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Unit 3 Inventors and inventions 新人教版选修8

新课标人教版 Unit 3

Inventors and inventions 明

发明家及其发

核心词汇 1.The driver took a(n)____________(突然的)turn and made his car roll down the road. 2.They invited her to visit their house on a(n)____________(方便的)date. 3.You may safely climb those steps;they’re quite____________(稳固的). 4.What are your____________(标准)for judging a bottle of wine? 5 . Every member in the committee thinks that his plan is ideal rather than____________(实际的). 6.In the hard times,she ____________(忍受)the pain with great courage. 7.It occurred to him that he might____________(抓住)the chance to declare his own innocence. 8.Dad always drives with____________(小心)although he has driven for more than 20 years. 9.She ____________herself by her kindness and bravery as well as a____________novelist.(distinguish) 10.用 freeze 的适当形式填空 (1)Tonight,temperature will fall below ____________point. (2)I_____________with terror as the door slowly opened. 1.abrupt 2.convenient 3.stable 4.criteria 5.practical,6.bore 7.seize 8.caution 9.distinguished;distinguished 10.freezing;froze 高频短语 1.________________ 给??打电话 2.________________ 偶尔;有时 3.________________ 开始;着手 4.________________ 迅速把手伸入;一心投入 5.________________ 开始(做) 6.________________ 不挂断;稍等;紧紧握住 7.________________ 次序颠倒;发生故障 8.________________ 设法联系上(尤指打通电话); (设法)做完;通过 9.________________ 回复电话 10.________________ 挂断电话 1.call up 2.now and then 3.set about 4.dive into 5.set out(to do) 6.hang on 7.out of order 8.get through 9.ring back 10.ring off 重点句式 1.____________up,explore all around it,________before you know it,you will have something worth thinking about to ________________. 跟随它, 在它的周围探索, 那么在你知道它之前, 你将有值得考虑的某些东西占用你的大脑。 2.The criteria are __________________it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. (评定)专利标准是很严格的,除非新的想法真是新颖的,否则很难被接受。 3.The next morning I got up early ____________the sun was hot.第二天早上,天还

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不是很热,我就早早地起来了。 4.Now it’s __________________waiting and hoping. 现在只是一个等待和期望的事情。 1.Follow it;and; occupy your mind 2.so strict that 3.before 4.a matter of 知识详解 1 .convenient adj. 便利的;方便的;就近的 (回归课本 P20)They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. 他们突然一下子就消失在附近的墙洞里去了。 [归纳拓展] [例句探源] ①(牛津 P436)You’ll find these meals quick and convenient to prepare. 你会发现准备这样的饭既快又省事。 ②(牛津 P436)A bicycle is often more convenient than a car in towns. 在城镇骑自行车常常比开车更方便。 ③(北京高考) Come and see me whenever it is convenient to you. 只要你方便,随时过来看我。 ④(朗文 P441)Being able to pay bills over the Internet is a real convenience. 能通过因特网支付账单确实非常方便。 ⑤(朗文 P441)I’ll call in two weeks to arrange a meeting at your convenience. 我会在两周后打电话来把会议安排在您方便的时候。 [即境活用] 1.完成句子 (1)地铁方便快捷,但上下班高峰时也会拥挤得可怕。 Trains are fast and ________,but rush hours can be terrible. 答案:convenient (2)所有这些东西都给人们的生活带来了极大的便利和欢乐。 These things all ________ ________ ________ and delight to people’s lives. 答案:bring great convenience 2 .distinguish vi.& vt. 辨别;显示??的差别 (回归课本 P20)Here was a chance for me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. 这回我有机会来表现一下自己了,我要发明某种仁慈的东西,既可以把蛇抓到,又不会伤害 到它们。 [归纳拓展] [例句探源] ①(朗文 P588)The twins are so alike,it’s difficult to distinguish one from the other. 这对双胞胎太像了,很难分辨出谁是谁。 ②(牛津 P580)At what age are children able to distinguish between right and wrong? 儿童到什么年龄才能明辨是非? ③(牛津 P580)What was it that distinguished her from her classmates? 是什么使她有别于班上其他同学呢? ④(牛津 P580)She has already distinguished herself as an athlete. 作为运动员她已享有盛名。

