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高考英语陷阱题总结归纳——动词时态(附详解)


高考英语陷阱题总结归纳——动词时态
◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. “I _____ his telephone number.” “I have his number, but I ____ to bring my phone book.” A. forget, forget C. forget, forgot B. forgot, forgot D. forgot, forget

【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为“忘记”是现在的事。 【分析】仔细体会一下对话的语境:第一个人说“我忘记他的电话号码了”,这个“忘记” 应该是现在的情况,即现在忘记了,要不然就没有必要同对方说此话了,故第一空应填 forget;第二个人说“我有他的号码,但我忘记带电话本了”,这个 “忘记”应该是过去的情况, 即过去忘记带电话本,所以现在电话本不在身上(注意句中的转折连词 but),故第二空应 填 forgot,即答案选应 C. 请再看一例: — Oh, I ______ where he lives. — Don’t you carry your address book? No, I ______ to bring it. A. forget, forget C. forget, forgot B. forgot, forgot D. forgot, forget

答案选 C,理由同上。 2. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy. A. was C. would be B. had been D. would have been

【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 D,认为前句用了 had hoped,所以此句谓语要用 B 或 D 与之呼 应。 【分析】但正确答案为 A,前一句谓语用 had hoped,表示的是过去未曾实现的想法或打 算,可以译为“本想”,而后一句说“我太忙” ,这是陈述过去的一个事实,所以要用一般过去 时。请做以下类似试题(答案均为 A): (1) We had hoped to catch the 10:20 train, but _____ it was gone. A. found C. would find B. had found D. would have found

(2) We had hoped that you would be able to visit us, but you _____.

A. didn’t C. needn’t

B. hadn’t D. would not have

(3) We had wanted to come to see him, but we ____ no time. A. had C. would have B. had had D. would have had

(4) I had expected to come over to see you last night, but someone ______ and I couldn’t get away. A. called B. had called C. would call D. would have called (5) The traffic accident wouldn’t have happened yesterday, but the driver _______ really careless. A. was B. is C. were D. had been 3. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late. A. look, have B. looking, had C. look, had D. looking, have 【陷阱】此题容易误选 D,认为第一空用现在分词表伴随,第二空填 have 的一般现在 时,以保持与前面时态的一致性。 【分析】其实, 此题应选 C, 第一空应填 look, 因为这是祈使句的谓语; 第二空应填 had, 因为前一句说“看看时间吧”,这一看当然知道了现在很迟的情形,“不知道这么迟了”显然应 是“过去”的事,故应用一般过去时态,许多同学由于忽略这一隐含的语境而误选。 4. “Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it.” “It’s 4331577” A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t

【陷阱】此题容易误选 C,认为此处要用一般现在时态,表示现在“没听清对方的话”。 【分析】其实,此题答案应选 A,根据上文的语境“请把你的电话号码再说一遍好吗?” 可知“没听清对方的电话号码”应是在说此话以前, 故应用一般过去时态。 请看以下类似试题: (1) “Mr Smith isn’t coming tonight.” “ But he _____.” A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised

答案选 B,“他答应(要来)”应发生在过去。 (2) “Hey, look where you are going!” “Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _____.” A. I’m not noticing C. I haven’t noticed B. I wasn’t noticing D. I don’t notice

答案选 B,“我没注意”是对方提醒之前的事,现经对方一提醒,当然注意到了。 (3) “Oh it’s you! I ________ you.” “I’ve had my hair cut.” A. didn’t realize B. haven’t realized C. didn’t recognize D. don’t recognized

答案选 C.“没认出是你”是说此话之前的事,说此话时显然已经认出了对方。 (4) “What’s her new telephone number ?” “Oh, I _____.” A. forget C. had forgotten B. forgot D. am forgetting

此题应选 A,从语境上看,“忘记”的时间应是现在,即指现在不记得了。 (5) “Since you’ve agreed to go, why aren’t you getting ready ?” “But I ______ that you would have me start at once.” A. don’t realize C. hadn’t realized B. didn’t realize D. haven’t realized

