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动词ing 定语 表语 宾语补主语

1 单个的动词-ing 形式可以作前置定语,一般具有两种含义。

必修四 Unit 3 语法 动词 ing ---作表语.定语.宾语补足语

① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。如:a swimming pool, drinking water a reading room = a room which is used for reading 阅览室

动词 ing 形式是动词的一种谓语形式,有动词原形加 ing 构成,包括现在分词和动名词。可以在句子 中用作主语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,状语和定语。

running shoes =shoes for running a working method =a method for working

跑鞋 工作方法

② 表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表 一. 用作表语。 1. 表示主语的内容 ,可以转换到句首作主语。多表示一般性或抽象行为。 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible. Keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible is her job。 她的工作是尽量使报告厅保持干净。 示经常性动作或当时的状态。单个的动词-ing 形式一般放在它所修饰的名词前. 相当于形容词,可有比 较级形式,亦可被 very, quite,so 等副词修饰,这时主语与表语的位置不可互换 The music they are playing sounds exciting. The film we saw last night is quite moving. a frightening story 恐怖故事 a smiling face 笑脸 他们演奏的音乐是如此令人兴奋 我们昨晚看的电影十分感人。 falling leaves a leading part 落叶 主角 发展中国家 看起来很普通的房子 困扰人的问题

2. 表示主语具有的特征、性质和状态(动词 ing 相当一个形容词) The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令困惑。

3.常用来作表语的现在分词有 astonishing, amusing, confusing, disappointing, boring, encouraging, inspiring, moving, tiring, interesting, surprising 等。 The news is quite astonishing. 这个消息令人吃惊。

developing countries = countries that are developing an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary a puzzling problem = a problem that puzzles somebody

全析提示:动词-ing 形式作表语时,其逻辑主语往往是句子中的主语,但用作表语的-ing 形式也可带有自 己的逻辑主语。 What worries me most is her staying too late every night. (staying too late every night 的逻辑主语是 her) 是我最担心的是,她每天都工作很晚。 注意:动词-ing 形式与不定式作定语的区别: (详见第二单元) ① 动词-ing 作定语,多表示现在进行或经常性,习惯性的动作。 ② 不定式作定语,多表示将来发生的具体动作。 (不定式作定语,一定要后置) I preferred staying in the house when it rained. 动词-ing 形式作表语与进行时态的区别: 进行时态表示主语正在做什么,而动词-ing 形式作表语只是说明主语的特性或情况。 Mike is listening to music.迈克正在听音乐。 (当前正在进行的动作) Mike?s favorite hobby is listening to music. 迈克最大的爱好的听音乐(说明主语的情况) 2. 作定语的动词-ing 形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修饰词的后面,做后置定语,相当于一个定语从句。 如果是动词-ing 短语,则放在它所修饰的名词的后面。表示存在的状态或者一般的情况,或强调与谓语动 词同时或基本同时发生并进行,但是 v.-ing 的完成式一般作状语而不做定语。如: 二. 作定语
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I prefer to stay at home this afternoon.

The girl wearing a red rose on her head is my younger sister.

a boy swimming in the river They lived in a house facing south. = They lived in a house which is facing south。 Do you know the boy playing basket? = Do you know the boy who is playing basket? The man visiting Japan is my uncle。 =The man who is visiting Japan is my uncle.

一个河里游泳的男孩 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。

注意:see, hear, feel, watch 等动词之后用-ing 形式和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别: We heard the telephone ring. We heard the telephone ringing. 我们听见电话在响 表示动作正在进行, 表示(或强调)动作的全过程。

你认识在打篮球的那个小男孩吗? (2.) 表示指使意义的动词使役动词,后接动词-ing 作宾补.常见的有 have, set, find, keep, get, catch, leave 正在访问日本的那个男人是我叔叔. 等+sb/ sth + doing sth (作宾补) We kept the fire burning all night long. I won?t have you running about in the room. You shouldn?t keep your lights burning in the day. This sets me thinking. 我们让火整夜燃烧着。 我不允许你在房间里跑来跑去。 你白天不应开灯。 这使我思考.

注意:如果动词-ing 形式与其逻辑主语之间是被动关系,则用动词-ing 形式的被动形式。 The building being built there will be a supermarket. 那里正建的楼将是超市。

三.做宾语补足语 1. 动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语,即用来补充说明宾语的动作或情况。动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语常放在 宾语后面,表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作,强调一个过程或一种状态。 When we returned, we found a stranger standing in front of the house.

Wang Ping won?t have Yonghui getting away with telling people lies. 王鹏不会放过永慧对人们撒谎。

注意:have+宾语+doing 用于否定句中,表示允许,容忍的意思。 I won?t have anyone smoking in here. 我不容许任何人在这里抽烟。

2、当主句转换为被动结构时, 原来作宾语补足语的动词-ing 形式便转换为主语补足语。 They found the film very exciting. = The film is found very exciting.