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[即境活用] 2.信不信由你,我羡慕你卓越的成就。 Believe it or not,I ________ ________ ________ ________. 答案:admire your distinguished achievements 3 .bear (bore,borne) vt. 忍受;忍耐;负担;生育 (回归课本 P24)I cannot bear the smell of burnt sausage on the barbecue. 我忍受不了架子上烤香肠的味道。 [归纳拓展] [例句探源] ①(牛津 P155)The pain was almost more than he could bear. 这种痛苦几乎使他无法忍受。 ②Why do I have to bear all the costs of repair? 为什么要我负担所有的维修费用? ③I can’t bear people smoking while he’s eating. 我无法忍受人们吃饭时吸烟。 ④You must bear it in mind that your parents hope to depend on you to become a good doctor. 你要记住你的父母指望你成为一名好医生。 [即境活用] 3.—Why did Bob cry? —He couldn’t bear________like that before the whole class. A.making fun of B.being made fun of C.to be laughed D.being made fun 解析:选 B。动词 bear 后跟 v.? ing 形式或动词不定式作宾语,且此处应该使用被动形式。 若选 C,应改为:to be laughed at。 4 . I can ’ t stand ________with Jane in the same office.She just refuses ________talking while she works. A.working;stopping B.to work;stopping C.working;to stop D.to work;to stop 解析:选 C。stand 作“忍受,容忍”讲时,后跟动词?ing 形式;refuse 后跟动词不定式 作宾语,所以 C 项正确。 4 .associate vt. 联想,联系 n. 同伴,伙伴 ( 回 归课 本 P26)Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody’s life. 虽然人们常把他与电话的发明联系在一起, 但是他的确是一位永不停息的探索家, 不断寻求 着改善人们生活质量的途径。 [归纳拓展] [例句探源] ①(牛津 P104)He is closely associated in the public mind with horror movies. 在公众的心目中,他总是和恐怖电影紧密联系在一起。

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②I don’t like these young men you’re associating with. 我不喜欢你结交的这些游手好闲的人。 ③You must bear it in mind that you should never associate with bad companions. 你必须要牢记千万别和坏人交往。 ④We are working in association with a local company to raise money for the homeless. 我们联合一家当地的公司,为无家可归的人筹款。 [即境活用] 5.他希望忘记跟他过去生活有联系的一切东西,开始新的人生。 He wished to forget everything________ ________ ________ ________ ________and start a new life. 答案:associated with his former life 5 .set about 开始;着手(about 是介词,其后常接名词或动名词) (回归课本 P20)I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. 我着手研究蛇的习性,以便能找到捕蛇的最简易的方法。 [归纳拓展] set down 放下;记下;登记 set out (to do) 开始做;出发,动身; 安排,摆放;陈述 [例句探源] ①(牛津 P1823)We need to set about finding a solution. 我们得着手寻找一个解决方法。 ②He set about his work as soon as he had finished his meal. 他一吃完饭就开始工作了。 [即境活用] 6.The moment she came back from work,she ________to clean the kitchen thoroughly. A.set out B.set about C.set off D.set up 解析:选 A。考查动词短语辨析。set out to do sth.着手做某事;set about doing sth. 着手做某事;set off 出发,动身,使爆炸;set up 成立,建立。 6 .call up 给??打电话;使??回忆起 (回归课本 P20)When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. 我给住在乡下的母亲打电话的时候,她感到很心烦。 [归纳拓展] [例句探源] ①(朗文 P271)He called me up to tell me about it. 他打电话把那件事告诉了我。 ②That picture calls up memories of a holiday I had when I was a child. 那张照片使我回忆起儿时一个假期的情景。 ③The Ministry of Education calls on students to exercise for an hour every day. 教育部呼吁学生每天锻炼一个小时。 ④(朗文 P274)The game was called off because of the bad weather. 比赛因天气恶劣被取消。

