第二部分 语法专项突破(十四) 情景交际
1 考纲解读 2 命题分析
3 知识归纳 4 语法专练
熟知并能恰当地使用“社会交往”话题中的 社会交往 问候、介绍等22个项目；考查常用交际用语
掌握表示“态度”的“同意和不同意”“喜 欢和不喜欢”等的12个项目；考查考生用英 语思维的能力。
掌握表示“情感”的“高兴”“惊奇”等9 个项目；考查基本的交际用语，考查上下句 在语气上的和谐一致。
交际用语主要考查《教学大纲》中所规定的常用会话套 语。考查的方式以应答为主，提问为辅；以中英文化差异明显 的语言交流项目为重点考查对象。
全国各省市高考英语试卷中交际用语的考点涉及同意和不 同意、肯定与不肯定、道歉、道谢、邀请、请求、允许、接受 或拒绝、劝告以及安慰、惊奇等。
一、考点知识归纳 (一)解答情景交际类题目的应对方略 有关情景交际的考点主要分布在考纲规定的问候、告别、 感谢、住院、祝贺、道歉、邀请、约会、请求、允许或不允许 等三十余个话题中，同时也涉及了谈论天气、购物、问路、就 餐、打电话、看病等十多项情景。为了更好地解答此类题目， 我们应注意以下四点：
1．大量阅读，熟悉句型结构。 在复习备考过程中，要熟悉句型结构，进行大量阅读，积 累各情景中的交际用语，尤其需要注意中英文化差异，增强理 解能力，从而真正提高运用能力。 2．分析题目语言环境，确保用语和谐一致。 交际用语的考查主要设置在真实的语境中，做题时要考虑 全面，要注意语境的和谐一致。特别要注意上下句的关系，不 能只看到题目的一部分就得出结论。特别是对话，要看答语和 问句是否一致。
[典题示例] —Let's go shopping after school. —________ Call me at that time. 剖析：Sounds great. 多数题目是在语境中考查知识点， 做这类题目时要注意语境的和谐一致。只看第一句话，我们不 能确定选哪个答案。但从Call me at that time.可知，后者赞同前 者的提议。做题时要考虑全面，要注意上下句的关系，不能只 看到题目的一部分就得出结论。
3．摈弃汉语思维习惯，考虑英语文化内涵。 平日学习中要多说英语，多读英文读物，培养语感。做题 时多从英语的角度思考，体会讲英语国家的文化背景，不要从 汉语的角度思维。同时要把语法转化为一种语言习惯。做题时 还要遵循文明礼貌、委婉客气的原则，同时要考虑一些常见的 句式和结构。如Thanks, but...；Sorry, but...等。
[典题示例] ①—We really enjoyed ourselves at the party.Thanks again, Mr.and Mrs.Smith. —Nice ________(meet) you here.Just drop in whenever you feel like it. 剖析：having met Nice having met you here中用了完成 时，表示动作已经完成，故通常用于告别时，从第一句话可知 这是道别的用语，因此是正确的。
②—Will you join us in the game? —Thank you, but I'd rather________. 剖析：not Thank you, but...是委婉拒绝他人邀请的交际用 语，因此用not。
4．善于比较、区别交际用语中的易混点。 (1)That's all right.Don't mention it.You're welcome.与It's a pleasure.的使用区别 回答对方的道歉时应选用That‘s all right (没关系)。对于对 方道谢的回答可用You’re welcome.Don‘t mention it.和It’s a pleasure.。但三者也有细微的区别，如：顾客向服务员道谢 时，服务员常说You‘re welcome.当对方对于你的帮助道谢时， 你通常说Don’t mention it.对于生日宴会等场合对方提供的帮 助、礼物等时的回答为It's a pleasure.。
(2)It's a/my pleasure.与With pleasure. 当你帮完别人的忙，别人向你表示感谢时，用It's a/my pleasure.，当别人需要你帮忙时，你同意则用With pleasure.来 回答。
(二)情景交际知识 一、社会交往 1．问候 Greetings (1)Good morning/afternoon/evening. Hello/Hi How are you? Fine，thank you，and you? Very well，thank you. (2)Best wishes/regards to... Please give my regards/best wishes/love to... Say hello to... Please remember me to...
2．介绍Introductions 句型结构 (1)This is Mr./Miss/Ms./Comrade... May I introduce you to...? I’d like you to meet... (2)How do you do? Nice/Glad/Pleased to see/meet you. Nice meeting you，Mr./Mrs./Miss... (3)My name is... I’m a(student，teacher，etc.)． (4)I’m Chinese.