4. 在有些动词 regard, describe, accept, think of, quote 之后,可由 as 引出动词-ing 词组作宾补. They describe the film as being attractive. 他们说这电影很吸引人。

3. 这种用法通常用在下列几类动词中,后接宾语然后加上动词-ing,构成复合宾语结构,动词-ing 充当宾补成 分. (1.) 表示感觉和心理状态的感官动词,常见的有 see, taste, hear, feel, smell, find, watch, catch, notice, observe look at, listen to 等)+ sb + doing sth(作宾补) I felt somebody standing behind me. I caught a stranger sliding into the manager?s office. When I woke up, I felt the whole earth shaking。 我感觉有人站在我后面。 我看见一个陌生人溜进了经理的办公室。 当我醒来,我感觉整个世界在晃动。
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5. 用 with 的复合结构 With the boy leading the way, we had no difficulty finding the old man?s house. 有了那个人小男孩的指路,我们毫不费力就找到那老人的家。

语法练习:

— Sorry, with so much work _______________ my mind, I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled

1. My favorite cartoon character is Mickey Mouse. It?s so ____ that we often feel ______when we see it. A. exciting, exciting B. excited, exciting C. exciting, excited D. excited, excited

13. After the earthquake, the house made of wood remained __________________ where it is. A. to stand B. stood C. stands D. standing

2. It?s no good ___________. You should give______________. A. to smoke, it up B. smoking , it up C. smoking, up it D. to smoke, up it

14. The wild flowers looked like a soft orange blanket ________________ the desert. A. covering B. covered C. cover D. to cover

3. Snow was falling when they went they went along a path _____________ to the mountain. A. to lead B. led C. leafing D. being led

15. There are hundreds of visitors ____________ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Vincent vanGogh?s paintings. A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait

4. ---Tom said something strange at the conference. A. wonder B. wondering

--- His remarks left me _________ about his real purpose. C. wondered D. wonders

16. The government plans to bring in laws ___ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.

5. ---My best friend?s in a bad mood. --- How about ______________ her some flowers? A. giving B. given C. to give D. give

A. forced

B. forcing

C. to be forced

D. having forced

6. ______________ by others when you do nothing wrong at all is quite a bad experience. A. Having been misunderstood C. Having misunderstood B. Being misunderstood D. Misunderstood

17. Russ and Earl were auto mechanics _____ the same pay, but Earl had more ambition. A. to earn B. to have earned C. earning D. earned

18. Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV. There are pictures ______ in your mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed

7. With two children ______________ middle school in the nearby town now, the parent are working hard. A. to attend B. attending C. attended D. having attended

8. I remember my father __ me to the seaside when I was a small child. We forgot __ a towel and I felt very cold. A. taking, to take B. to take, taking C. take, taking D. take, taken

19. Don?t leave the water ____ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run

9. Listen! Do you hear someone ______________________ for help? A. calling B. call C. to call D. called

20. The old man, ____ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked

10 They use computers to keep the traffic _________________ smoothly. A. being run B. run C. to run D. running

21. Peter received a letter just now _____ his grandma would come to see him soon. A. said B. says C. saying D. to say

11. I smell something ________________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt

22. Listen! Do you hear someone ____ for help? A. calling B. call C. to call D. called

12. — Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.
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23. --- Why do you look sad?

--- There are so many problems ____.

A. remaining to settle B. remained setting C. remaining to be settled D. remained to be settled 24. “We must keep a secret of the things ___ here,” the general said, ____ at the man in charge of the information office. A. discussed; stared seriously C. to be discussed; seriously stared B. being discussed; seriously staring D. discussed; to stare seriously

A. missing; playing

B. missing; play

C. missed; played

D. missed; to play

Ⅱ . 根据括号内的提示,用动词-ing 形式完成下列句子 1. I don?t feel like ____________ ___________ ___________(弹钢琴). (play) 2. I ________________ _____________ ___________ (感觉有人藏在) behind the door just now. (feel) 3. I don?t think it possible ________ _______ _______ ________ _______ ________ (住在这么寒冷的地 方).(live) 4. The most important thing is _________ _______ __________ ___________(寄送食物和水) there. (send) 5. My dream is ___________ ___________ ______________(成为一名宇航员) one day. (become) 6. Do you know the lady ____________________ ____________________(快乐地唱歌) on the stage? (sing) 7. Hearing ____________ _________ _____________(令人激动的消息), the children jumped with joy. (excite)

25. The news was ___, and there was a ___ look on her face. A. shocking; frightening B. shocked; frightened C. shocking; frightened D. shocked; frightening 26. The flowers ____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt

27. The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the _____. A. 20 dollars remained B. 20 dollars to remain C. remained 20 remained D. remaining 20 dollars

8. I was walking along the road slowly when I _________ _________ ________( 听到有人喊 ) my name. (hear)

28. --- What is Mr Black? --- His job is ____ pancakes. A. to be sold B. sold C. having sold D. selling

29. These are the books ____ my brother. A. belonged to B. belonging to C. that are belonged to D. belong to

30. John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter ____ him it. A. offered B. offering C. to offer D. to be offered

31. Chaplin was very good at making jokes. He always had others _____. A. laughed B. to laugh C. laughing D. being laughed

32. The next thing he saw was smoke ____ from behind the house. A. rose B. rising C. to rise D. risen

33. I couldn?t do my homework with all that noise ____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on

34. A cool will be immediately fired if he is found _____ in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked

35. The _____ boy was last seen ____ near the West Lake.
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