1. 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法 ★在“It is / was +形容词或过去分词+ that 从句”结构的主语从句中，表示命令、 愿望、建议等，谓语动词为“should +动 词原形”，should也可省略。
It is necessary that a college student
(should) master a foreign language.
It is desired that this rule (should) be brought to the attention of the staff.
★动词wish后的宾语从句中，表示与现在 事实相反时，从句中动词用过去式；表 示与过去事实相反时，从句中动词用 “had +过去分词”；表示将来很难实现 的愿望时，从句中动词用“would / could / might +动词原形”。如： How I wish I was there with you. I wish I hadn’t lost the chance. I wish he would / could / might go with us to the theatre.
★在would sooner, would rather等后面的 宾语从句中动词要用虚拟语气。尚未发 生的动作用动词的过去式，已经发生的 动作用“had +过去分词”。如：
I would sooner he left on the earlier train.
I’d rather you went tomorrow.
I’d rather you hadn’t done that.
动词（如suggest, demand, require,
request, order, insist等）后的宾语从句
I suggest you (should) have enough sleep.
I recommend that everyone (should)
attend the party.
Our only request is that this (should) be
settled as soon as possible.
He made the decision that nothing (should) hold him back.
2. 虚拟语气在条件句中的用法 ★虚拟语气在if条件状语从句中的用法： 从句中谓语的 条件句 形式 动词过去式 表示现 （be的过去式 在情况 用were） 主句中谓语的形 式 should / would / might / could +动 词原形
从句中谓语的 条件句 形式 should +动词 原形；were to 表示将 +动词原形； 来情况 动词过去式 （be的过去式 用were）
should / would / might / could +动 词原形
should / would / 表示过 had +过去分词 might / could + 去情况 have +过去分词
★在错综时间虚拟条件句（即主句和从 句所指的时间不一致）中，动词的形 式需要根据表示的时间来调整。如： If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now. If it had rained last night, it might be very cold today. If she were to leave, I would have heard about it.
★含蓄条件句 有时虚拟语气的条件并不是直接通过 条件句来表示，而是用一些词或短语 （如under, with, without, but for等） 或上下文暗示来说明。句中的虚拟语 气一般表示过去的情况，这种句子叫 含蓄条件句。如：
We could have done better under more favourable conditions (= if we had been given more favourable conditions). Without your help (= If you hadn’t helped me), I couldn’t have succeeded. But for the heavy traffic (= If the traffic had not been so heavy), we would have arrived earlier. He would have given you more help, but he has been so busy (= if he had not been so busy).
3. 虚拟语气中if的省略 如果条件从句的谓语中有were, had或 should等词，可将if省略，而把这几个词 放在句首，其意义与带有if的条件句相同。 如： If I were to do the work, I should do it some other way. → Were I to do the work, I should do it some other way.
★在由as if或as though引导的方式状语中， 虚拟语气的形式为动词的过去式（be 用were）或“had +过去分词”。如： She is walking slowly as if she were tired.
★在由lest, for fear that, in case等引导的从 句中，虚拟语气的形式为“should +动词 原形”。如： I ran as fast as possible lest I should be too late. ★在由in order that, so that或that引导的目 的状语从句中，虚拟语气的形式为 “may / might / could +动词原形”。如： In order that everybody may understand it, write it in simple language.
