inc. should start an aggressive apprenticeship program and hire students who express an interest in architecture directly out of high school rather than wait for them to get out of college." 一些知名的退休建筑师接受了 Architecture Today 关于本领域的变化的采访。其中只有一个人得到了建筑学的大学学位。其他人都是通过很小的时候 当学徒,在有经验的建筑师监督下工作而步入该领域的。有几个我们招收了毕业生的学校报告说很多有前 途的建筑系学生在本科学习的早期就离开了学校。因此,由于找到有天分的建筑系毕业生越来越困难, Baobob Inc.应该开展积极的学徒计划, 雇佣那些在高中一毕业就表现出对建筑的兴趣的学生而不是等他们从大学毕 业。

53.Thirteen years ago, researchers studied a group of 25 infants who showed signs of mild distress when exposed to unfamiliar stimuli such as an unusual odor or a tape recording of an unknown voice. They discovered that these infants were more likely than other infants to have been conceived in early autumn, a time when their mothers' production of melatonin-a hormone known to affect some brain functions-would naturally increase in response to decreased daylight. In a follow-up study conducted earlier this year, more than half of these children-now teenagers-who had shown signs of distress identified themselves as shy. Clearly, increased levels of melatonin before birth cause shyness during infancy and this shyness continues into later life.

13 年前, 研究者研究了一组在受到不熟悉的刺激比如不寻常的气味和未知声音的录音时表现出轻微紧张的 25 名婴儿。 他们发现这些婴儿比其他婴儿更可能在早秋怀孕, 而早秋是他们的母亲分泌的 melatonin--一种 已知会影响一些大脑功能的荷尔蒙--因日照的减少而增加的季节。在今年早些时候所作的跟踪调查中,这 些表现出紧张迹象的儿童--现在已经是十几岁--有一半以上认为自己害羞。显然,出生前 melatonin 的增加 导致婴儿期的羞涩并且这种羞涩将延续至生命更晚的阶段。

54.The following appeared in a newsletter on dental health. "A recent research study reported the experience of dentists whose patients had, over a period of five years, regularly used Flux Dental Floss as part of their dental hygiene routine. The report indicates that these dentists had 50 percent fewer cases of gum disease than did dentists whose patients did not use Flux regularly. In addition, most of the Flux users who were surveyed by their dentists agreed that Flux's mint flavor would encourage people to floss more often. Thus, even though Flux may cost more than other brands of floss, it is clearly a worthwhile investment for those who want to be assured of healthy teeth and gums." 最近一项研究报告了其患者在五年期间有规律地使用 Flux 牙线来作为他们牙齿卫生工作程序之一的牙医 的经验。报告指出这些牙医的患者牙床疾病的发病率比那些不经常使用 Flux 的患者低 50%。而且,牙医 所调查的多数 Flux 的使用者同意 Flux 的薄荷香味促使人们更经常地使用牙线。因此,尽管 Flux 比其他牌 子的牙线贵,对于那些想要保持牙齿和牙床健康的人来说显然是一项值得的投资。

55.The following appeared in a Letter to the Editor of the Shady Village newspaper. "Commuters are complaining that the rush hour traffic on Blue Highway between Shady Village and Bright City has doubled their commuting time. Some commuters have asked that an additional traffic lane be built, but the recent creation of such a lane on nearby Green Highway apparently attracted more commuters, judging from the fact that rush-hour traffic jams actually increased there this past winter. To reduce rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway, a bicycle lane should be added instead of a traffic lane. This approach will succeed because many citizens of Shady Village are avid bicyclists; 75 percent of respondents to a recent questionnaire distributed there said they would like to bicycle more hours per week than they currently do." 乘客抱怨说 Shady Village 和 Bright City 之间的 Blue Highway 高峰时期的交通拥堵使他们在路上所花的时间多了一倍。 一些乘客曾要求修建一条附加机动车道, 但最近在附近的 Green Highway 所修建的类似车道显然吸引了更多的车辆,这可以从去年冬天那里的高峰时段交通拥堵增加的事 实判断出来。为减少 Blue

Highway 高峰时段的交通拥堵, 应该修建一条自行车道而不是机动车道。 这一措施将会取得成功因为 Shady Village 的很多市民是积极的自行车爱好者; 最近在那里举行的问卷调查中有 75%的回应者说他们愿意用比 当前更多的时间骑车。

56.Collectors prize the ancient life-size clay statues of human figures made on Kali Island but have long wondered how the Kalinese artists were able to depict bodies with such realistic precision. Since archeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands on Kali, we can now conclude that the ancient Kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools and techniques, to create these statues. This discovery explains why Kalinese miniature statues were abstract and entirely different in style: molds could only be used for life-size sculptures. It also explains why few ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found. In light of this development, collectors should expect the life-size sculptures to decrease in value and the miniatures to increase in value. 收藏家很欣赏 Kali 岛出产的古代等身泥土雕像, 但长期以来不清楚 Kali 的艺术家如何能够以如此高的精确 度刻画人体。由于考古学家最近在 Kali 发现了人类头部和手的模具,我们现在可以得出结论:古代 Kali 艺 术家使用真人的模子,而不是雕刻工具和技艺来塑造这些雕像。这一发现解释了为什么 Kali 的缩微雕像是 抽象的而且风格迥异:模子只能被用于等身雕像。它同样也解释了为什么很少发现 Kali 的雕刻工具。由于 有了这一研究进展,收藏家应预见到等身雕像的贬值以及缩微雕像的升值。

57.The following appeared in a newsletter on nutrition and health. "Although the multimineral Zorba pill was designed as a simple dietary supplement, a study of first-time ulcer patients who took Zorba suggests that Zorba actually helps prevent ulcers. The study showed that only 25 percent of those ulcer patients who took Zorba under a doctor's direction developed new ulcers, compared to a 75 percent recurrence rate among ulcer patients who did not take Zorba. Clearly, then, Zorba will be highly effective in preventing recurrent ulcers and if health experts inform the general public of this fact, many first-time ulcers can be prevented as well." 尽管含多种矿物质的 Zorba 药片被设计成用作单纯的营养补充药,对于使用了 Zorba 的溃疡初患者的研究 发现 Zorba 可以帮助预防溃疡。研究表明在医生的指导下服用 Zorba 的患者中只有 25%得了新的溃疡,相 比之下,那些没有服用 Zorba 的溃疡患者的复发率为 75%。显然,Zorba 在预防溃疡复发方面有很积极的 效果,如果健康专家把这一事实公诸于众,很多初次发生的溃疡也同样可以得到预防。

58.The following appeared in an article from a popular newsmagazine. "In 1888 a stone was unearthed in northern Wisconsin with an inscription in an old Scandinavian alphabet and bearing the date 1362. Scandinavians

were not, however, exploring or emigrating to northern Wisconsin in the fourteenth century. Recent analysis proves, in fact, that the stone had been buried in the spot where it was found for no more than 100 years. Moreover, the community near the discovery site was home to a group of people who had formed a club to study medieval Scandinavian culture-a period that includes the fourteenth century. The stone, therefore, is not a genuine artifact of medieval Scandinavian culture inscribed in the fourteenth century but most likely a hoax perpetrated by the group." 1888 年在北威斯康星出土了一块石头, 上面有用旧斯堪迪纳维亚文撰写的并且注明日期为 1362 年的铭文。 然而,在 14 世纪斯堪迪纳维亚人并没有探索或迁移到北威斯康星。实际上,最近的分析证明该石头被埋在 发现它的地点的时间不超过 100 年。而且,在发现现场附近的社区是一群为研究中世纪斯堪迪纳维亚文化 (包括 14 世纪)而组成俱乐部的人的居住地。因此,这块石头并不是 14 世纪中世纪斯堪迪纳维亚文化所 撰写的真正文物,而多半是由上面所说的那群人所设的骗局。

59.The following appeared in an article in the health section of a newspaper. "According to the available medical records, the six worst worldwide flu epidemics during the past 300 years occurred in 1729, 1830, 1918, 1957, 1968, and 1977. These were all years with heavy sunspot activity-that is, years when the Earth received significantly more solar energy than in normal years. People at particular risk for the flu should therefore avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun." 根据现有的医疗记录,过去 300 年中最严重的六次世界范围的流感大流行分别发生于 1729,1830,1918, 1957 和 1977。这些都是太阳黑子活动剧烈的年份,即:地球所接收的太阳能比平常年份多的多的年份。 因此,那些特别易患流感的人群应该避免长时间暴露于日光下。

60.The following appeared in the health section of Glenntown's local newspaper. "Several national medical studies suggest that older people who have pets tend to enjoy better health than those who do not have pets: those who have pets have lower rates of high blood pressure and arthritis. It seems clear that having to care for an animal promotes good health for the older person. Therefore, Glenntown should establish a program to give a small pet such as a dog or cat to all of its citizens who are over the age of 65. This will help to insure that our senior citizens enjoy good health and have fewer medical bills."

若干全国性医疗研究显示养宠物的老人比不养宠物的老人更容易拥有更好的健康状态:那些养宠物的老人 高血压和关节炎的发病率都比较低。 显然对于某种动物的关注有助于促进老年人的健康。 因此, Glenntown 应该建立一项把猫或狗之类的小宠物送给本市 65 岁以上老人的计划。 这将有助于保证老年市民享受更健康


61.The following appeared in a report by the School District of Eyleria. "Nationally, the average ratio of computers to students in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) is 1:5. Educators indicate that this is very good ratio. This means that across the country, all students have access to and can use computers daily in their classrooms. In Eyleria's K-12 schools, the ratio of computers to students is 1:7. This number is sufficient to ensure that all of Eyleria's students, by the time they graduate from high school, will be fully proficient in the use of computer technology. Thus, there is no reason to spend any of the schools' budget on computers or other technology in the next few years." 在全国范围内,从幼儿园到 12 年级(K-12)学生所拥有电脑的比例是每 5 人有一台。教育界人士指出这 是个很好的比例。这意味着在全国,所有学生都能够在他们的教室中每天接触和使用电脑。在 Eyleria 的 K-12 学校, 电脑与学生数量的比例是 1: 这一数字足以保证 Eyleria 的所有学生到他们高中毕业的时候, 7。 将会拥有使用电脑的充足能力。因此,在未来几年没有理由花费任何学校的预算于电脑或其他技术。

62.The Treasury has once again introduced a dollar coin, the Pine Tree dollar. Neither the Presidential dollar coin, introduced 11 years ago, nor the Eagle dollar coin, introduced 3 years ago, remained in circulation long: people simply preferred spending paper dollars. However, a survey conducted soon after its release indicates that the Pine Tree dollar is far more appealing than other dollar coins: 76 percent of respondents own the coin; 62 percent of those owning multiple coins consider it so attractive that they are still saving rather than spending the most recent coin to come into their possession. Since the Pine Tree coin promises to become the dollar currency of choice, the Treasury is correct to begin saving money by dramatically reducing the costly printing of paper dollars. 财政部又一次发行了一种一美元硬币,Pine Tree dollar。11 年前发行的 Presidential dollar 和 3 年前发行 的 Eagle dollar 中的任何一种都没有在流通领域存在很长时间:人们只是更愿意使用纸币。然而,在 Pine Tree dollar 发行之后立即进行的一次调查显示,这种硬币比其他硬币的吸引力要大的多:76%的回应者拥有该 硬币;拥有多种硬币的人中有 62%认为它如此有吸引力以至于他们仍然把它作为收藏而不是把它花出去。 由于 Pine Tree dollar 将会成为可供选择的美元货币,财政部通过大幅减少印制纸币的花费来节省金钱是正确的。 63.When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used

park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. Video cameras mounted in the park's parking lots last month revealed the park's drop in popularity: the recordings showed an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than 150 people on a typical weekday. An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as is Carlton Park, the town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing. 当 Stanley 公园第一次开放的时候,它是本市最大,使用频率最高的公园。现在它仍是最大的,但使用频 率已经不再高了。上个月在公园停车场架设的摄像机发现公园的受欢迎度下降了:录像显示平均每天只有 50 辆车。与之相比,位于商业区中心地带的 Carlton 小公园在工作日每天游客超过 150 人。一个很明显的 差异就是 Carlton 公园与 Stanley 公园不同,它提供充足的座椅。因此,如果 Stanley 公园想要和 Carlton 获得同等的受欢迎度的话,显然应该提供更多的长椅,从而把一些未加利用的开阔地转化成适于人们交往 的空间。

64.The following appeared in a memo from the Dean of the College of Education at Omni State University. "Only seven of our state's high schools offer even one course in Latin, but over 80 percent of the graduates who study Latin at those seven schools enroll in college. Furthermore, a recent study shows that students who have mastered Latin perform much better in logic and critical thinking. Thus, in order to increase the percentage of our high school students who graduate from college as well as to ensure that they receive a better education in critical thinking, Omni State University should begin an intensive program to prepare our future teachers to teach high school Latin." 本州的只有七所高中提供拉丁语课程,而在那七所学校学习拉丁语的毕业生中有 80%上了大学。而且,一 项最近的研究显示,掌握了拉丁语的学生在逻辑和分析方面表现更出色。因此,为提高我们高中学生从大 学毕业的比例并同时保证他们受到分析性思维的更好教育,Omni State University 应该开展一项集中项目来使我们未来的教师教授高中拉丁文。 65.The following appeared in a memo from the president of a chain of cheese stores located throughout the United States. "For many years all the stores in our chain have stocked a wide variety of both domestic and imported cheeses. Last year, however, the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store were all domestic cheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey by Cheeses of the World magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses among its

subscribers. Since our company can reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way to improve profits in all of our stores is to discontinue stocking many of our varieties of imported cheese and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses."