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⑤Why don’t you call on my sister when you’re in Brighton? 你到了布赖顿何不顺便探望一下我姐姐呢? [即境活用] 7.With the weather worsening,they have________the flight from London to Beijing. A.called off B.called in C.called out D.called for 解析:选 A。考查动词短语辨析。句意:由于天气变得越来越坏,他们已经取消了从伦敦到 北京的航班。call off 取消(某项活动),符合语境。call in 请求,收回,召来;call out 大声喊叫,召集;call for 需求,要求,去接(某人)。故 B、C、D 三个选项均与语境不符。 8.—Please forgive me to________you________so late,but I have something urgent. —That’s all right.What’s the matter? A.call;by B.call;off C.call;in D.call;up 解析:选 D。考查短语辨析。call up 给??打电话。句意:——请原谅我这么晚给你打电 话,但是我有急事。——没关系,什么事?call by 顺路来一下;call off 取消;call in 顺路(到某处或某人的家)。 9.—Sorry,but I have to________now.I have a train to catch. —Goodbye!Wish you a pleasant journey. A.ring out B.call out C.call on D.ring off 解析:选 D。考查动词短语辨析。ring off 挂断电话。 7 .get through 设法联系上(尤指打通电话);(设法)做完; 通过 (回归课本 P26)I can’t get through. 我打不通电话。 [归纳拓展] get into 进入;陷入;染上(习惯) get off (从??)下来;下车;脱下(衣服等); (使)动身;(飞机)起飞 get over 越过(墙等);克服(困难、偏见等);从 (病、损失等)中恢复过来 [例句探源] ①(朗文 P868)When she finally got through,the manager wasn’t there. 当她终于打通电话时,经理却不在那儿。 ②(朗文 P868)Are you willing to stand by him and get him through this difficult time? 你愿意支持他,帮助他度过这段困难时期吗? ③(陕西高考)Many homeless people get into the habit of begging to get enough money to stay alive. 许多无家可归的人开始养成乞讨谋生的习惯。 [即境活用] 10.(2009 年高考四川卷)—Have you________? —No.I had the wrong number. A.got in B.got away C.got off D.got through

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解析:选 D。句意:——你打通电话了吗?——没有,我拨错号码了。get in 进入,抵达, 收获;get away 走开,逃脱;get off(从??)下来,出发,下班,逃脱惩罚;get through 完成,度过,通过,讲清楚,打通电话。 句型梳理 1【教材原句】 Prepared with some research findings,I decided on three possible approaches...(P20) 有一些研究发现作准备,我决定了三种可能的方法?? 【句法分析】 Prepared with some research findings 为过去分词短语作状语,相当于 谓语动词为被动的状语从句,该动作和主句的主语之间存在着逻辑上的动宾关系。 ①(2009 年高考福建卷)Reminded not to miss the flight at 15∶20,the manager set out for the airport in a hurry. 被提醒不要错过 15∶20 的航班,经理匆忙去了飞机场。 ②Given more time,he can do it better. 如果给予他更多的时间,他会把它做得更好。 ③Seen from the top of the hill,the park looks more beautiful. =When it is seen from the top of the hill,the park looks more beautiful. 从山顶往下看,这座公园看起来更加漂亮。 ④Encouraged by the progress he has made,he works harder. =As he is encouraged by the progress he has made,he works harder. 由于受到所取得进步的鼓舞,他工作更努力了。 11.(2009 年高考北京卷)________twice,the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog. A.Being bitten B.Bitten C.Having bitten D.To be bitten 解析:选 B。句意:因为两次被咬,邮递员拒绝给我们投递信件,除非我们拴住我们的狗。 过去分词作原因状语。主句主语 the postman 与 bite 构成被动关系,排除 C 项;D 项为动 词不定式作目的状语表示还未发生;A 项表进行;B 项表示之前两次被咬,故选 B。 [即境活用] 2【教材原句】 Follow it up,explore all around it,and before you know it,you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.(P25) 跟随它, 在它的周围探索, 那么在你知道它之前, 你将有值得考虑的某些东西占用你的大脑。 【句法分析】 本题考查“祈使句+and/then/or/+陈述句”结构的用法。 ①Work harder and/then you will succeed in your studies. =If you work harder,you’ll succeed in your studies. =Working harder,you will succeed in your studies. 如果你更加努力学习,在学习上你就会成功。 ②Study hard,or you’ll fail in your exams. =If you don’t study hard,you’ll fail in your exams. =You will fail in your exams unless you study hard. 如果你不刻苦学习,你就会考不及格。 [即境活用] 12.(2011 年湖南师大附中检测)—Mum,I am afraid I won’t do well in the coming test. —Honey,________more careful,________you will make it。 A.is;so B.be;and