答案选 B.“没意识到”是对方提醒之前的事。 (6) “It’s twelve o’clock, I think I must be off now.” “Oh, really ? I ______ it at all.” A. don’t realize C. didn’t realize B. haven’t realized D. hadn’t realized

答案选 C.“没意识到”是在听到的话之前的事。 5. Mr Smith ______ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether he has finished it. A. has written C. had written 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 C. 【分析】此题应选 D,这是由 but I don’t know whether he has finished it 这一句话的语境 决定的,全句意为“史密斯先生去年在写一本书,但我不知道他现在是否写完了 ”。有的同学 可能由于受 last year 的影响而误选 B. 但若选 B,则句子前半部分的意思则变为“史密斯先生 去年写了一本书”,既然是“写了”,那么这与下文的“但我不知道他现在是否写完了”相矛盾。 B. wrote D. was writing

6. He has changed a lot. He _______ not what he _______. A. is, is C. is, was B. was, was D. was, is

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 C,上文说“他”变化很大,即“他”现在不是过去的那个样子了,故第 一空填 is ,第二空填 was (其实第二空也可用 used to be)。请看类例: “What place is it?” “Haven’t you found out we _____ back where we ______ ?” A. were, had been C. are, were D. are, had been 答案选 C,We are back where we were 的意思是“我们(现在)又回到刚才来过的地方”。 7. He is very busy. I don’t know if he _____ or not tomorrow. A. come B. comes B. have been, are

C. will come D. is coming 【陷阱】此题容易误选 B. 认为 if 引导的是条件状语从句,从句谓语要用一般现在时表示 将来意义。 【分析】其实,此题答案应选 C,句中 if 引导的不是条件状语从句(即 if≠如果),而是 宾语从句(即 if=是否),句意为“他很忙,我不知道明天他是否会来。”请看以下类似试题: (1) I don’t know if she _____, but if she ____ I will let you know. A. comes, comes C. comes, will come B. will come, will come D. will come, comes

答案选 D,第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句,第二个 if 引导的是条件状语从句。 (2) “When _____ he come?” “I don’t know, but when he _____, I’ll tell you.” A. does, comes C. does, will come B. will, will come D. will, comes

答案选 D,第一个 when 疑问副词,用于引出一个特殊疑问句;第二个 when 是从属连 词,用于引导时间状语从句。 (3) “When he _____ is not known yet.” “But when he ____, he will be warmly welcomed.” A. comes, comes C. comes, will come B. will come, will come D. will come, comes

答案选 D,第一个 when 引导的是主语从句,第二个 when 引导的是时间状语从句。

8. The bridge, which _____ 1688, needs repairing. A. is dated from C. dates from B. was dated from D. dated from

【陷阱】此题容易误选 B 或 D,认为句中用了 1688 这个过去时间,所以应选过去时态, 又因为 date from 不用于被动语态,所以只能选 D. 【分析】其实此题的最佳答案应是 C,因为 date from 的意思是“自某时起存在至今”(= have existed since),它通常用于一般现在时,而不用过去时态(尽管其后接的总是表示过 去的时间)。如: The church dates from 1176. 这座教堂是六世纪建的。 The castle dates from the 14th century. 这座城堡是 14 世纪建的。 但若所谈论的东西现在已不复存在,则可用一般过去时。如: The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in an earthquake two years ago. 那座教堂是 13 世纪建成的,两年前在一次地震中被毁了。 注:与 date from 同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。 9. “You’ve left the light on.” “Oh, so I have. _____ and turn it off.” A. I’ll go C. I go B. I’ve gone D. I’m going