很多年来我们的所有连锁店都储备了很多种类的国产奶酪和进口奶酪。然而去年,我们的最新店里五种销 量最高的奶酪都是威斯康星出产的 cheddar 奶酪。而且,最近一次由 Cheese of the World 杂志所举行的调查显示,其订阅者对于国产奶酪的倾向性越来越高。由于我们公司可以通过限制库 存来减少开支, 在我们所有连锁店增加盈利的最好方式就是停止贮备很多进口奶酪而主要集中于国产奶酪。

66.The following appeared in a memo from the president of a chain of cheese stores located throughout the United States. "For many years all the stores in our chain have stocked a wide variety of both domestic and imported cheeses. Last year, however, the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store were all domestic cheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey by Cheeses of the World magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses among its subscribers. Since our company can reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way to improve profits in all of our stores is to discontinue stocking many of our varieties of imported cheese and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses."

很多年来我们的所有连锁店都储备了很多种类的国产奶酪和进口奶酪。然而去年,我们的最新店里五种销 量最高的奶酪都是威斯康星出产的 cheddar 奶酪。而且,最近一次由 Cheese of the World 杂志所举行的调查显示,其订阅者对于国产奶酪的倾向性越来越高。由于我们公司可以通过限制库 存来减少开支, 在我们所有连锁店增加盈利的最好方式就是停止贮备很多进口奶酪而主要集中于国产奶酪。

67.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a newspaper serving the villages of Castorville and Polluxton. "Both the villages of Castorville and Polluxton have experienced sharp declines in the numbers of residents who pay property taxes. To save money and improve service, the two villages recently merged their once separate garbage collection departments into a single department located in Castorville, and the new department has reported few complaints about its service. Last year the library in Polluxton had 20 percent fewer users than during the previous year. It follows that we should now further economize and improve service, as we did with garbage collection, by closing the library in Polluxton and using the library in Castorville to serve both villages." Castorville 和 Polluxton 两个村镇都经历了地产税纳税居民数量的下降。

为节省开支并提高服务质量, 两个村镇最近合并了它们一度独立的垃圾收集部门, 成立了座落于 Castorville 的单一部门,新部门所上报的关于其服务的投诉很少。去年 Polluxton 的图书馆使用者比前一年减少 20%。 这表明我们现在应该象我们在垃圾收集方面所作的一样进一步经济化和提高服务, 通过关闭 Polluxton 的图 书馆和使用 Castorville 的图书馆来为两个村镇提供服务。 68.The following appeared in a memo from a budget planner for the City of Grandview. "To avoid a budget deficit next year, the City of Grandview must eliminate its funding for the Grandview Symphony. Our citizens are well aware of the fact that while the Grandview Symphony Orchestra was struggling to succeed, our city government promised annual funding to help support its programs. Last year, however, private contributions to the Symphony increased by 200 percent, and attendance at the Symphony's concerts-in-the-park series doubled. The Symphony has also announced an increase in ticket prices for next year. Such developments indicate that the Symphony can now succeed without funding from city government and we can eliminate that expense from next year's budget. This action will surely prevent a budget deficit." 为避免来年的财政赤字,Grandview 市必须停止它对 Grandview 交响乐队的资助。我们的市民都注意到, 当 Grandview 管弦乐队为其维持做斗争的时候,我们市政府承诺每年提供资助来支持乐队的计划。然而去 年,对乐队的个人资助增加了 200%,乐队的公园音乐会的听众人数翻了一番。乐队还宣布明年的票价将 会提高。这些事实说明乐队可以不用市政府的资助就能维持,我们可以取消来年预算中这一支出。这一行 动肯定能够防止财政赤字。

69.Yellow-legged frogs were once common in high-altitude lakes in the Sierra Nevada mountains, but they have become increasingly rare. Trout feed on tadpoles and young frogs. Few lakes in the Sierra Nevada had any trout in them until a hundred years ago. At that time, many lakes were stocked with trout for recreational fishing, and now trout are common in virtually all bodies of water in the Sierra Nevada. Researchers removed the trout from one lake, and the frog population soon quadrupled. Since frogs are capable of moving several miles over land, removing trout from just a few lakes is clearly the way to restore the frog population to its former levels. 黄腿青蛙在 Sierra Nevada 山区的高海拔湖泊曾经很常见,但它们正在变得稀少。鲑鱼捕食蝌蚪和小青蛙。 直到一百年前,Sierra Nevada 很少有湖泊存在鲑鱼。从那时起,很多湖泊为垂钓放养鲑鱼,现在鲑鱼在 Sierra Nevada 的几乎所有水域都很常见。研究者把一个湖泊的鲑鱼全部捞走,青蛙数量很快翻了四番。由于青 蛙能够在陆上移动数英里,在少数几个湖泊中把鲑鱼捞走显然是使青蛙数量重新回复以前水平的途径。

70.Studies show that in 70 percent of traffic accidents, at least one driver involved is less than 10 miles from home when the accident occurs. This statistic indicates that drivers have a tendency to drive incautiously when they are close to home, probably because familiar surroundings give them a false sense of security. Thus, the places where people feel safest are the places where they are in fact at greatest risk of serious injury. 研究表明在 70%的交通事故中,至少有一名驾驶员在事故发生时离家不到 10 英里。这一统计数字表明驾 驶员在离家近的时候有不谨慎驾驶的倾向,可能是因为周围熟悉的环境给了他们一种错误的安全感。因此, 人们感觉最安全的地方实际上是他们受严重伤害的危险性最高的地方。

71.Copper occurs in nature mixed with other minerals and valuable metals in ore, and the proportion of copper in the ore can vary considerably. Until fairly recently, the only way to extract pure copper from ore was by using a process that requires large amounts of electric energy, especially if the proportion of copper in the ore is low. New copper-extracting technologies can use up to 40 percent less electricity than the older method to process the same amount of raw ore, especially when the proportion of copper in the ore is high. Therefore, we can expect the amount of electricity used by the copper-extraction industry to decline significantly.

铜在自然中与其他矿物和有价值的金属混合存在于矿石中,而且矿石中铜的比例可能有很大差别。直到最 近,从矿石中提取纯铜的唯一方法是通过一种需要大量电力的流程,特别是当矿石中铜的比例比较低的时 候。新的铜提取技术在处理同等数量的原矿石时能够比老的方式节省 40%的电力,特别是当矿石中铜的比 例比较高的时候。因此,我们可以预期铜矿提取工业所用的电力将会显著减少。

72.In measuring electrical activity in different parts of the brain, researchers found that people who describe themselves as generally happy have more activity in the left prefrontal lobe of their brains than do other people. Therefore, a medication for stimulating the left prefrontal lobe of the brain would be an effective treatment for clinical depression.

在测量大脑不同部分的电波活动的时候,研究者发现那些把自己描述成快乐的人大脑左前额部分的活动比 其他人更多。因此,刺激大脑左前额部分对于抑郁症的临床治疗将会是一种有效的方法。

73.The following appeared in a memo from a manager of a car dealership. "Ten years ago, long-term car leasing became available in our country of Mohilia as an alternative to outright car ownership, and leasing has

steadily risen in popularity. For each of the last five years, the number of people leasing new cars has surpassed the number buying new cars. The average age of cars driven in Mohilia is six years; hence, if new car leases again outnumber purchases this year, it is likely that the majority of drivers will be driving leased, not individually owned, cars. Therefore, we should change the focus of our business from selling cars to leasing them." 10 年前,长期汽车租赁在我们 Mohilia 国家出现,成为对于汽车完全所有权的一种补充,这种租赁业务的 受欢迎度也逐渐增加。过去五年的每一年中,租赁新车的人数都超过了买新车的人数。Mohilia 的汽车平均 使用时间为 6 年;因此,如果新车租赁在今年又一次超过购买,有可能大多数驾驶员将会开租来的车而不 是私人拥有的车。因此,我们应该把业务重点从出售车辆转向租赁车辆。

74.The following appeared in a newsletter about education policy. "The average annual earnings of high school dropouts are significantly less than the average annual earnings of high school graduates. To address this problem, the state governor has proposed that the state should establish free vocational training programs for high school dropouts. But the availability of such programs would probably encourage some students who would otherwise have graduated to drop out in order to pursue vocational training. Hence the proposed programs would lower, not raise, the average earning potential of young people. Therefore, the state should not establish the vocational training programs but should instead focus on improving academic programs in our high schools."

高中辍学者的平均年收入要显著低于高中毕业生。为解决这一问题,州政府提议本州应该为高校辍学者建 立免费的职业培训项目。 但这种项目的实施将可能促使一些本来能够毕业的学生中途退学以参加职业培训。 因此提议中的项目将会降低而不是提高年轻人的平均收入潜力。因此,本州不应该建立职业培训项目而应 该集中精力提高高中的教学项目。

75.The following appeared in a newsletter about health. "The proportion of children in the United States who are overweight is greater now than ever before. Obesity rates among children have been increasing since the 1970's, and during that same time period, the proportion of children living in suburbs has increased. Whereas children in rural areas tend to have outdoor active chores and children in cities often walk to school or other places they need to go, children in suburbs are typically driven everywhere. Thus the increase in childhood obesity is probably due mainly to the suburbanization of America and the associated decrease in the opportunities children have for exercise."

现在美国超重儿童的比例比以往任何时候都要高。20 世纪 70 年代以来儿童肥胖症的发病率增加,而且在 同一时期,生活在郊区的儿童比例也增加了。乡村儿童经常会有室外工作,市区儿童经常步行去学校以及 其他地方,而郊区儿童通常坐车去他们要去的地方。因此儿童肥胖症的增加可能主要是由于美国城市郊区 化以及相应的儿童锻炼机会的减少造成的。

76.The following appeared as part of an article in a health and beauty magazine. "A group of volunteers participated in a study of consumer responses to the new Luxess face cream. Every morning for a month, they washed their faces with mild soap and then applied Luxess. At the end of that month, most volunteers reported a marked improvement in the way their skin looked and felt. Thus it appears that Luxess is truly effective in improving the condition of facial skin." 一组志愿者参加了一项关于消费者对新的 Luxess 面霜的反应的调查。在一个月中的每个早晨,他们都用 柔和香皂洗脸然后使用 Luxess。一个月之后,多数志愿者报告说他们皮肤的观感显著改善。因此,这说明 Luxess 对于改善面部皮肤状况确实有效。 77.The cities of East Sacunda and West Sacunda are in an earthquake-prone area. Since 1985 both cities have had stringent building codes requiring all new buildings to have specific features designed to prevent damage in an earthquake. Buildings built before 1985 are exempt from the codes, but many building owners have modified their buildings to make them conform to the 1985 codes. Last year a major earthquake hit the area, and many people lost their homes. The number of people who were left homeless was much higher in East Sacunda than in West Sacunda, however, so we can conclude that building owners in East Sacunda were less likely to modify their buildings so as to bring them up to the 1985 code standards. 东 Sacunda 市和西 Sacunda 市位于地震易发区。1985 年以来两个城市都实行了严格的建筑规范,要求所 有新建筑必须具有防止地震损害的具体措施。1985 年以前建造的房屋可以不受此规范限制,但很多业主都 对他们的房屋进行了修整以符合 1985 年的规范。去年一场大地震袭击了这个地区,很多人无家可归。东 Sacunda 市无家可归者的人数比西 Sacunda 市高的多,因而我们可以得出结论,东 Sacunda 市的房屋业 主较少修整他们的房屋来符合 1985 年的规范。 78.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of an archaeological magazine. "Archaeologists excavated a cave that had been inhabited by prehistoric people for thousands of years. These people hunted wild animals, many of whose bones were found at levels corresponding to different times of habitation. Most of the bones at the oldest levels, over 40,000 years old, were from a deer species whose modern-day descendants are known to prefer

woodland habitats, whereas most of the bones at more recent levels, dating from 30,000 to 10,000 years ago, were from a gazelle species whose modern-day descendants are known to prefer grasslands. We can thus conclude that the climate of the area changed dramatically between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, causing the terrain to change from woodland to grassland."