3．告别Farewells 句型结构 (1)I'm afraid I must be leaving now. I think it is time for us to leave now. It's time I met (did)．.. ；I have to go now. (2)Good-bye ! (Bye-bye！Bye！) See you later/tomorrow. (See you. ) Good night.
4．感谢和应答Thanks and responses 句型结构 (1)Thank you (very much)． Thanks a lot. Many thanks. Thanks for... (2)It's very kind of you to... Not at all. That's all right. You are welcome.
5．祝愿，祝贺和应答 Good wishes, congratulations and responses
句型结构 (1)Good luck! I wish you good luck (success) ! Good journey (to you) ! Have a good trip. Have a nice (good) time. I'd like to congratulate you on...
(2) Thank you. The same to you. (3)Happy New Year! Merry Christmas ! Happy birthday to you. 6．道歉、遗憾和应答 Apologies，regrets and responses 句型结构 (1) Sorry/Pardon. I am sorry. I am sorry for (about)．.. I'm sorry to... have＋v.-ed/that...
(2)Excuse me (for...) Be afraid＋that... What a pity/shame! It is a pity that... (3)That's all right. It doesn't matter. That's nothing.
7．邀请和应答 Invitations and responses 句型结构 (1)Will you come to... ? Would you like to... ? I'd like to invite you to... (2)Yes，l'd love to (...)． Yes，it is very kind (nice) of you. (3)I'd love to，but...
8．提供帮助和应答 Offers and responses 句型结构 (1)Can/Could/Shall I help you? Would you like me to... ? Is there anything (else) I can do for you? Do you want me to... ? What can I do for you? Let me do/carry/help... for you. Would you like some... ?
(2)Thanks. That would be nice/fine. That's very kind of you. Thank you for your help. Yes, please. Here, take this/my/... (3) No, thanks/thank you. I can manage it myself. Thank you all the same. That's very kind of you，but...
9．约会 Making appointments 句型结构 (1)Are/Will you be free this afternoon/tomorrow? How about tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening? Shall we meet at 4：30 at... ? (2)Yes，that's all right. Yes，I'll be free then. (3)No，I won't be free then. But I'll be free. (4)All right. See you then.
10．就餐 Taking meals 句型结构 (1)What would you like to have? Would you like something (to eat/drink)? (2)I'd like... Chicken/Two eggs..., please. (3)Would you like some more... ? Help yourself to some... (4)Thank you. I've had enough. I'm full，thank you. Just a little，please.
11．打电话Making phone calls 句型结构 (1)Hello! Is... in? May/Could I speak to... ? Is that... (speaking) ? (2) Hold on./Who is it? He/She isn't here right now. Can I take a message for you? (3) Hello, this is... speaking. I called to tell/ask you...
12．传递信息 Passing on a message 句型结构 (1)Will you please give this note/message to... ? (2)．..asked me to give you this note. (3)Thanks for the message.
13．看医生 Seeing the doctor 句型结构 (1) There's something wrong with... I've got a headache and a cough. I feel terrible (bad)． I don't feel well. I've got a pain here. This place hurts. I've got a headache and a cough.
(2)Take this medicine three times a day. Drink plenty of water and have a good rest. It's nothing serious. You'll be all right/well soon. 14．谈论天气 Talking about the weather 句型结构 (1)What's the weather like today? How's the weather...? (2)It's fine/cloudy/windy/rainy... It's getting cold/warm... It's rather warm/cold/hot... today，isn't it? It's a beautiful day today.
15．购物 Shopping 句型结构 (1)What can I do for you? May/Can I help you? (2)I want/I'd like... How much is it? That's too expensive，I'm afraid. That's fine, I'll take it. Let me have... (3)How many/much do you want? What colour/size/kind do you want? (4)Do you have any other kind/size/colour，etc. ?
16．问路和应答 Asking the way and responses 句型结构 (1)Excuse me，where's the men's/ladies' room? Excuse me，can you tell me the way to... ? How can I get to... ? I don't know the way. (2)Go down this street. Turn right/left at the first/second crossing. It's about...metres from here. Go straight ahead till you see...