1. 在if条件句中的用法 D time, I Sorry, I am too busy now. If I _____ would certainly go for an outing with you. A. have had B. had had C. have D. had
2. 特殊用法 Had they known what was coming next, they _____ D second thoughts. A. may have B. could have C. must have had D. might have had 由Had they known可知，虚拟条件从句中 省略了if，将had提前。从句与过去事实相 反，所以主句谓语用“should / would / could / might + have +过去分词”。
3. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的运用 Jack is a great talker. It’s high time that he _____ D something instead of just talking. A. will do B. has done C. do D. did 4. 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用 —Where are the children? The dinner’s going to be completely ruined. A always late. —I wish they _____ A. weren’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn’t be D. wouldn’t have been
5. 虚拟语气在as if / though引导的从句中的 运用 B made of Don’t handle the vase as if it _____ steel. A. is B. were C. has been D. had been
从A、B、C、D四个选项中，选出可以填 入空白处的最佳选项。 1. We would rather our daughter _____ C at home with us, but it is her choice, and she is not a child any longer. (陕西2014) A. would stay B. has stayed C. stayed D. stay
2. _____ the morning train, he would not D have been late for the meeting. (天津 2014) A. Did he catch B. Should he catch C. Has he caught D. Had he caught 3. People are recycling many things which D away in the past. (安徽2014) they _____ A. had thrown B. will be throwing C. were throwing D. would have thrown
5. If Mr. Dewey _____ B present, he would have offered any possible assistance to the people there. (湖南2014) A. were B. had been C. should be D. was D back in the hotel now if you 5. We _____ didn’t lose the map. (北京2014) A. are B. were C. will be D. would be
A no modern telecommunications, 6. _____ we would have to wait for weeks to get news from around the world. (福建2014) A. Were there B. Had there been C. If there are D. If there have been 7. It was John who broke the window. Why A are you talking to me as if I _____ it? (重庆2014) A. had done B. have done C. did D. am doing
8. They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the investigation, or they _____ A to our help. (浙江2014) A. would have come B. could come C. have come D. had come
根据括号内的汉语提示补全下列句子。 1. She __________________________ needn’t have come in person (不需要 亲自来) — a letter would have been enough. 2. I lost your address, otherwise I ______ would have written to you (早就写信给你了). _________________ 3. They are always making trouble. I think were taught a lesson it’s high time they _____________________ (被教训一顿了).
(should) take a taxi (应该打 4. He insisted I _________________ 个车) and offered to pay for it. (should) wait till next 5. Your advice that she _________________ week (等到下周) is reasonable. ______ 6. I should not have made fool of you if had thought you were serious (早想到你 I __________________________ 是认真的). 7. If you had spent more time practicing be able to make making it before, youwould __________________ it much better (就能把它做得更好) now. _____________
1. David has never been to Rome, but he B there himself. talks about it as if he _____ A. has been B. had been C. is D. were 2. Tom was absent from the party. Otherwise, he _____ D wonderful programs. A. must perform B. would perform C. must have performed D. would have performed
3. The new film directed by Steven Spielberg was very interesting. I wish I D it when it was first shown last _____ Sunday. A. saw B. have seen C. could see D. had seen 4. Luckily I got to the job interview on time, C such a good chance to enter or I _____ the big business. A. must have missed B. must miss C. would have missed D. would miss
5. If your bicycle _____ B be out of order within one week, we would exchange it for a new one. A. could B. should C. might D. would 6. Now, good friends, let’s drink to our A we never forget each health and _____ other. A. may B. might C. must D. will
B the 7. All the evidence suggested Jim _____ money, but Mrs. Smith suggested we _____ his parents about it. A. had stolen; hadn’t told B. had stolen; not tell C. steal; hadn’t told D. steal; not tell 8. They ordered that for every tree cut D down two more _____ be planted. A. must B. can C. could D. should
9. Don’t forget your tutor’s suggestion that you _____ B keep creative and imaginative in order to make something different. A. could B. should C. may D. need 10. —Here you are at last! —But for the kind lady, I _____ A be wandering in the street now. A. would B. can C. may D. must
11. If she hadn’t been sent on a business trip B be here with us by her boss, she _____ now, enjoying the show. A. can B. would C. need D. must D the problem 12. It is high time that we _____ that our aging society brings to us. A. will realize B. have realized C. realize D. realized
13. —Do you mind if I turn on the TV? B —I’d rather you _____. A. don’t B. didn’t C. won’t D. hadn’t 14. They demanded that the government _____ B make every effort to protect the students from being hurt in school. A. might B. should C. must D. can