考古学家发掘了一个由史前人类居住了上千年的洞穴。这些人类猎杀野生动物,这些动物的骨头在与不同 居住时期相对应的不同地层被发现。大多数在超过 40000 年历史的最久远的地层发现的骨头是一种鹿的骨 头, 这种鹿的后代已知喜欢在林地生活; 而在 30000 到 10000 年前的地层所发现的骨头是一种小羚羊的骨 头, 其后代喜欢在草原生活。 我们可以因此得出结论, 该地区的气候在 40000 到 30000 年前曾剧烈地变化, 导致这一区域从林地变成了草原。

79.The following appeared in a magazine for the trucking industry. "The Longhaul trucking company was concerned that its annual accident rate (the number of accidents per mile driven) was too high. It granted a significant pay increase to its drivers and increased its training standards. It also put strict limits on the number of hours per week each driver could drive. The following year, its trucks were involved in half the number of accidents as before the changes were implemented. A survey of other trucking companies found that the highest-paid drivers were the least likely to have had an accident. Therefore, trucking companies wishing to reduce their accident rate can do so simply by raising their drivers' pay and limiting the overall number of hours they drive." Longhaul 货运公司注意到其年度事故率(每驾驶一百英里所发生的事故数)过高。公司大幅提高了付给驾 驶员的报酬,提高了其训练标准。公司还对每名驾驶员每周驾驶的时数提出了更严格的限定。在随后的一 年里,该公司卡车所卷入的事故数是实行这些改变之前的一半。对于其他一些货运公司的调查发现,报酬 最高的驾驶员是最不容易出车祸的驾驶员。因此,想要降低事故率的货运公司可以简单地通过提高驾驶员 的报酬和限制他们驾驶的总时数来达到目的。

80.The following appeared as an editorial in a health magazine. "Clormium 5 is an odorless, tasteless, and generally harmless industrial by-product that can enter the water supply. A preliminary study has linked cooking with water containing clormium 5 to an increased incidence of allergies and skin rashes. Tests of the drinking water in several areas have revealed the presence of clormium 5. Although it is possible to remove clormium 5 from water, the costs of routine testing and purification are higher than many communities can afford. Therefore, in order to prevent allergies and skin rashes, communities that cannot afford to rid their drinking water of clormium 5 should replace drinking

fountains in public buildings, such as schools and libraries, with bottled-water coolers." Clormium 5 是一种能够进入供水系统的无臭无味且基本无害的工业副产品。一项初步调查发现用含有 Clormium 5 的水做饭与过敏和皮炎发病率的增加有关。在一些地区对于饮用水的检测发现了 Clormium 5 的存在。尽 管我们可以从水中除去 Clormium 5,日常检测和净化的花费要高于很多社区所能承受的值。因此,为防止过敏和皮炎,那些负担不起从水中 除去 Clormium 5 的花费的社区应该把公共建筑比如学校和图书馆的饮水龙头替换成瓶装水冷却器。

81.Allergies are an overreaction of the immune system to certain stimuli. One view is that allergies can develop as the result of childhood exposure to certain irritants, such as dust or animal dander, while the immune system is not yet mature. Another view is that exposure to particular bacteria early in childhood actually triggers the proper development of the immune system, and that limiting exposure to these bacteria through excessive hygiene can cause children's immune systems to overreact to certain irritants later on. A new study supports the second view: children who are washed especially frequently and whose parents clean their homes especially frequently are more likely to develop allergies than are other children. So in order to reduce the incidence of allergies in children and adults, parents should not limit children's exposure to irritants or bacteria.

过敏是免疫系统对某种刺激的过度反应。一种观点认为过敏可能会由于儿童时期免疫系统还不成熟的时候 接触了某种刺激物比如灰尘或动物皮屑而导致。另一种观点认为幼年时接触特定的细菌实际上能促进免疫 系统的正常发育,通过过度的卫生手段切断与这些细菌的接触将会导致儿童的免疫系统以后将对某种刺激 物反应过度。一项新的研究支持了第二种观点:洗澡过于频繁的儿童和其父母打扫房间过于频繁的儿童比 其他儿童更容易患过敏症。因此为减少儿童和成人过敏发病率,家长不应该限制儿童对刺激物或细菌的接 触。

82.The following appeared in a letter to an editor. "In many countries, wood is the primary fuel used for heating and cooking, but wood smoke can cause respiratory and eye problems, and extensive use of wood causes deforestation, a major environmental problem. In contrast, charcoal, made by partially burning wood in a controlled process, is a fuel that creates less smoke than wood does. Moreover, although charcoal costs slightly more than wood, less charcoal is needed to produce the same amount of heat. Therefore, people who use wood as their primary fuel can,

without experiencing economic hardship, switch to charcoal and can thereby improve their health and preserve the environment."

在很多国家,木材是取暖和做饭的主要燃料,但燃烧木材产生的烟能够导致呼吸道和眼部疾患,而且过度 使用木材会导致林木资源枯竭这一严重的环境问题。相比而言,通过一种受控制的流程使木材不充分燃烧 而产生的木炭是一种产生的烟雾比木材少的多的燃料。而且,尽管木炭比木材稍微贵一些,但产生同等热 量所需的木炭比较少。因此,仍以木材为主要燃料的人们可以不会有任何经济障碍地转向木炭,因而能够 提高他们的健康水平并保护环境。

83.The following appeared in a memo from the business manager of Medicine, Inc., a local drugstore. "Most business analysts for the drugstore industry have stated that even when a nation's economy is weak, drugstores' profits are unlikely to decline appreciably. While consumers might put off some kinds of purchases when the economy is slow, prescription and over-the-counter drug purchases are dictated by consumers' health needs, which are independent of the economy. Therefore, Medicine Inc. is likely to continue to have increasing profits and should plan to open an additional drugstore next year."

多数药品商店的商业分析师指出即使当一个国家的经济低迷的时候,药店的利润也不太可能明显下降。经 济萧条时消费者可能放弃某些物品的消费,而处方药和非处方药的消费由消费者的健康需求决定,而这不 取决于经济。因此,Medicine Inc.很可能继续保持盈利的增长,并且应该计划在来年开设一家新药店。 84.The following appeared in a memo written by the head of the Gorham School. "Our school cafeteria should make changes in the lunches that it serves in order to improve the health of our students. Several teachers and I have observed that students who eat these meals tend to eat the main course and the dessert, but seldom finish the vegetable portion. This pattern means that students are missing the vital nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables, which are typically rich in vitamins and minerals. Therefore, the school cafeteria should serve larger fruit and vegetable portions along with smaller main course and dessert portions. This change will be effective because, according to research conducted at the Rose Children's Hospital, children eat the same amount of food served to them-about 55 percent, on average-no matter what the main course is."

我们的学校食堂应该对于它所提供的午餐服务进行改革来提高我们学生的健康。一些教师和我观察到在这 里吃午餐的学生倾向于吃主菜和甜食,但很少把蔬菜吃完。这一习惯意味着学生没有摄取到水果和蔬菜的 营养成分,这通常包含有大量维生素和矿物质。因此,学校食堂应该提供更大分量的水果和蔬菜并减少主

菜和甜食的量。这种改革将会十分有效,因为根据 Rose Children's Hospital 所作的研究,不论主菜是什么,儿童都将会吃掉同等数量的所提供的食物--平均而言大 约 55%。 85.The following appeared in the letter to an editor of a Myrian newspaper. "Under Governor Winslow's leadership over the past four years, Myria has enjoyed unprecedented prosperity. Average wage increases this year are higher than they have been at any time since the 1970's, the number of people who report being unemployed has decreased by 10 percent, and construction of new homes is up by one third. In contrast, over the past four years Governor Winslow's opponent, Mr. Homer, has been mayor of a city in which only a small number of new businesses have opened. If Myrians want another four years like the past four years, they should reelect Governor Winslow." 过去四年中在州长 Winslow 的领导下,Myria 经历了空前的繁荣。今年平均工资提高,而且比 1970 年以 来的任何一年都要高,报告失业的人数下降了 10%,新住房的建造增加了三分之一。相比之下,过去四年 中 Winslow 的竞争对手 Homer 出任了另一个市的市长,那个城市只开展了很少的新型商业。如果 Myria 的居民希望未来四年和过去四年一样,他们就应该再次选举 Winslow。 86.The following appeared in a memo from a member of the Clark City School Board. "Mason Elementary School is faced with a shortage of classroom space. At the same time, parents in our district are increasingly expressing the desire to see improvements in their children's reading abilities. Therefore, we should reduce the number of physical education classes at Mason Elementary and convert part of the gymnasium to class-room space. The school will gain the additional space for classrooms without the cost of extending the building and can use the time that students would have spent in physical education classes to provide more reading instruction. This plan will lead to improvements in students' reading skills." Mason 小学面临着教室空间短缺的问题。同时,我们区的家长对于看到他们的孩子阅读能力提高的愿望越 来越强烈。因此,我们应该减少 Mason 小学体育课的数量,把部分体育场馆改造成教室。学校无需花费资 金扩建校舍就可以获得更多的教室空间, 并且可以把学生原本花在体育课的时间用于提供更多的阅读课程。 这一计划将会带来学生阅读能力的提高。

87.The following appeared in a memo to managers of Christine's, a chain of craft stores. "Several major newspapers have recently run articles noting an increased

interest in pottery. The number of potters in this country has risen by eighteen percent in the past five years, and pottery is particularly gaining popularity on college campuses. In order to take advantage of these trends, Christine's should immediately begin carrying a larger volume of pottery supplies. Since several of our stores have recently experienced a decrease in sales of painting supplies, all store managers should reallocate shelf space from the painting area for the display of pottery. Stores should display posters showing pottery that is designed to appeal to college-age individuals. These actions will undoubtedly increase our profits dramatically." 一些大报最近刊登文章指出对于陶器兴趣的增长。过去五年中全国陶工的数量增加了 18%,并且陶器在大 学校园得到了特殊的青睐。为利用这一潮流,Christine's 应该马上开始提供大量陶器。由于我们的若干商 店最近绘画的销量下降,所有的店主都应该重新安排货架空间,把绘画的货架用于展示陶器。商店应该张 贴能够吸引在校年龄人群的陶器的招贴画。这些举措无疑将会显著增加我们的盈利。

88.The following appeared in a newsletter about health published in the country of Sauria. "According to Sauria's leading nutritional experts, a diet high in complex carbohydrates, and low in fat is optimal for good health and longevity. Because this was the diet of the people who lived in ancient Sauria, one would expect them to have had long and healthy lives. Yet the mummified remains of Sauria's ruling classes from two to three thousand years ago show the existence of many medical problems among the ancient Saurians, including dental problems, elevated blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, and early mortality. Clearly, the diet of the ancient Saurians was responsible for these problems. The high incidence of high blood pressure, obesity, and heart disease in Sauria today even among those who have tried low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets further proves that Sauria's leading nutritional experts are wrong." 根据 Sauria 的权威营养专家的看法,碳水化合物含量高而脂肪含量低的饮食对于健康和长寿是最为有利 的。由于古代 Sauria 的居民所吃的就是这类饮食,我们可以推测他们应该健康而且长寿。然而一两千年前 Sauria 统治阶级的木乃伊残骸显示古代 Sauria 人存在很多疾病,包括牙齿疾患,高血压,肥胖,心脏病和 早夭。显然,古代 Sauria 人的饮食是这些疾患的原因。今天 Sauria 那些既便尝试了低脂肪高碳水化合物 饮食的人中也存在的高血压,肥胖和心脏病的较高发病率进一步证明了 Sauria 权威营养学家是错误的。 89.The following appeared in a newspaper published in the state of Celera. "Speed limits on our state's highways should be eliminated in order to increase our state's prosperity. Because greater speed means more efficient travel, commercial deliveries will be faster, increasing business profits. Elimination of speed limits will also make driving more

attractive to motorists, so that more people will use the highways, providing more highway toll revenues for the state. At the same time, safety on our highways will not be affected: daytime speed limits were eliminated last year in the western states of our country, and no significant increase in the number of accidents in these states has been reported."