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C.be;then D.being;and 解析:选 B。句意:——妈妈,我恐怕考不好了。——宝贝,再仔细些,你就会考好的。 “祈 使句+ and +陈述句”相当于由 if 引导的主从复合句。此句可变为: If you are more careful,you will make it.。 13.One more day,________I’ll get everything ready. A.or B.while C.and D.but 解析:选 C。考查特殊句式。此句是“祈使句+and+简单句”句型,相当于“If I have one more day,I’ll get everything ready.” 。 14.(2011 年江南十校测试)—Can you help me? —Yes.________your teacher’s advice,in my opinion,and everything will be OK. A.Follow B.Following C.To follow D.Followed 解析:选 A。此题考查句型“祈使句+and+一般陈述句” ,in my opinion 在句中作插入语。 作文指导 图画类作文 【体裁导航】 图画类的材料直观、形象、生动,具有很大的自由发挥空间,所以,近几年一直是高考英语 写作题的考查形式。 图画类材料的图片可能是一幅或几幅,也可能以漫画形式出现;其写作体裁更不固定,可以 记叙,可以说明,也可以议论。但无论是何种形式,何种体裁,其写作的过程及要求基本相 同。 1.认真观察图片所表达的内容或内涵,分清图与图之间的关系,甚至要考虑到图片表达的 是何时、何地、什么人、什么事、过程和结果等。 2.考虑用什么样的体裁来写(记叙、说明、议论都有可能),从而确定你的写作模式。是日 记、通知,要注意其格式;是书信、E?mail,要注意其特定的要求或组成部分;是议论,则 要把握好论点的设立,论据的选择和论证的拓展等。 3.文章的过渡词、过渡段在图画类的书面表达中起着关键的“润滑”作用,可见,如何串 点成文,整体划一,关联词必不可少。 4.如何开头才能做到“先声夺人” ,怎样结尾才能令人“回味无穷” ,也是要通盘考虑的问 题。 【写作示例】 请仔细观察以下五幅图,根据图中信息用英语写一篇有关第三中学优秀学生方芳的短文。 要求:1.要点齐全,适当增加细节; 2.条理清晰,行文连贯; 3.词数:150 左右。 【写作要领】 本篇书面表达属于看图说话类。 写作时,首先看清要求,认真审题,确定文体、 人称和时态。 这是一篇故事性的记叙文,主体时态应为一般过去时,应用第三人称来写。 其次,通过对五幅图的认真观察,得出故事的主要情节:一天夜里,风刮得很大。方芳凌晨 两点钟起床,赶到学校,把窗户关好后回家。 然后仔细观察每一幅图,注意图画之间的内在联系,不放过每一处细节,如图画中钟表的时 间为两点钟。 最后,根据以上的观察和分析,开始用英文进行写作。写作时注意不但要把每一幅图的信息