17．请求允许和应答 Asking for permissions and responses 句型结构 (1)May I．.. ? Can/Could I．.. ? I wonder if I could... Would/Do you mind if I opened/open the window? (2) Yes/Sure/Certainly. Yes, (do) please. Of course (you may)． Go ahead, please.
That's OK/all right. Not at all. (3)I'm sorry，you can't. I'm sorry，hut... You'd better not. 18．劝告和建议 Advice and suggestions 句型结构 (1)You'd better (not)．.. You should/ought to... You need (to)．.. I suggest that...
(2)Shall we... ? Let's... What/How about... ? Why not...? Why don't you... ? 19．提醒 Reminding 句型结构 Don't forget to... Don't you remember the days when... Make sure that everything is OK now.
二、态度 1．意愿和愿望 Intentions and wishes 句型结构 (1)I'm going to... I intend/mean/plan to... I will... I feel like walking (going out for a walk)． I'd like to... I (do not) want/hope to... I'm ready to... I would rather not tell you.
(2)I want/hope/wish to... I wish that... I would do it if I should have the chance. I would like to... If only I could see him. 2．同意和不同意 Agreement and disagreement 句型结构 (1) Certainly/Sure/Of course. No problem. Yes, please. Yes，I think so.
That's true/right. All right/OK. That's a good idea. It's a good idea to.../It would be a good idea to.../that... I/We agree (with you)． I agree to.../that-clause. (2)No. I don't think so. Do you think so? I'm afraid not. I'm afraid I (really)can't agree with you. I don't agree (with)...
3．喜好和厌恶 Likes and dislikes 句型结构 (1)I like/love...(very much)． I like/love to... (2)I don't like (to)．.. I have (to)...
三、情感 1．表示喜悦 Expressing pleasure 句型结构 I'm glad/pleased/happy to... That's nice/wonderful/great. Hopefully tomorrow will turn fine.
2．惊奇 Surprise 句型结构 Really? Haven't you heard? Oh dear! Is that so? Good heavens! My God! Goodness!
3．焦虑 Anxiety 句型结构 What's wrong? What's the matter (with you)? I'm/He's/She's worried. Oh，what shall I/we do? We were all anxious about... 4．安慰 Reassurance Don't be afraid. Don't worry. It's (quite) all right. It'll be OK/all right. Take your time.
5．满意Satisfaction Good! Well done! Perfect! That's fine. That's better. That's good enough. I'm pleased with your spoken English. Wonderful, indeed.
6．遗憾 Regret I'm so sorry! It's a great pity! What a shame! That's too bad! I wish I had never given it up. If I had been there, he would not have made such a serious mistake.
7．同情 Sympathy I'm so sorry! I'm so sorry about your illness. I'm sorry to hear you are going away. Please accept my deep sympathy.
二、方法技巧总结 方法一 巧用答语提示法 在有些征求意见或请求许可的问话中，我们可以根据已有 的答语来判断说话者的态度，是同意还是拒绝，是支持还是反 对。 [典题示例] —I'll be away on a business trip.Would you mind looking after my cat? —Not at all. I'd be happy________.
剖析：to 句意：——“我要出公差。你介意照看一下我的 猫吗？”——“不介意。我很乐意。”根据句意可以推断出这是 请求别人帮忙的问话，从Not at all这一答语中可知应答者的态 度，所以用to。I'd be happy to＝I'd be happy to look after your cat.
方法二：身临其境法 在审题过程中，我们可以假设自己就在那种氛围中，自己 就是对话者的角色。这样能更准确地把握出题者的思路，作出 准确的判断。 [典题示例] —Do remember to see a doctor tomorrow! —________(get) it. 剖析：Got 句意：——“一定要记得明天去看医生！”—— “明白”。Got it＝I have got it.“我明白”。假如你就是文中 叮嘱的人，你觉得最合适、最想听到的答语应该是Got it。
方法三 语境归类法 在平常的练习中我们可以对情境进行归类，以便综合记 忆。如：看到I'm sorry, I'm afraid, you'd rather not, you'd better not这样的答语时，很自然地就联想到，这一类是同一语境，用 于委婉地拒绝别的请求、建议和帮助。看到would you mind这 样的字眼要特别注意yes表示介意，no表示不介意。
[典题示例] —Do you mind my turning off the light? —I'd ________you didn't.I'm reading the end of the story. 剖析：rather 句意：——“你介意我关灯吗？”——“我想 你最好别关。我马上就读完这个故事了。”I'd rather you didn't (我不愿你关)符合语境。