本州高速公路的限速应该被取消以促进本州的繁荣。由于更高的速度意味着更高效的交通,商业物流将会 更快捷,从而增加商业利润。限速的取消同样也会使驾驶对于司机更有吸引力,因而更多的人将会使用高 速公路,为本州带来更多的路费收入。同时,高速路的安全并不会受到影响:本国西部州去年取消了白天 的限速,那些州上报的事故数量并没有显著增加。

90.The following appeared in an editorial on health problems in the country of Corpora. "Some pharmacies now feature ultrasound machines that screen for an elevated risk of stroke. For a fee, a technician presses a probe against the neck to determine whether any plaque has thickened the walls of the main artery leading to the brain. Researchers have shown that a thickening of artery walls is associated with elevated stroke risk, and such scans typically find that anywhere from 5 to 20 percent of clients have detectable plaque. All pharmacies should offer this service, because early detection of increased risk for stroke will encourage clients to consult with their doctors and make important life-style changes to reduce their risk of having a stroke. This in turn will cause a decrease in overall medical costs in Corpora."

现在一些药店提供超声仪器来检测中风危险的升高。在交了一定费用之后,医师在颈部插入一根探针来检 测是否有血小板使连接大脑的主动脉血管壁增厚。研究者已证明动脉壁的增厚与中风危险的增加相关联, 这种检测通常能够发现 5%到 20%的顾客有可探测的血小板增加。所有的药店都应该提供这类服务,由于 对中风危险的早期检测将会使顾客咨询他们的医生并对生活方式作出重要改变以减少中风的危险性。这又 将会导致 Corpora 总体医疗费用的下降。

91.The following appeared in an article in Supplements Today. "Dieticians have long known that professional athletes who eat a lot of nuts have higher levels of endurance than those who do not. Researchers have recently discovered that the particular combination of vitamin N and fiber found in some nuts provides a boost for those who participate in strenuous physical activities daily. Both vitamin N and fiber supplements are easily synthesized and widely available. As a result, all those who

participate in athletic activities will be able to increase their endurance and win more games by taking vitamin N along with a fiber supplement."

营养学家早就发现那些吃很多坚果的职业运动员具有比其他人更高的耐力。研究者最近发现一些坚果中存 在的维生素 N 和纤维的组合对于每天参加力量型运动的人有促进作用。 维生素 N 和纤维很容易合成而且容 易获取。 因此, 所有参加体育活动的人都能够通过服用维生素 N 和纤维补充剂来提高耐力并赢得更多比赛。 92.The following is a recommendation from the human resources department at Techforce Computer Company. "Many working parents report that problems related to their childcare arrangements are a major reason for absenteeism from their jobs. Bridgewell Corporation, a tele-communications company, implemented an on-site childcare program and after one year, the company reported that unscheduled absences had declined by 25 percent. Since Techforce has had an increase in unscheduled employee absences over the past year, we should therefore implement our own on-site childcare program. The program will undoubtedly reduce our unscheduled employee absences, resulting in significantly increased productivity."

很多在岗的父母报告说,与他们照顾孩子的安排相关的问题是造成他们缺席的主要原因。通讯公司 Bridgewell Corporation 实施了一项在岗照顾孩子的方案,一年以后,公司报告说计划外缺席下降了 25%。由于 Techforce 在过去几年中计划外缺席增加,我们也应该实施自己的在岗照顾孩子的方案。这一方案无疑将 会减少员工的缺席,并带来生产力的显著提高。

93.The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of a large, highly diversified company. "Ten years ago our company had two new regional office buildings built in two different regions. The buildings were erected by two different construction companies-Alpha and Zeta. Even though the two buildings had virtually identical floor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to build, and its expenses for maintenance last year were twice those of the building constructed by Alpha. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the Zeta building has been higher than that of the Alpha building every year since its construction. Such data, plus the fact that Alpha has a stable workforce with little employee turnover, indicate that we should use Alpha Construction Company, rather than Zeta, for all future building projects." 10 年以前我们公司在两个不同地区拥有两座地方办公建筑。 它们由两家建筑公司--Alpha 和 Zeta 分别建造。 尽管两座建筑的平面布局基本相同,由 Zeta 所建造的建筑造价高出了 30%,去年的维护费用是由 Alpha

建的楼的两倍。而且,Zeta 大楼建成以来的能耗每年都比 Alpha 大楼要多。这些数据,再加上 Alpha 公司 拥有稳定的员工队伍且雇员流动性很小的事实, 表明我们应该使用 Alpha 建筑公司而不是 Zeta 来建造未来 所有的建筑工程。

94.The following appeared in a memo from the president of Bower Builders, a company that constructs new homes. "A nationwide survey reveals that the two most desired home features are a bathroom with a whirlpool tub and a large kitchen. Homes in a nearby development built by our competitor, Domus Construction, have whirlpool tubs and have sold much faster and at significantly higher prices than the average. To increase our sales and profits, we should include whirlpool tubs and larger kitchens as standard features in all our new homes. Since our recent buyers have voiced no complaints about small yards, we can also increase profits by decreasing the size of our yards."

一项全国性调查发现人们最想拥有的两项家庭设施就是具备冲浪浴缸的浴室和大厨房。我们的竞争对手 Domus Construction 在附近开发的新住宅安装了冲浪浴缸,这些住宅的销售速度和售价显著高于平均水平。为增 加我们的销售和利润,我们应该在所有新住宅中设置冲浪浴缸和大型厨房作为标准配置。由于我们的新客 户没有提出对小型庭院的任何投诉,我们也可以通过减小庭院的尺寸来增加盈利。

95.The following appeared in a memo from a budget planner in Sophia County. "Census data indicate that the number of retired couples without children who are moving into Sophia County is steadily rising; private schools in our county report substantial increases in enrollment; and a statewide survey of parents shows that over 10 percent now support the idea of home schooling instead of public schooling funded by the county government. Such demographic trends suggest that our county will not have to construct new school buildings and that we can therefore decrease the budget for county-funded public schools." 普查数据表明,搬到 Sophia County 的无子女退休夫妇的数量正在稳步增加;我们镇的私立学校上报的注册人数增加;对于家长的州际 调查发现 10%以上的人现在支持私人办学的想法而不是由镇政府出资设立公立学校。 这些趋势说明我们镇 不需要建立新的学校建筑,因而我们可以减少市镇出资的公立学校的预算。

96.The following appeared in a magazine focusing on health and fitness. "A recent study of several nutritional supplements showed that subjects who took a daily pill containing luceen had significantly better vision of

distant objects than subjects in the study who took other nutritional supplements. Luceen appears naturally in a tasty fruit that grows on the island of Bonopia, and very few inhabitants of that island wear eyeglasses or other corrective lenses. Such evidence suggests that people who develop vision problems should take regular luceen supplements." 最近一项对于若干营养补充剂的调查显示, 那些每天服用一片含有 luceen 的药片的调查对象远距离视力要 大大好于服用其他营养补充剂的调查对象。Bonopia 岛生长的一种美味水果就含有 luceen,该岛居民很少 有人戴眼镜或其他矫正镜片。这些证据说明视力有问题的人应该经常服用 luceen 补充剂。 97.The following appeared in a memo from the manager of television station KICK. "A nationwide survey reveals that a sizeable majority of men would like to see additional sports programs on television. After television station WACK increased its sports broadcasts, its share of the television audience in its viewing area almost doubled. To gain a larger audience share in our area, and thus increase company profits, KICK should also revise its broadcast schedule to include more sports coverage." 一项全国性调查发现,大多数的男性希望在电视上看到更多的体育节目。在 WACK 电视台增加了体育节目 后,在其收视范围内的收视率几乎增加了一倍。为在本地区获得更高收视率,并从而增加公司利润,KICK 也应该修改其播出计划来播放更多的体育节目。

98.The following appeared in a memo from the director of a large group of hospitals. "In a laboratory study of liquid antibacterial hand soaps, a concentrated solution of Nadasept killed 40 percent more bacteria than the liquid hand soaps currently used in our hospitals. During a subsequent test of Nadasept at our hospital in Saluda, that hospital reported significantly fewer cases of patient infection than did any of the other hospitals in our group. Therefore, to prevent serious patient infections, we should supply Nadasept at all hand washing stations throughout our hospital system." 在一次对于抗菌洗手液的实验研究中, Nadasept 浓缩液比我们医院现在使用的洗手液多杀灭 40%的细菌。 在我们 Saluda 的医院随后所作的对 Nadasept 的测试中, 该医院上报的患者感染数量显著少于我们集团的 其他医院。因此,为防止严重的患者感染,我们应该在我们的医院系统所有的洗手站提供 Nadasept。 99.The following appeared in a memo from the economic minister of the small country Paucia. "Using a newly developed variety of seed, farmers in our neighboring

country Abundia produced 80 percent more rice last year than in any previous year. To increase the income of farmers in our own country, we should encourage them to cultivate this new variety of rice rather than some of their traditional crops. Such high yields of rice will also improve our country's balance of trade by enabling us to begin exporting it." 通过使用一种新研制的种子,我们临近国家 Abundia 的农民在去年生产了比以往多 80%的大米。为增加我 们国家农民的收入,我们应该鼓励他们培育这种新的大米品种,而不是那些他们的传统谷类作物。这种大 米的高产量也将会使我国通过出口大米促进贸易平衡。

100.The following appeared in a memo from the chief operating officer of the Presto Manufacturing Company. "Since orders for our major product increased by over 200 percent last quarter, we should promptly expand production by building a new manufacturing plant in Summit City. Summit City is the ideal location for the new plant because it has low property taxes, extensive blocks of land available for immediate purchase, and a large number of residents who are not currently employed." 由于上个季度我们主要产品的定单增加了 200%多,我们应该马上通过在 Summit City 建造一座新工厂来 扩大生产。Summit City 是新工厂的理想位置,因为那里的地产税比较低,具有可以立即购买的大片土地,以及大量尚未就业 的居民。

101.The following appeared in a memo from the president of a company that makes breakfast cereals. "In a recent study, subjects who ate soybeans at least five times per week had significantly lower cholesterol levels than subjects who ate no soy products. By fortifying our Wheat-O cereal with soy protein, we can increase sales by appealing to additional consumers who are concerned about their health. This new version of Wheat-O should increase company profits and, at the same time, improve the health of our customers."

在最近的一次调查中,那些每周至少吃五次大豆的调查对象的胆固醇值比不吃大豆制品的人低很多。通过 在我们的 Wheat-O 麦片中添加大豆蛋白,我们可以通过吸引更多的关注自身健康的消费者来增加销量。这 种新的 Wheat-O 应该能够增加公司的利润,并且同时促进我们消费者的健康。 102.The following appeared in a letter from the mayor of Tudor City.

"After a major airline chose Yorkville as its regional flight hub, the number of businesses in that city almost doubled and local tax revenue increased by 50 percent. In addition, as travel to Yorkville became easier, most respondents to a survey of the country's top executives identified Yorkville as a desirable place to transact business. To secure efficient transportation for Tudor City and stimulate our local economy, we should build a new airport, like the one in Yorkville, that is suitable for a regional flight hub." 在一家大航空公司选择了 Yorkville 作为他们的区域航线枢纽之后,该城市的生意数量几乎增加了一倍,地 方税收增加了 50%。而且,由于到 Yorkville 的交通更加便捷,一次对于全国高层经营者的调查的多数回 应者把 Yorkville 作为他们进行商务谈判的理想场所。为保障 Tudor City 的有效交通并刺激我们的区域经济,我们应该建立一个类似 Yorkville 机场的,可以作为区域航线枢纽 的新机场。

103.Blue City Highway had always been notorious for its tight curves and poor roadway visibility, and the accident rate there was generally very high. Last year the highway was redesigned to broaden the curves and improve roadway visibility. Drivers report that they now feel much safer driving on the highway and that the redesign has been a big improvement. But the number of accidents on the highway has not been significantly lower in the six months since the redesign than it was in the six months before the redesign. Therefore, the redesign clearly did not improve the curves and roadway visibility enough to make a difference. Blue City 高速公路过窄的弯道和很差的视野是一直以来为人所知的,那里的事故率总是非常高。去年高速公路 进行了改造,加宽了弯道并改善了视野。驾驶员报告说他们现在在这条路上开车时感到安全多了,这次改 造是一个很大的进步。但是在改造之后的六个月中公路上的事故数量并没有比以前显著下降。因此,改造 显然并没有对于弯道和道路视野起到足够的改善。

104.One kind of brain-scanning device is used by doctors to monitor normal as well as abnormal activity in a patient's brain. The device provides precise measurements of blood flow in the brain, a known indicator of how the brain is working. Unfortunately, the device requires patients to remain completely still with their heads in the scanning machine, which makes a very loud noise. Under these uncomfortable conditions, it is doubtful that doctors can get accurate measurements. A new head-mounted device that measures eye movements rather than blood flow and allows patients to move around will undoubtedly provide better brain measurements. Thus, the new head-mounted device should replace the older device at all hospitals and research institutions.