【陷阱】容易误选 D. 【分析】A 和 D 两者均可表示将来,填入空格处似乎都可以。但实际上只有 A 是最佳的, 因为根据上下文的语境来看,“我去把灯关掉”这一行为是说话人听了对方的话后临时想到 的,而不是事先准备的。而按英语习惯:will 和 be going to 后接动词原形均可表示意图, 但意图有强弱之分,如果是事先考虑过的意图,要用 be going to;如果不是事先考虑过的, 而是说话时刻才临时想到的意图,则用 will. 比较: “I’ve come out without any money.” “Never mind, I will lend you some.” “ 我出来没带 钱。”“没关系,我借给你。”(句中用 will lend,表示“借”钱给对方是临时想到的,即听了对 方的话后临时作出的反应) I’ve bought a typewriter and I’m going to learn to type. 我买了台打字机,我想学打字。(句中 用 be going to learn to type,表示说话人要学打字是事先准备的,并为此买了台打字机)

◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. Look at that little boy wandering about — perhaps he _____ his mother. A. will lose C. had lost B. is losing D. has lost

2. It’s good that we _____ to the park because it’s started to rain. A. don’t go C. didn’t go B. hadn’t gone D. was n’t going

3. I _____ for five minutes ; why don’t they come? A. am calling C. was calling B. called D. have been calling

4. You _____ your turn so you’ll have to wait. A. will miss C. are missing B. have missed D. had missed

5. We _____ to move but are still considering where to go to. A. are deciding C. have decided B. decided D. had decided

6. I left my pen on the desk and now it’s gone; who _____ it? A. took C. will take B. has taken D. had taken

7. They won’t buy any new clothes because they _____ money to buy a new car. A. save C. have saved B. were saving D. are saving

8. I _____ your last point — could you say it again? A. didn’t quite catch C. hadn’t quite catch B. don’t quite catch D. can’t quite catch

9. You’ll never guess who I met today — my old teacher ! We _____ for 20 years. A. don’t meet C. hadn’t met B. haven’t met D. couldn’t meet

10. I feel sure I _____ her before somewhere. A. was to meet B. have met

C. had met

D. would meet

11. They haven’t arrived yet but we _____ them at any moment. A. are expected C. are expecting B. have expected D. will expect

12. I think you must be mistaken about seeing him at the theatre ; I’m sure he _____ abroad all week. A. is C. has been B. was D. had been

13. The students _______ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she _______ in the office. A. had written, left C. had written, had left B. were writing, has left D. were writing, had left

14. I tried to phone her, but even as I _____ she was leaving the building. A. phoned C. had phoned B. would phone D. was phoning

15. “I suppose you _____ that report yet ?” “I finished it yesterday, as a matter of fact.” A. didn’t finish C. hadn’t finished B. haven’t finished D. wasn’t finishing

16. —Didn’t the guard see him breaking into the bank ? —No, he _______ in the other direction. A. was looking C. looked B. had looked D. is looking

17. How can you possibly miss the news ? It _______ on TV all day long. A. has been C. was B. had been D. will be

18. “I thought you might have got drunk.” “Yes, I ______.” A. almost have C. almost did B. almost had D. might have

19. You ______ television. Why not do something more active ? A. always watch B. are always watching

C. have always watched

D. have always been watching

20. “I took part in the TOEFL. It was really hard.” “Did you ______ a lot ?” A. Have you studied C. Had you studied B. Did you study D. Do you study

21. “What’s your opinion on the matter, please?” “Oh, sorry, I _______.” A. was n’t to listen C. wasn’t listening B. haven’t listened D. hadn’t listened

22. “Aha, you’re a chain smoker !” “Only at home. Nobody _______ that but you.” A. discovered C. discovers B. had discovered D. is discovering

23. The telephone _______ three times in the last hour, and each time it ________ for my father. A. had rang; was C. rang; has been B. has rung; was D. has been ringing; is

24. The thief tried to break away from the policeman who ______ him, but failed. A. has held C. was holding B. had held D. would hold

25. When I arrived at the company, the manager ______, so we had only time for a few words. A. just went away C. was just going away B. had gone away D. has just gone away

26. “John took a photograph of you just now.” “Oh, really ? I ______.” A. didn’t know C. don’t know B. wasn’t knowing D. haven’t known

27. “Mike is not coming to the football game this afternoon.” “It’s a shame ! He _______!” A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised 28. Please call again. Jim _______ a bath just now. A. has had C. is having B. was having D. has

29. “Was Andrew there when you arrived ?” “Yes, but he ______ home soon afterwards.”