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表达出来,还要注意图画之间的衔接,注意使用必要的连接词并照顾到首尾呼应。 【金点模板】 第一幅和第二幅图(两幅图可根据需要放在一起进行描述) One night,at about 2 o’clock,it began to blow outside./It was at 2 o’clock in the early morning that it began to blow. The wind was so strong that the noise woke up Fang Fang. The wind stuck the window open,and she felt a bit cold. She knew a heavy rain would soon arrive.She thought of her classroom. She wondered whether the students on duty had closed the windows properly. She got up and put on her clothes. 第三幅图 She decided to go out right away and get to the school before the rain came. She opened the door and rushed out into the dark to the school. On the way,the strong wind made it difficult for her to go forward quickly.In spite of this,she ran as fast as possible,and finally she got to the school. 第四幅图 She hurried to her classroom and opened the door. She turned on the lights and found that all the windows were open. The strong wind made it difficult for her to shut up all the windows.It was difficult for her to .../She made great efforts to... She made sure that all the windows were closed properly. 第五幅图 She turned off the lights and left the classroom. As soon as she got home,the rain started to pour down. No sooner had she got home than the rain began to pour down. Hardly had she got home when the rain began to pour down. Upon/On getting home,she found the rain began to pour down. 【范文点评】 ① It was nearly at 2 o’ clock in the early morning that the wind began to blow outside.It was so strong that the noise woke up Fang Fang.②The wind blowing through the windows that were struck open made her feel a bit cold.She realized that a heavy rain would soon arrive.③Suddenly she thought of the windows in the classroom and wondered whether the students on duty had closed the windows properly or not.④ Without hesitation,she began to put on her clothes,opened the door and rushed out into the dark to her school. ⑤On the way,the strong wind made it difficult for her to go forward.In spite of this,she ran as fast as possible and finally managed to get to the school before the rain came.⑥She hurried to her classroom,turned on the lights,and found that some of the windows were open.⑦She made great efforts to shut up all the windows one by one,fighting against the heavy wind.⑧After making sure that all the windows were properly closed,she turned off the lights and left the classroom.Hardly had she got home when the rain started to pour down.⑨Tired and sleepy as she was, she felt happy about the meaningful thing she had done. 【点评】

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①该句使用强调句型,突出事件发生的时间是凌晨两点。 ②现在分词作定语修饰 the wind,更加生动形象;用定语从句强调风大。 ③使用并列复合句,使文章句式更加多样化。 ④介词短语用得恰到好处; 一系列谓语动词的并列使用展现出她当时急切的心情和迅速的动 作。 ⑤it 作形式宾语。 ⑥三个并列谓语表明动作的连贯与迅速,符合她当时的心情。 ⑦短语 make efforts to do 的使用非常贴切;现在分词作伴随状语,突出她当时关窗的难 度之大。 ⑧准确地应用了 hardly...when...句式。 ⑨使用 as 引导的倒装句式,使文章句式丰富。 【类题尝试】 (2011 年北京海淀区第二学期期末考试)假设你是某中学的学生,3 月 22 日(世界水日)你参 加了你班开展的一系列节水宣传活动。 请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序, 以日记的形式记录当 天的活动内容。注意:词数不少于 150。 参考词汇:宣传材料—leaflets;危机—crisis March 22,2010 Monday Sunny Today is World Water Day.___________________________________________________________________________ _______ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ One possible version: March_22,2010 Monday Sunny Today is World Water Day.In the morning,we had a class meeting talking about what to do on this special day.Finally,we reached an agreement and immediately began to make preparations for the afternoon’s activities. At 2∶00 p.m.we went to the neighboring community to hand out leaflets,calling on people to save water.Around 3 o’clock,the expert we invited made an excellent speech on the current water crisis in China.He talked about the draught in the Southeast and the severe shortage of water in out city.The speech had a strong appeal to all the people present,including me. After the speech,we had a discussion with our neighbors about various ways of saving water in our daily life.I suggested turning off the tap water immediately after use, and a granny came up with the idea of reusing the water from kitchen,for example, the water after washing fruits and vegetables can be used to water flowers and so on. Today,I have had a better understanding of the importance of saving water and really learned a lot about saving water.

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