量,脑部的血流是脑部运作状态的已知标志。然而,这种装置需要患者的头部位于将会产生很大噪声的扫 描仪器里面时保持完全静止。在这种不舒适的条件下,医生能否得到准确的测量结果是可疑的。一种新的 检测眼球活动而不是血流的头戴式仪器允许患者活动,它无疑将会提供更好的脑部测量。因此,这种新式 头戴仪器应该在所有医院和研究机构中代替老式装置。

105.The following appeared in a health newsletter. "According to a recent study, people with many social ties report catching colds less often than do people with few social ties. Consequently, researchers conclude that having an active social life probably helps strengthen the immune system. The researchers note that catching a cold-one of a family of highly contagious viruses-gives the cold-sufferer temporary immunity to that virus in the future, but not to the many other related viruses. Merely being exposed to a new cold virus, however, is not enough for a person to catch a cold, since a strong immune system can successfully fight off some new viruses. Thus, in order to prevent catching a cold, people should strengthen their immune systems by becoming more active socially."

根据最近的一次研究,那些具有很多社会关系的人所报告的感冒要比很少有社会关系的人少。于是研究者 得出结论,拥有积极的社会生活可能能够帮助加强免疫系统。研究者指出患一种感冒--它只是一系列高度 传染性病毒中的一种--将给予患者对于这种病毒暂时的免疫力,但不能对很多其他相关病毒也免疫。然而, 仅仅是接触到一种新的感冒病毒并不足以导致一个人患感冒,因为强壮的免疫系统能够成功地战胜一些新 病毒。因此,为防止患感冒,人们应该通过积极参加社会活动来加强免疫系统。

106.The following editorial appeared in a newspaper in the country of Solaria. "The Eliot Valley region was primarily agricultural twenty years ago. In the past twenty years, however, many computer-chip manufacturers have opened factories there. A recent study found that water pollution in the region was worse than in any other region in the country. Moreover, the computer-chip factories, which use large quantities of water to manufacture the chips, are probably responsible for the low levels of water in the region's lakes and reservoirs. Therefore, if the region's computer-chip makers had limits placed on the amount of water they could use, water quality would improve." Eliot Valley 地区在二十年前基本以农业为主。然而在过去 20 年中,很多计算机芯片生产商在那里开设了工厂。 最近一次调查发现那里的水质污染比本国其他任何地区都严重。而且,这些芯片工厂使用大量的水用于生 产,它们可能是造成该地区湖泊和水库低水位的原因。因此,如果这些芯片生产商对于他们的用水量加以 限制,水质将会改善。

107.The following appeared in an editorial in the Seatown newspaper. "Seatown has a large port exclusively for fishing boats, whose owners pay fees for the upkeep of the docks and for facilities for cleaning engines and repairing nets. In recent years, declining fish populations have decreased fishing revenue and forced many owners to stop fishing altogether. As a result, the port has a high vacancy rate and port managers are considering allowing pleasure boats, including cruise ships and other large vessels, to use the port in order to increase revenue. But allowing pleasure boats into the port would be a mistake, because the fishing boats would be forced out of the port. We should preserve the port for the fishing fleet, which, unlike pleasure boats, contributes to the prosperity of Seatown." Seatown 拥有一个专供渔船使用的港口,渔船的拥有者缴纳一定的费用来维护码头以及用于清洁引擎和维 修渔网的设施。近年来,捕鱼人数的下降导致渔业收入减少,并迫使很多渔船拥有者停止捕鱼。这导致港 口有大量空位,港口管理者正在考虑允许娱乐船只包括游轮和其他大型船只使用港口来增加收入。但允许 娱乐船只进入港口将会是一个错误,因为这将迫使渔船离开港口。我们应该为渔船保留港口,渔船与娱乐 船只不同,它们为 Seatown 带来了繁荣。 108.The following appeared in a Brenton newspaper. "The Brenton power plant draws water from Scott's River for its cooling system and releases the warmed water back into the river. The town council recommends that the plant install a more efficient cooling system that uses less water, claiming it will be more environmentally sound. However, in Uptown, where the new system is used, a study found that the complex network of pipes in the new system tends to accumulate algae. The build up of algae can be avoided by scrubbing the pipes, which is costly, or by adding an herbicide to the water in the pipes to prevent algae accumulation. But water containing the herbicide cannot be released back into the river and it is known that low water levels can harm river ecosystems accustomed to higher levels. Therefore, Brenton power plant should continue to use the old cooling system exclusively." Brenton 电厂从 Scott 河抽水供其冷却系统使用并把升温的水重新排回河中。 市委建议电厂安装一套更有效 的用水量更少的冷却系统,他们认为这会更加环保。然而,在使用了新系统的 Uptown,一次调查发现新系 统复杂的管线将会聚积水藻。水藻的淤积可以通过擦洗管道来预防,这花费很高;或者通过向管道中的水 添加除草剂来防止水藻淤积。但含有除草剂的水不能再排向河流,而且我们知道低水位将会对习惯于高水 位的河流生态系统造成危害。因此,Brenton 电厂应该继续使用原有的冷却系统。

109.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Maple City newspaper.

"Twenty years ago Pine City established strict laws designed to limit the number of new buildings that could be constructed in the city. Since that time the average housing prices in Pine City have increased considerably. Chestnut City, which is about the same size as Pine City, has over the past twenty years experienced an increase in average housing prices similar to Pine City, but Chestnut City never established any laws that limit new building construction. So it is clear that laws limiting new construction have no effect on average housing prices. So if Maple City were to establish strict laws that limit new building construction, these laws will have no effect on average housing prices." 20 年前 Pine City 建立了严格的法令来限制该市未来建造的高层建筑的数量。从那以后 Pine City 的平均房 价显著上涨。和 Pine City 差不多同等规模的 Chestnut City 在过去 20 年中经历了和 Pine City 类似的房价上涨,但 Chestnut City 从未建立任何限制高层建筑的法令。因此限制高层的法令对于平均房价没有影响。所以如果 Maple City 建立限制新的高层建筑的法令的话,这种法令不会影响平均房价。 110.The following appeared in a memo from the Principal of Sherwood Junior High School. ="It =appears that the lighting in Sherwood High's classrooms, which have large windows but minimal overhead light sources, is impairing student academic performance and teacher morale. Records show that during December and January, the two months with the fewest hours of daylight, attendance rates fall, average daily class participation drops, and grades decline. Teacher resignations are also highest during these months. According to a study of Tundra Vocational School, which experiences entire seasons with little daylight, students' grade point averages increased when Day Glow light bulbs, which mimic sunlight, were installed in classrooms. This study suggests that Sherwood can improve students' academic performance and teachers' morale by using Day Glow light bulbs in winter." 在拥有很大的窗户而天花采光很少的 Sherwood High 的教室的采光好像影响了学生的学习成绩和教师的精神。记录表明在日光最少的十二月和一月,出席 率下降,每日平均课程参加量减少,分数降低。教师辞职的数量在这两个月也是最多的。根据一项对于全 年日照都很少的 Tundra Vocational School 的调查,在教室安装了一种模拟日光的 Day Glow 灯泡之后学生平均成绩上升了。这一研究说明 Sherwood 可以通过在冬天使用 Day Glow 灯泡来提高 学生学习成绩和教师的精神。

111.The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of marketing

at Dura-Sock, Inc. "A recent study of Dura-Sock wearers suggests that our company is wasting the money it spends on its patented "Endure" manufacturing process, which ensures that our socks are strong enough to last for two years. Dura-Sock has always advertised its use of the "Endure" process, but the new study shows that the average Dura-Sock customer actually purchases new Dura-Socks every three months. Furthermore, Dura-Sock customers surveyed in our largest market, northeastern United States cities, say that they most value Dura-Sock's stylish appearance and availability in many colors. These findings suggest that Dura-Sock can increase its profits by discontinuing its use of the "Endure" manufacturing process." 最近一次对于 Dura-Sock 使用者的调查表明我们公司用于其专利生产方式"Endure"上的钱是浪费的,这种 方式使我们生产的袜子足以使用两年。Dura-Sock 一直在做广告宣传它使用"Endure"方式,但这次新调查 显示一般 Dura-Sock 的消费者每三个月就买一双 Dura-Sock 袜子。而且,在位于美国北部城市我们最大的 商场回应调查的 Dura-Sock 消费者说他们最欣赏 Dura-Sock 时尚的外观和众多颜色的选择。 这些事实说明 Dura-Sock 可以通过停止使用"Endure"生产方式来增加盈利。 112.The following proposal was raised at a meeting of the Franklin City Council. "Franklin Airport, which is on a bay, is notorious for flight delays. The airport management wants to build new runways to increase capacity but can only do so by filling in 900 acres of the bay. The Bay Coalition organization objects that filling in the bay will disrupt tidal patterns and harm wildlife. But the airport says that if it is permitted to build its new runways, it will fund the restoration of 1,000 acres of wetlands in areas of the bay that have previously been damaged by industrialization. This plan should be adopted, for it is necessary to reduce the flight delays, and the wetlands restoration part of the plan ensures that the bay's environment will actually be helped rather than hurt." 位于海湾的 Franklin 机场因其航班的晚点而臭名昭著。机场管理者想建一些新跑道来增加机场容量,但这 只能通过填埋 900 亩海湾来实现。Bay Coalition 组织反对说填埋将会扰乱潮汐规律并对生物造成破坏。但机场方面声称如果修建新跑道的计划被 批准,他们将会出资重整海湾以前因工业化而被破坏的地区的湿地。这一计划应该被采纳,因为减少航班 误点是必须的,而且计划中重整湿地的部分将会保证海湾的环境将会得到改善而不是被破坏。

113.The following was published by a consumer protection agency. "Three years ago, So-Low launched a nationwide ad campaign, focusing

heavily on sunny regions and distributing free sunglasses there. But although So-Low sunglasses cost less than higher-priced brands, they block a smaller proportion of the Sun's rays, including the type of rays known to damage the eyes even when the person wearing the sunglasses feels no discomfort. A recent study suggests that So-Low sunglasses can actually increase the risk of damage to people's eyes by creating a false sense of security. The study shows a sharp increase in the incidence of vision problems in the sunny regions over the past three years. These findings suggest that anyone concerned about eye damage from the Sun should avoid So-Low brand and instead either pay for higher-priced brands or wear no sunglasses at all." 3 年前,So-Low 开展了一次全国性的广告推广活动,主要集中于日照较多的地区,在那里散发免费的太阳 镜。但尽管 So-Low 的太阳镜比其他更昂贵品牌的便宜,它所阻挡的太阳光比例也较小,其中包含即便是 戴太阳镜的人没有感到不舒服也会对眼睛造成损害的光。最近一次研究表明 So-Low 太阳镜由于会造成一 种虚假的安全感而实际增加人们眼睛受损伤的危险。研究显示在过去三年中那些日照较多地区的视觉问题 发生率猛增。这些发现说明所有关注因日光引起眼部疾患的人应该避免使用 So-Low 牌子的太阳镜,而应 该购买更高价格的品牌或是根本不戴太阳镜。

114.A recently completed study shows that people dwelling in stairs-only apartment buildings (that is, buildings without elevators) live an average of three years longer than do people who live in buildings with both elevators and stairs. A second study shows that elderly residents of buildings with elevators make, on average, twice as many visits to doctors each year as do elderly residents of buildings without elevators. These findings suggest that even a very moderate amount of daily exercise, such as that required to use the stairs leading to and from one's apartment, can increase people's health and longevity. The findings also suggest that new apartment buildings should be constructed with as few elevators as possible.

最近完成的一次调查显示居住在只有楼梯的公寓(即没有电梯的建筑)中的人比居住在楼梯电梯齐备的房 屋中的人平均寿命长三年。另一次调查显示平均而言有电梯的房屋中的老年住户每年看医生的次数是住在 没有电梯的房屋中的老年人的两倍。这些事实说明每天即便是很少量的运动,比如走楼梯上下楼,将会促 进人们的健康并导致长寿。这些发现也说明新的公寓房屋应该尽可能减少电梯的数量。

115.The following appeared in a clothing industry trade journal in the country of Sartoria. "A popular fashion magazine recently conducted a survey of consumers' opinions about clothing prices, using prepaid mailing envelopes. Eighty-nine percent of the approximately 20,000 respondents reported that they were either "dissatisfied" or "very dissatisfied" with current clothing prices. The large number of responses indicates that the

Sartorian clothing industry is at risk. Given the survey results, clothing manufacturers must find a way to reduce prices in order to keep their existing customers and maintain their businesses."