A. had gone C. is going

B. has gone D. went

30. “Where is Mother.” “She is in the kitchen. She _______ the housework all morning.” A. is doing C. has done B. was doing D. has been doing

31. The books, ________ the dictionaries, must be put back where they ________. A. included; were C. including; were B. to include; are D. including; are

◆答案与解析◆ 1. 选 D. 根据那个小男孩徘徊的现象,推知他可能是找不到妈妈了。用现在完成时表示结 果。 2. 选 C. 句意为“好在我们(刚才)没有去公园,因为天(现在)已经开始下雨了”。 3. 选 D. 用现在完成进行时表示持续到现在的一段时间。 4. 选 B,用现在完成时表示结果,即你已经错过了机会,其结果是:你只能等。 5. 选 C. 用现在完成时表示影响。 6. 选 B. 用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即现在笔不见了,是由于某人已经把它拿走了的 结果。 7. 选 D. 用现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作。 8. 选 A. 从下文的语境看,既然现在叫对方重复一遍,说明“没听清对方的最后一点”应发 生在过去(即说此话之前)。 9. 选 B. 用现在完成时表示从过去持续到现在的一段时间。 10. 选 B.before 用作副词时不与具体时间连用,泛指“以前”,通常与一般过去时或现在 完成时连用。 11. 选 C. 用现在进行时表示目前的一种状态。 12. 选 C. 用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即他整个星期都在国外,所以你说你在剧院见 过他,你一定是搞错了。

13. 选 D.“把书忘在办公室”发生在“去取书”这一过去的动作之前, 因此“忘了书”这一动作 发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中 when 表示的是时间的一点,表示在“同学们正忙 于……”这一背景下,when 所引导的动作发生。因此前一句应用过去进行时。 14. 选 D. 注意 even as 的意思,它表示“正当……的时候”或“恰当……的时候”。 15. 选 B. 注意下文语境——事实上,我昨天就做完了。从该回答的语气上推测,填空处 应填现在完成时态。 16. 选 A. 表示当时正在进行的动作。 17. 选 A. 表示目前一种持续的状态。 18. 选 C. 句中的 might have got drunk 是对过去情况的推测,故答句所指的情况也应在过 去,故选 C. 19. 选 B.always 与进行时态连用,可以表示高兴、满意、抱怨、厌恶等感情色彩。 20. 选 C. 根据 took 的时态可知,“参加托福考试”发生在过去;而对方问“是否努力学习 过?”这肯定问的是参加考试以前的事,故用过去完成时。 21. 选 C.“没听”肯定是刚才的事,所以应用过去时态。 22. 选 C. 答句陈述的是客观事实,故用一般现在时态。 23. 选 B. 按英语语法,“in the last [past]+一段时间”通常与现在完成时连用。 24. 选 C. 用过去进行时表示当时在持续的一种状态。 25. 选 C. 由于下文说 we had only time for a few words ,说明“经理”正准备离开。 26. 选 A.“不知道”是对方告诉自己之前的事,故用一般过去时。 27. 选 B. 根据语境,他“答应”发生在过去,故用一般过去时。 28. 选 C.just now 有两个意思: 一是表示“刚才”, 此时 just now 为习语; 二是表示“现在”、 “眼前”、“就在此时”,此时 just 意为“正好”、“恰好”,用以修饰副词 now. 根据句子语境, 句中的 just now 应取上面的第二个意思。 29. 选 D.Andrew“回家”发生在你见到他(发生在过去)之后不久。 30. 选 D. 现在完成进行时表示从过去至今一直在持续的动作。 31. 选 C. 第一空 including 不填 included,因为其后带有宾语;第二填 were,是因为它 是指“原来放的地方”。



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