一本流行的时尚杂志最近组织了一次有关消费者对服装价格的意见的调查,调查使用了预付邮资的信封。 大约 20000 名回应者中有 89%报告说他们对于当前服装价格是"不满意"或是"非常不满意"的。巨大的回应 数量表明 Sartoria 的服装工业正面临危险。根据调查结果,服装生产商必须设法降低价格来保持他们现有 的消费者并维持他们的业务。

116.The following appeared in a memo from Grocery Town's regional manager. "The new Grocery Town store in Elm City, located near a new residential development, has a 'high-low' pricing policy where average prices are relatively high, but deep discounts are offered on some items in weekly specials. This store has been showing increased profits every month as the nearby residential development gets closer to full capacity. It follows that people prefer a pricing policy where they can find bargains on specific items. Since there is a new residential development planned in Oak City, we should change the pricing policy at all of our Oak City stores from our current 'everyday low prices' policy to a 'high-low' policy. This will increase the profits at all of our stores in Oak City." Elm City 新的 Grocery Town 商店位于一个新的居民区附近,制定了一项"高-低"价格政策,规定平均价格相对较高,但每周对于 若干特价商品进行很大的折扣。随着附近的居民区入住率的增加,该商店每个月的利润都在增长。这说明 人们喜欢可以找到特价商品的价格政策。由于在 Oak City 规划中也有一个新的居住区,我们应该把我们所有在 Oak City 的商店的价格政策从现行的"天天平价"改为"高-低"政策。这将会增加我们所有在 Oak City 商店的盈 利。

117.The following is a memo from the business manager of Valu-Mart stores. "Over 70 percent of the respondents to a recent survey reported that they are required to take more work home with them from the workplace than they were in the past. Since Valu-Mart has not seen impressive sales in its office-supply departments in the past, we should take advantage of this work-at-home trend by increasing at all Valu-Mart stores the stock of home office machines such as printers, small copy machines, paper shredders, and fax machines. We will also increase stock of office supplies such as paper, pens, and staplers. With these changes, our office-supply departments will become the most profitable component of our stores." 最近一次调查超过 70%的回应者报告说他们被要求回家完成的工作量比以前多。由于 Valu-Mart 在过去并 没有发现办公用品部销量的显著上升,我们应该利用这种在家办公的趋势,在所有 Valu-Mart 商店增加家

庭办公机器比如打印机、小型复印机、碎纸机和传真机的存货。我们也将增加办公用品比如纸笔和钉书机 的存货。通过这些变革,我们办公用品部将会成为我们商店中盈利最多的部门。

118.The following appeared in a newsletter from a national astronomy association. "Various sources are predicting higher-than-average temperatures across the country next winter, including in Sun City, the traditional location of our yearly winter conference. Higher winter temperatures are sure to result in higher-than-usual tourism in Sun City, a location already known for its attractive beaches and good weather. Hotels will have fewer rooms available, transportation will be more difficult to reserve, and public places such as parks and restaurants will be more crowded. These conditions are likely to significantly reduce attendance at the conference. We should therefore move our conference to a city less popular with winter tourists." 很多方面都预言说下一个冬季全国气候都将高于同期平均温度,包括我们每年冬季会议的传统召开地 Sun City。更高的冬季温度一定会导致 Sun City 的游客多于往常,Sun City 是一个因其迷人的海滩和良好的气候而知名的地点。旅馆的空余客房将会减少,交通将会更加难于预 订,公共场所比如公园和饭店将会更加拥挤。这些情况将可能大大减少会议的出席率。因此我们应该把会 议转移到一个冬季游客不多的城市进行。

119.The following is a letter to the editor of the Waymarsh Times. "Traffic problems here in Waymarsh are obviously reaching record levels. While just three months ago it would take me 15 minutes to get to work, it now takes closer to 25. Waymarsh should follow the example of our neighboring city Gearsville. Last year, Gearsville implemented a policy that rewards people who share rides to work with coupons for free gas. Pollution levels in Gearsville have dropped since the policy was implemented, and several friends who live in Gearsville tell me that their trip to work is quicker than it used to be. With the terrible traffic and high pollution in Waymarsh, we must implement a policy similar to Gearsville's." Waymarsh 的交通问题显然正在接近纪录。仅仅三个月之前我上班路上需要 15 分钟,现在几乎需要 25 分 钟。Waymarsh 应该借鉴我们临近城市 Gearsville 的例子。去年,Gearsville 实施了一项政策,奖励那些 合伙搭车上下班的人以免费的汽油券。政策实施之后 Gearsville 的污染水平下降了,一些住在 Gearsville 的朋友告诉我他们上班比以前要快。鉴于 Waymarsh 严重的交通与污染问题,我们必须实施和 Gearsville 类似的政策。

120.The following appeared in a health newsletter.

"A ten-year nationwide study of the effectiveness of wearing a helmet while bicycling indicates that ten years ago, approximately 35 percent of all bicyclists reported wearing helmets, whereas today that number is nearly 80 percent. Another study, however, suggests that during the same ten-year period, the number of accidents caused by bicycling has increased 200 percent. These results demonstrate that bicyclists feel safer because they are wearing helmets and they take more risks as a result. Thus, to reduce the number of serious injuries from bicycle accidents, the government should concentrate more on educating people about bicycle safety and less on encouraging or requiring bicyclists to wear helmets." 一项为期十年的对于在骑自行车时戴头盔的作用的研究显示,10 年前,所有骑车人中大约有 35%报告说 他们戴头盔,现在这个比例接近 80%。然而另外一项调查显示在相同的十年期间,因骑车引起的事故数量 增加了 200%。这些结果说明骑车人因为戴着头盔而感到更安全,因而导致他们面临更大的危险。因此, 为减少自行车事故中严重伤害的数量,政府应该更多地对人们加强自行车安全的教育,并提供鼓励或要求 骑车人戴头盔的课程。

121.The following is a memo from the president of Cyberell Computer Company. "All of our customer-service employees recently attended a two-day retreat during which they received retraining in effective customer service. Subsequently, Cyberell's employee-performance study showed that the retreat benefited new employees-those who have worked with Cyberell for less than two years-far more than it did experienced employees. According to the study, after the retreat new employees were able to handle an average of ten percent more calls per hour, and the total number of customer complaints about new employees decreased, but experienced employees showed little improvement in these areas. Therefore, Cyberell should send only new employees to future retreats and should use the resulting savings to double the length of the retreats so that the retreats will be more likely to yield optimum employee performance."

我们所有的客户服务人员最近参加了一次为期两天的进修,进修期间他们接受了关于有效的客户服务方面 的再训练。结果,Cyberell 的员工绩效考察发现进修对于新员工--即那些在 Cyberell 工作不到两年的员工-的作用远大于对老员工的作用。根据这次考察,进修之后新员工平均每小时能够多应答 10%的电话,而客 户对于新员工的投诉总量下降了,但老员工在这些方面的提高很小。因此,Cyberell 应该只把新员工送去 参加未来的进修,并应该把因此而节省的开支用于把进修的时间加倍,这样的话进修将会导致更好的员工 绩效

122.The following appeared in the Pine City Gazette.

"Fifteen years ago, Pine City launched an electricity-conservation program that reimbursed residents some of the cost for replacing energy-wasteful motors, home office equipment, and home appliances with energy-efficient ones. For ten years, spending on this program increased annually, and annual total energy consumption declined. But spending on the program began to decline five years ago, and since then Pine City's total electricity consumption has increased sharply. If this increased usage continues, the city will have to build a costly new power plant. Obviously the best way to avoid this expense is to increase reimbursement to residents for replacing energy-wasteful equipment. This will reduce energy usage to the levels of five years ago." 15 年前,Pine City 实施了一项节电措施,该措施给予市民一定的补偿用于把能耗大的电机、家用办公设备和家用电器更 换为节能的型号。在开始的十年,在这项措施上的支出每年都在增加,而每年的总用电量下降了。但在这 项措施上的支出在五年前开始减少,并且从那以后 Pine City 的总用电量急剧上升。如果这种用量上升的势头持续下去,城市将必须修建一座昂贵的新的发电厂。 显然避免这项开支的最好办法就是增加对居民更换大能耗设备的补偿。这将把能源消耗降低到五年前的水 平。

123.The following appeared in a health newsletter. "Eating a heavy meal may increase the risk of heart attack. A recent survey of 2,000 people who had had a heart attack revealed that 158 of them said they had eaten a heavy meal within 24 hours before their heart attack, and 25 of them said they had eaten a heavy meal within 2 hours before their heart attack. Eating and digesting food releases hormones into the bloodstream and temporarily increases heart rate and blood pressure slightly. Both of these things put stress on the heart. Therefore, people who are at risk of having a heart attack can lower that risk by not overeating." 每顿饭食量过大会增加患心脏病的危险。最近一项对于 2000 名曾经患心脏病的人调查发现,其中有 158 人说在患心脏病前的 24 小时之内吃过一顿量很大的饭,其中有 25 人说在患心脏病前两小时之内吃过量很 大的饭。食用和消化食物将会向血液中释放荷尔蒙,并暂时轻微增加心率和血压。这些都会增加心脏的压 力。因此,那些有患心脏病危险的人可以通过避免饮食过量而减少这种危险。

124.The following is a memo from the business manager of National Daily News. "To expand the home delivery service of our national newspaper, we should concentrate on the state of Urba rather than on the state of Sylva. First, the population of Sylva is more widely dispersed, which would require us

to spend more money to deliver our papers in that area, resulting in less profit per customer. Second, a long-term study of television viewing habits suggests that Sylvans prefer local to national news, since they spend twice as much time viewing local news programs as they do viewing national programs. Finally, because events in Urba receive more coverage in our newspaper than do events in Sylva, we can expect Urbans to be more interested in reading our newspaper." 为扩展我们国家报纸的家庭递送服务,我们应该集中力量于 Urba 州而不是 Sylva 州。首先,Sylva 的人口 分布得更加分散,这要求我们在这个州递送报纸的时候要花更多的钱,从而导致每个客户的平均利润减少。 其次,一项长期的对于观看电视的习惯的研究表明,Sylva 的居民相对于国家新闻而言更喜欢看地方新闻, 因为他们用于观看地方新闻节目的时间是观看国家节目的两倍。最后,由于 Urba 州的事件在我们报纸上 所占的版面要多于 Sylva 的事件,我们可以预计 Urba 的居民对于我们的报纸会更感兴趣。 125.The following is a recommendation from the president of Appleby College. "Whereas Appleby College holds class reunions every five years, Edelston College holds annual reunions for all classes, during which Edelston's alumni are treated to banquets, lectures, and student performances, enhancing their loyalty to the college and their willingness to donate money. Edelston College receives most of its alumni donations during or shortly after these reunions. Therefore, the best way for Appleby to increase its alumni donations is to offer similar reunion activities and to have each graduating class hold annual reunions." Appleby 学院每五年举行一次班级同学聚会,而 Edelston 学院的所有班级每年举行聚会,并且在聚会上 Edelston 的校友可以参加宴会、 讲座和学生表演, 这提高了他们对学校的感情以及他们给母校捐款的愿望。 Edelston 学院的大部分校友捐款是在聚会期间或之后很短时间内获得的。因此,Appleby 增加校友捐款的 最好途径就是组织类似的聚会活动,并且让每个毕业班级组织一年一度的聚会。

126.The following appeared in a health magazine. "It has long been believed that getting at least eight hours of sleep a night is good for health. But a recent six-year study of adult sleeping habits found that people who reported sleeping eight or more hours a night had a higher rate of certain health problems than did those who reported sleeping seven hours a night. People who reported sleeping five hours a night also had an increased rate of the health problems, but this increase was slight compared to that for people who reported sleeping eight or more hours a night. Clearly, people should try to get seven hours of sleep, and they should worry more about getting too much sleep than too little." 长期以来人们相信每天睡眠至少 8 小时是有利于健康的。但是最近一次对于成年人睡眠习惯的为期 6 年的

研究发现,那些报告说每天睡眠 8 小时或以上的人某些健康问题的发生率比那些报告说每天睡 7 小时的人 高。报告说每天睡 5 小时的人健康问题发生率也高,但和报告 8 小时睡眠的人相比比较轻微。显然,人们 应该尽量每天睡 7 小时,并且相对于睡眠不足来说,他们更应该避免睡眠过量。

127.The vice president for human resources at Climpson Industries sent the following recommendation to the company's president. "In an effort to improve our employees' productivity, we should implement electronic monitoring of employees' Internet use from their workstations. Employees who use the Internet from their workstations need to be identified and punished if we are to reduce the number of work hours spent on personal or recreational activities, such as shopping or playing games. By installing software to detect employees' Internet use on company computers, we can prevent employees from wasting time, foster a better work ethic at Climpson, and improve our overall profits."

为提高我们的员工的生产效率,我们应该在员工的终端上加装电子监控来监视员工对互联网的使用。如果 我们要减少用于私人以及娱乐活动,比如购物或玩游戏的工作时间,在终端上使用互联网的员工必须要被 确认并且受到惩罚。通过在公司电脑上安装检测员工使用互联网的软件,我们可以防止员工浪费时间,并 培养 Climpson 更好的工作氛围,以及提高我们的整体利润。 128.The following appeared in an editorial in the Garden City Gazette. "To address the parking problems in our downtown business district, it has been proposed that the city increase parking capacity by building a four-story parking garage. However, this project would cost more than it would to improve the downtown pedestrian plaza. Because the pedestrian plaza is an important attraction that draws people to the downtown area, improvements to it will increase business for downtown merchants. The merchants' higher profits will ultimately produce increased tax revenues for the city. Therefore, we should invest in the plaza improvements first and then use the revenues thus generated to pay for the construction of the parking garage." 为解决我们闹市商业区的停车问题,曾有提案提出建造一幢 4 层停车楼来增加车位。然而,这一方案的花 费要比改善闹市步行广场的花费多。由于步行广场是把人们吸引到闹市区的重要因素,对于它的改善将会 促进闹市的商业。更多的商业利润将最终增加城市税收。因此,我们应该首先投资于广场改造,然后用它 产生的收入来建造停车楼。

129.The following appeared in the Sherwood Times newspaper. "A recent study reported that pet owners have longer, healthier lives on average than do people who own no pets. Specifically, dog owners tend to

have a lower incidence of heart disease. In light of these findings, Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an 'adopt-a-dog' program. The program would encourage dog ownership for patients recovering from heart disease, which will help reduce medical costs by reducing the number of these patients needing ongoing treatment. In addition, the publicity about the program will encourage more people to adopt pets from the shelter, which will reduce the risk of heart disease in the general population."

一项最近的研究报告说养宠物的人平均而言比不养宠物的人活得更长更健康。特别是,养狗的人心脏病发 病率更低。根据这些发现,Sherwood 医院应该和 Sherwood 动物收养所合作建立一个"收养狗"的计划。这 一计划将会鼓励正在治疗心脏病的患者养狗,这将通过减少这些患者接受治疗的次数而减少医疗费用。而 且,对于这一计划的宣传将鼓励更多的人从收养所领养宠物,这将减少整体人群患心脏病的危险。

130.The following appeared in the annual report of a chain of stores that sell supplies for do-it-yourself home improvements. "Current reports indicate that sales of new homes nationwide declined by 9 percent during the past year, while sales of existing homes increased by 16 percent. Thus we can expect that the percentage of homeowners who will be making repairs or improvements to their homes will also increase. In addition, people who buy existing homes will have more money left over after the purchase to spend on home improvements. Finally, people who buy existing homes are more likely to make improvements themselves, as opposed to paying someone else. These factors combined indicate we can expect an increasing demand for products in all our stores nationwide, thus increasing our profits in the coming year." 当前的报告指出全国的新住宅销量在去年下降了 9%,而旧房销量增加了 16%。因此我们可以预见将会修 缮或改造其房屋的业主比例也会增加。而且,那些买旧房的人在购房后将会有更多的富余金钱用于房屋改 造。最后,买旧房的人更可能自己进行改造,而不是雇人来做。这些因素说明我们可以预计我们全国的商 店产品需求将会增加,因而我们来年的利润也会上升。

131.The following appeared in an environmental newsletter published in Tria Island. "The marine sanctuary on Tria Island was established to protect certain marine mammals. Its regulations ban dumping and offshore oil drilling within 20 miles of Tria, but fishing is not banned. Currently many fish populations in Tria's waters are declining, a situation blamed on pollution. In contrast, the marine sanctuary on Omni Island has regulations that ban dumping, offshore oil drilling, and fishing within 10

miles of Omni and Omni reports no significant decline in its fish populations. Clearly, the decline in fish populations in Tria's waters is the result of overfishing, not pollution. Therefore, the best way to restore Tria's fish populations and to protect all of Tria's marine wildlife is to abandon our regulations and adopt those of Omni." Tria 岛的海洋生物禁猎区是用来保护某些海洋哺乳动物的。 它禁止在 Tria20 英里以内倾倒废物和近海采油, 但捕鱼并不禁止。当前 Tria 水域的很多种鱼类数量都在下降,这种现象被认为是污染造成的。相比之下, Omni 岛的海洋生物禁猎区禁止倾倒废物、近海采油和在 Omni10 英里以内捕鱼,Omni 没有上报任何鱼类 数量的显著下降。显然,Tria 水域鱼类数量的下降是过度捕鱼而不是污染造成的。因此,回复 Tria 鱼类数 量和保护 Tria 所有海洋野生动物的最好办法就是废止我们的规定而采用 Omni 的规定。 132.The following appeared in an editorial in the local newspaper of Workville. "Workers should be allowed to reduce their workload from 40 to 25 or even 20 hours per week because it is clear that people who work part-time instead of full-time have better health and improved morale. One store in Workville, which began allowing its employees to work part-time last year, reports that fewer days of sick leave were taken last year than in previous years. In contrast, the factory in Workville, which does not allow any of its employees to work part-time, had a slight increase in the number of days of sick leave taken last year. In addition, a recent survey reports that most of the store employees stated that they are satisfied with their jobs, while many of the factory employees stated that they are dissatisfied with their jobs." 应该允许工人把他们的工作量从每周 40 小时减少至 25 甚至 20 小时,因为显然那些部分时间工作而不是 全时工作的人更加健康,精神更好。Workville 的一个商店去年开始允许员工部分时间工作,它报告说去年 的病假数量比前些年减少。相比之下,Workville 的工厂不允许员工部分时间工作,去年它的病假数量有少 量上升。而且,最近的一次调查报告说该商店多数雇员声称他们对于自己的工作满意,而很多工厂的员工 声称对于自己的工作不满意。

133.The following is a memo from the principal of Academia High School. "Academia High School should abolish its after-school performing-arts programs and replace them with computer-technology programs. When nearby Techno High School did so last year, total enrollment in all of its after-school activities remained about the same. Moreover, on entering college, many Techno students chose a major directly related to their after-school activities. On the other hand, last year only 10 percent of Academia's graduating seniors chose performing arts as their major field of study in their first year of college, clearly indicating that most students do not have a strong interest in the performing arts."

Academia 高中应该废止其课外表演艺术课程而应该以计算机科技课程取而代之。 当附近的 Techno 高中去 年采取了这种变化之后,其所有课外活动的参加数量基本没变。而且,很多 Techno 的学生在走进大学的 时候选择了与他们所参加的课外活动直接相关的专业。另一方面,去年 Academia 的毕业生中只有 10%的 人选择表演艺术作为他们大学第一年的专业,这显然表明多数学生对于表演艺术并没有很强烈的兴趣。

134.The following was taken from a guide for aspiring writers. "New writers usually cannot convince large, prestigious publishers that their work is marketable, so they must first publish with smaller, less well-known presses to establish a sales record. But the editors of Mystery Writers Magazine have good news for aspiring writers: the number of mystery novels published in the last two years has grown significantly, and more people read mysteries than any other type of novel. In addition, almost half of the mystery novels published last year were written by first-time novel writers. Since there is apparently an expanding market for mystery novels, all publishers will want to increase the number of mystery novels they publish. Therefore, new writers should write mystery novels to increase their chances for first-time publication with a larger, prestigious company."

新作家往往无法使大型有威望的出版商相信他们的作品是有市场的,因此他们必须首先找一些较小的、知 名度不那么高的出版社出版作品来建立自己的销售记录。但 Mystery Writers Magazine 的编辑为有抱负的作家带来了好消息: 过去两年中神秘小说的出版数量显著增长, 读这类小说的 读者多于其他任何类型小说的人。而且,去年出版的神秘小说中差不多有一半是由第一次写小说的作家写 的。由于神秘小说显然存在正在扩展的市场,所有出版商将会增加他们出版的神秘小说的数量。因此,新 作家应该创作神秘小说来增加他们的处女作被大型有威望出版社出版的机会。

135.The following is a memorandum from the business manager of WLSS television station. "Over the past year, our late-night news program has devoted increasingly more time to covering national news and less time to covering weather and local news. During the same time period, most of the complaints we received from viewers were concerned with the station's coverage of weather and local news. In addition, several local businesses that used to run advertisements during our late-night news program have just cancelled their advertising contracts with us. Therefore, in order to attract more viewers to our news programs and to avoid losing any further advertising revenues, we should expand the coverage of weather and local news on all our news programs."


一时期,我们从观众那里获得的投诉大部分是关于电视台对于天气和地方新闻的播放的。而且,若干曾经 在我们深夜新闻节目播放广告的地方企业刚刚取消了和我们的广告契约。因此,为吸引更多的电视观众观 看我们的新闻节目并避免失去未来的广告收入,我们应该在我们所有的新闻节目中增加天气和地方新闻的 播报。

136.The following is part of a letter from the Brookfree School Board. "As part of our new educational reform program, we identified ten schools most in need of immediate improvement. An advisory committee is now recommending that we hire consultants to study further the schools' problems and to propose a plan of action. Only two years ago, however, another group of consultants determined that several schools in our district had problems because their principals were inexperienced. Thus, if we want to see immediate improvement in our schools and save the district the money it would spend on hiring more consultants, we should replace all the principals in the ten worst schools with ten of our most experienced principals in the district." 作为我们新的教育改革计划的一部分, 我们确定了 10 所最急需改善的学校。 一个顾问委员会现在建议我们 雇佣顾问来进一步研究学校的问题并设立行动方案。然而仅仅在两年以前,另一组顾问认为我们区的若干 学校因为他们的校长没有经验而存在问题。因此,如果我们想要看到我们学校的立即改善并节省本地区用 于雇佣更多顾问的花费的话,我们应该撤销这 10 所最差学校的校长并让本地区最有经验的校长来代替他 们。

137.The following appeared in an editorial in the Mason City newspaper. "At present, Mason City residents seldom use the nearby Mason River for any kind of recreational activity, even though surveys of the region's residents consistently rank water sports (swimming, fishing, and boating) as a favorite form of recreation. Since there have been complaints about the quality of the water in the river, residents must be avoiding the river because they think that it is not clean enough. But that situation is about to change: the agency responsible for rivers in our region has announced plans to clean up Mason River. Therefore, recreational use of the river is likely to increase, so the Mason City council will need to increase its budget for improvements to the publicly owned lands along the Mason River." 当前,Mason 市很少利用附近的 Mason 河来进行娱乐活动,尽管对该地区居民的几次调查一直指出他们 把水上运动(游泳、垂钓和划船)作为他们最喜欢的娱乐形式。由于曾经存在对于这条河水质的投诉,居 民一定是因为他们认为河水不够干净才不在这里活动。但这种情况就会改变了:我们地区负责河流管理的 部门公布了澄清 Mason 河的计划。因此,河流的娱乐用途很可能将会增加,因而 Mason 市的市委有必要 增加用于改善 Mason 河沿岸公共土地的预算。

138.The following report appeared in a memo from the vice president of the Southside Transportation Authority. "We should abandon our current five-year plan to purchase additional buses to serve the campus of Southside University, because students there are unlikely to use them. Consider the results of the recent campaign sponsored by the Environmental Club at Southside University: in a program on the campus radio station, the club asked students to call in and pledge that they would commute to school by bus instead of by automobile at least one day per week. Only ten percent of the students called in and pledged. In view of the campaign's lack of success, we can assume that the bus service we currently offer will continue to be sufficient to serve the university." 我们应该废止当前为服务 Southside 大学而购买更多巴士的五年计划,因为学生不太可能用到它们。请想 一想 Southside 大学的环保俱乐部最近组织的一次活动的结果:在一次校园广播节目中,他们呼吁学生保 证每周至少有一天坐公交车上学而不是坐私家车。 只有 10%的学生做了保证。 鉴于这次活动没有获得成功, 我们可以认为现在提供的公交服务将足以满足大学的需求。

139.The following appeared in the editorial section of an educational publication. "One study at Lee University found that first-semester grades of teenage students who had always attended public, tax-supported schools were slightly lower than the grades of students who had received some home schooling instruction by parents at home, although the grade differences disappeared in the second semester. These results suggest that home schooling is the best way to educate teenage children. Therefore, instead of spending more money on public education, the government should provide financial incentives so that home schooling is an option for more parents. After all, children schooled at home receive more attention, since they are taught by the best possible teacher: a parent who has a high stake in educating them well." 一次在 Lee 大学进行的研究发现,那些一直参加由税收支持的公立学校的青少年学生的第一学期成绩比那 些曾接受过家长在家中进行的教育的学生低一些,尽管这种分数的差异在第二学期就消失了。这些结果说 明,家教是教育青少年的最好方式。因此,政府不应该在公共教育上花更多的钱,而应该提供经济上的激 励使家教成为更多家长的选择。不论如何,在家接受教育的孩子受到更多关注,因为教他们的是最好的老 师:最希望把他们教育好的家长。

140.The following appeared in a report of the Committee on Faculty Promotions and Salaries at Elm City University.

"During her seventeen years as a professor of botany, Professor Thomas has proved herself to be well worth her annual salary of $50,000. Her classes are among the largest at the university, demonstrating her popularity among students. Moreover, the money she has brought to the university in research grants has exceeded her salary in each of the last two years. Therefore, in consideration of Professor Thomas' demonstrated teaching and research abilities, we recommend that she receive a $10,000 raise and a promotion to Department Chairperson; without such a raise and promotion, we fear that Professor Thomas will leave Elm City University for another college." 在 Thomas 教授作为植物学教授的 17 年里,她证明了自己确实是值 50000 元年薪的。她的班级是本校最 大的班级之一,这说明她在学生中间的受欢迎度。而且,她给学校带来的研究捐助在过去两年中都超过了 她的年薪。因此,鉴于 Thomas 教授已被证实的教学和研究能力,我们建议将她的年薪增加 10000 元,并 提升为系主任;如果没有这些加薪和提升,我们担心 Thomas 教授将会离开 Elm City 大学到别的学校就职。

141.The following appeared in a newsletter distributed at a recent political rally. "Over the past year, the Consolidated Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over one million square miles of land in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Mining copper on this land will inevitably result in pollution and environmental disaster, since West Fredonia is home to several endangered animal species. But such disaster can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCC's copper until the company abandons its mining plans." 去年,Consolidated Copper Company(CCC)在热带国家 West Fredonia 购买了上百万平方英里的土地。 在这些地方采矿将会不可避免地导致污染和环境灾害, 因为 West Fredonia 是很多濒危物种的栖居地。但如果消费者简单地拒绝购买用 CCC 所生产的铜而制造的产品,直 到 CCC 放弃它的采矿计划就可以避免这种灾害。 142.The article entitled 'Eating Iron' in last month's issue of Eating for Health reported that a recent study found a correlation between high levels of iron in the diet and an increased risk of heart disease. Further, it is well established that there is a link between large amounts of red meat in the diet and heart disease, and red meat is high in iron. On the basis of the study and the well-established link between red meat and heart disease, we can conclude that the correlation between high iron levels and heart disease, then, is most probably a function of the

correlation between red meat and heart disease.

上一期的《健康饮食》杂志上刊登的题为《食铁》的文章报导说最近一项研究发现饮食中铁的含量过高与 心脏病发病率增加有关联。而且,我们已经知道饮食中大量的牛羊肉和心脏病是有联系的,牛羊肉中铁的 含量很高。基于以上研究和牛羊肉与心脏病之间的已知联系,我们可以得出结论,高铁含量与心脏病之间 的关联最有可能是牛羊肉与心脏病之间关联的作用。

143.The following appeared as a letter to the editor of a national newspaper. "Your recent article on corporate downsizing* in the United States is misleading. The article gives the mistaken impression that many competent workers who lost jobs as a result of downsizing face serious economic hardship, often for years, before finding other suitable employment. But this impression is contradicted by a recent report on the United States economy, which found that since 1992 far more jobs have been created than have been eliminated. The report also demonstrates that many of those who lost their jobs have found new employment. Two-thirds of the newly created jobs have been in industries that tend to pay above-average wages, and the vast majority of these jobs are full-time." Downsizing is the process in which corporations deliberately reduce the number of their employees.

你们最近关于美国集体裁员的文章是有误导性的。该文章给人们一种错误的印象,即很多在企业面临严重 经济困难的时候裁员而导致失业的有能力的工人通常要用几年的时间找到另一份合适的工作。但这种感觉 与最近一次关于美国经济的报告相矛盾,报告发现自 1992 年以来新增的就业机会数量远超过消失的岗位 数量。该报告也指出很多失业人员已经找到了新工作。新增就业机会中有三分之二是那些提供高于平均水 平薪酬的企业提供的,而且这些岗位绝大多数是全职工作。

144.According to a poll of 200 charitable organizations, donations of money to nonprofit groups increased by nearly 25 percent last year, though not all charities gained equally. Religious groups gained the most (30 percent), followed by environmental groups (23 percent), whereas educational institutions experienced only a very small increase in donations (3 percent). This poll indicates that more people are willing and able to give money to charities but that funding for education is not a priority for most people. These differences in donation rates must result from the perception that educational institutions are less in need of donations than are other kinds of institutions. 根据一项针对 200 个慈善组织的调查,去年对于非营利团体的捐款上升了将近 25%,而并不是所有组织都 获得了同样的增幅。宗教团体增幅最大(30%) ,其次为环境组织(23%) ,而教育机构所获捐款仅有少量 增长(3%) 。这一调查说明有更多的人愿意而且有能力为慈善组织捐款,但资助教育并不是人们的首选。 这种捐款数额上的差异一定是由于人们认为教育机构没有其他组织更需要资助的观念而导致的。

145.A new study collected data that shows that people who snore are more likely to gain weight than are people who do not snore. It is well known that many people who snore also stop breathing frequently during the night for a few seconds, a condition called sleep apnea. The interruption of breathing wakes the person-often so briefly that the waking goes unnoticed-and can leave the person too tired during the day to exercise. Anyone who snores, therefore, should try to eat less than the average person and to exercise more.

一项新的调查所收集的数据显示打呼噜的人比不打呼噜的人更容易长胖。我们知道很多打呼噜的人夜间也 经常有数秒钟的呼吸停顿,这种现象被称为睡眠呼吸中断。这种呼吸的停顿导致本人醒来--通常十分短暂 以至于不被察觉--并且会使本人在白天很累而无力锻炼。因此,所有打呼噜的人都应该比正常人少吃多锻 炼。

146.The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. "The librarians in our town's school system have reported that the number of trips that our students make to their school library on a voluntary basis has decreased significantly in recent years. For example, the average seventh-grade student visited the school library five times last year, but four of those visits were part of required classroom activities. This shows that our students are reading less than in the past. To address this problem, our town needs to improve the atmosphere of the libraries so that they will be comfortable places in which to work. If students view the libraries as uncomfortable, then they are unlikely to want to spend much time there."

我市学校系统的图书馆管理员报告说近年来我们的学生主动去学校图书馆的次数显著下降。举例来说,去 年 7 年级学生平均去图书馆 5 次, 但其中有 4 次是教学活动所要求的。 这表明我们的学生读书比以前少了。 为解决这一问题,我市需要改善图书馆的环境使他们适于工作。如果学生认为图书馆不舒服,他们将不太 可能想在这里花很多时间。

147.The following appeared in an editorial in a business magazine. "Although the sales of Whirlwind video games have declined over the past two years, a recent survey of video-game players suggests that this sales trend is about to be reversed. The survey asked video-game players what features they thought were most important in a video game. According to the survey, players prefer games that provide lifelike graphics, which require the most up-to-date computers. Whirlwind has just introduced several such games with an extensive advertising campaign directed at people 10 to 25 years old, the age-group most likely to play video games.

It follows, then, that the sales of Whirlwind video games are likely to increase dramatically in the next few months." 尽管 Whirlwind 游戏公司的游戏销量在过去两年中下降了,最近一次对于电子游戏玩家的调查显示这种销 售趋势可能会逆转。该调查询问游戏玩家对于一个游戏来说他们所认为的最重要特征是什么。根据调查结 果,玩家倾向于那些需要最先进的电脑的,具有活灵活现图象的游戏。Whirlwind 刚刚面向 10-25 岁的人 群开展了大力的广告活动来推广若干此类游戏,10-25 岁是最喜欢玩游戏的年龄层。这说明 Whirlwind 公 司的游戏销量将会在未来几个月中猛增。

148.The following appeared in the editorial section of Monroetown's local newspaper. "Mayor Brown was recently re-elected by a clear majority of 52 percent of Monroetown's voters. Her re-election, however, does not show that most people in our town favored Mayor Brown's proposal for tax reduction over that of her opponent, Mr. Greene, who proposed raising taxes to improve education. It has been shown that voters nationwide tend to re-elect people already in office, regardless of candidates' proposals. In fact, a local survey after the election showed most people in Monroetown disagreed with Mayor Brown's proposal. Clearly most people in Monroetown favor improving education and therefore approve of Mr. Greene's proposal despite the fact that they did not vote for him." Brown 市长最近获得了 Monroetown 全体选民 52%的票而再次当选市长。然而,她的再次当选并不表明我 们城市的多数市民更喜欢 Brown 提出了减税提案,而不是其竞争对手 Greene 提出的增加税收以促进教育 的提案。已有证据表明全国的选民都倾向于再次选举那些已经在位的官员,不论候选人的竞选提案是什么。 实际上,这次选举后的一次地方调查显示,Monroetown 的多数市民不赞同 Brown 市长的提案。显然 Monroetown 的多数市民愿意改善教育,从而支持 Greene 的提案,尽管他们并没有投他的票。 149.The following is a memorandum from the director of personnel to the president of Get-Away Airlines. "Since our mechanics are responsible for inspecting and maintaining our aircraft, Get-Away Airlines should pay to send them to the Quality-Care Seminar, a two-week seminar on proper maintenance procedures. I recommend this seminar because it is likely to be a wise investment, given that the automobile racing industry recently reported that the performance of its maintenance crews improved markedly after their crews had attended the seminar. These maintenance crews perform many of the same functions as do our mechanics, including refueling and repairing engines. The money we spend on sending our staff to the seminar will inevitably lead to improved maintenance and thus to greater customer satisfaction along with greater profits for our airline."

由于我们的机修师负责检测和维护我们的飞机, Get-Away 航空公司应该花钱把他们送去参加一个为期两周 的,关于合理维护流程的质量保障研讨会。我推荐这个研讨会是因为这应该是一个明智的投资,因为赛车 企业最近报告说他们的维修人员的水平在他们参加完研讨会之后显著提高了。这些维修人员和我们机修师 所作的工作有很多是相同的,包括加注燃油和维修引擎。我们用于把员工送去参加研讨会的花费必然会为 本公司带来维护水平的提高,并带来更高的客户满意度和更大的利润。

150.The following is a letter to the editor of an environmental magazine. "The decline in the numbers of amphibians worldwide clearly indicates the global pollution of water and air. Two studies of amphibians in Yosemite National Park in California confirm my conclusion. In 1915 there were seven species of amphibians in the park, and there were abundant numbers of each species. However, in 1992 there were only four species of amphibians observed in the park, and the numbers of each species were drastically reduced. The decline in Yosemite has been blamed on the introduction of trout into the park's waters, which began in 1920 (trout are known to eat amphibian eggs). But the introduction of trout cannot be the real reason for the Yosemite decline because it does not explain the worldwide decline." 全球两栖动物数量的下降清楚地说明全球空气和水质的污染。在加州 Yosemite 国家公园对于两栖动物所 进行的两次研究证实了我的结论。1915 年公园中有 7 中两栖动物,每种的数量都很丰富。然而到了 1992 年在公园中只观察到 4 种两栖动物,并且每种动物的数量都显著下降。Yosemite 公园两栖动物数量的下降 曾被归因于始于 1920 年的在公园水域引入鲑鱼的行为(我们知道鲑鱼捕食两栖动物的卵) 。但鲑鱼的引入 不会是 Yosemite 两栖动物数量下降的真正原因应为它并不能解释全球范围的数量下降。

151.The following is a letter to the editor of the Atticus City newspaper. "Former Mayor Durant owes an apology to the city of Atticus. Both the damage to the River Bridge, which connects Atticus to Hartley, and the traffic problems we have long experienced on the bridge were actually caused 20 years ago by Durant. After all, he is the one who approved the construction of the bridge. If he had approved a wider and better-designed bridge, on which approximately the same amount of public money would have been spent, none of the damage or problems would have occurred. Instead, the River Bridge has deteriorated far more rapidly over the past 20 years than has the much longer Derby Bridge up the river. Even though the winters have been severe in the past several years, this is no excuse for the negligence and wastefulness of Durant." 前任市长 Durant 应该向 Atticus 市道歉。连接着 Atticus 和 Hartley 两座城市的 River

Bridge 的损害和长期困扰着我们的桥上的交通问题实际上都是 20 年前因 Durant 而导致的。无论如何,是 他批准了桥梁的建造。如果他能够批准一个差不多花同样的钱的设计更好的方案的话,桥梁的损坏和交通 问题都不会出现。但现在,River Bridge 在过去 20 年间的损坏程度比上游另外一座更长的 Derby Bridge 更加严重。尽管近几年的冬天气候确实


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